Cordillera Occidental (Colombia)
The Cordillera Occidental is the lowest in elevation of the three branches of the Colombian Andes. The average altitude is 2,000 m and the highest peak is Cerro Tatamá at 4,100 m; the range extends from south to north dividing from the Colombian Massif in Nariño Department, passes north through Cauca, Valle del Cauca, Chocó, Caldas Departments to the Paramillo Massif in Antioquia and Córdoba Departments. From this massif the range divides further to form the Serranías de Ayapel, San Jerónimo and Abibe. Only to recede into the Caribbean plain and the Sinú River valley; the western part of the mountain range belongs to the Pacific region, with the San Juan River being the main watershed, while the eastern part belongs to the Cauca River basin. The northern and northwestern parts belong to the Atlantic Slope, with the Atrato and Sinú Rivers being the main watersheds; the Cordillera Occidental is separated from the coastal Baudó Mountains by the Atrato River. Cerro Tatamá - 4,100 m - Chocó & Risaralda Farallones de Cali - 4,050 m - Valle del Cauca Farallones de Citará - 4,050 m - Antioquia Páramo de Frontino - 3,950 m - Antioquia Cerro Caramanta - 3,900 m - Antioquia, Caldas & Risaralda Cerro Napi - 3,860 m - Cauca Alto Musinga - 3,850 m - Antioquia Cerro Calima - 3,840 m - Valle del Cauca Cerro Paramillo - 3,730 m - Antioquia Cerro Ventana - 3,450 m - Valle del Cauca & Chocó The West Andes have the following nationally protected areas from south to north: PNN Munchique PNN Farallones de Cali PNN Tatamá PNN Las Orquídeas PNN ParamilloOther areas under consideration for national protection include: Serranía del Pinche Serranía de los Paraguas Yotoco Forest Reserve Bitaco River Forest Reserve Dapa Calima Lake Geography of Colombia Andean Region, Colombia Cordillera Central Cordillera Oriental
The Magdalena River is the principal river of Colombia, flowing northward about 1,528 kilometres through the western half of the country. It takes its name from the biblical figure Mary Magdalene, it is navigable through much of its lower reaches, in spite of the shifting sand bars at the mouth of its delta, as far as Honda, at the downstream base of its rapids. It flows through the Magdalena River Valley, its drainage basin covers a surface of 273,000 square kilometres, 24% of the country's area and where 66% of its population lives. The headwaters of the Magdalena River are in the south of Colombia, where the Andean subranges Cordillera Central and Cordillera Oriental separate, in Huila Department; the river runs east of north in a great valley between the two cordilleras. It reaches the coastal plain at about nine degrees north runs west for about 100 km north again, reaching the Caribbean Sea at the city of Barranquilla in the zone known as Bocas de Ceniza; the Magdalena River basin, which includes the Cauca River and other tributaries, is rich in fish.
As of 2008, 213 fish species were known from the basin. Since several new species have been described from the basin such as five Hemibrycon in 2013, two Ancistrus in 2013 and a Farlowella in 2014. Among the more famous species in the basin are Caquetaia umbrifera, Ctenolucius hujeta, Geophagus steindachneri, Ichthyoelephas longirostris, Panaque cochliodon, Pimelodus blochii, Potamotrygon magdalenae, Prochilodus magdalenae, Pseudoplatystoma magdaleniatum and Salminus affinis. About 55% of the fish species in the basin are endemic, including four endemic genera: The catfish Centrochir and Eremophilus, the characids Carlastyanax and Genycharax. In general, the fish fauna shows connections with surrounding basins, notably Atrato and Maracaibo, but to a lesser extent Amazon–Orinoco; the most productive fishing areas in Colombia are in the basin, but there has been a drastic decrease in the annual harvest with a fall of about 90% between 1975 and 2008. The primary threats are habitat loss. Additional dams are being constructed, including El Quimbo and Ituango, which has caused some controversy.
As a result of the pollution, heavy metals have been detected in some commercially important fish in the river. As of 2002, 19 fish species in the river basin were recognized as threatened; the Magdalena River and its valley crosses a wide variety of ecosystems, like páramo in its headwaters, dry forest in the upper part of its valley, rainforest in its middle course, swamps and wetlands in its lower course. The spectacled caiman, green iguana and brown pelican are abundant in these ecosystems but other animal species like the West Indian manatee, Magdalena tinamou, Todd's parakeet, American crocodile, Colombian slider, Magdalena River turtle, Dahl's toad-headed turtle and red-footed tortoise are in danger of extinction. In addition, there is a possible risk posed by invasive hippopotamus. Imported by Pablo Escobar, these hippopotami became feral following his demise, have since expanded beyond their original home on Hacienda Napoles into nearby regions of the Magdalena River. Due to its geographical position in the north of South America, the Magdalena River was since precolumbian times a route towards the interior of today Colombia and Ecuador.
Several Carib speaking peoples such as the Panche and the Yariguí ascended through the western bank of the river, while its eastern portion was inhabited by the Muisca civilization, which called the river Yuma. The Spanish conquistadores who arrived to today's Colombia early in the 16th century used the river to push to the wild and mountainous inland after Rodrigo de Bastidas discovered and named the river on April 1, 1501. During the Spanish colonization of the Americas, the river was the only transport link communicating Bogotá with the Caribbean Sea port Cartagena de Indias and thus with Europe. In 1825, the Congress of Colombia awarded a concession to establish steam navigation in the Magdalena River to Juan Bernardo Elbers, but his company closed shortly after. By 1845, steamboats travelled on the river until 1961, when the last steamers ceased operation. Much of the film Love in the Time of Cholera takes place in the historic, walled city of Cartagena in Colombia; some screen shots showed the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta mountain range.
The General in His Labyrinth, by Gabriel García Márquez, is a fictionalized account of the final voyage of Simón Bolívar down the Magdalena River, where he revisits many cities and villages along the river
Cordillera Central (Colombia)
The Cordillera Central is the highest of the three branches of the Colombian Andes. The range extends from south to north dividing from the Colombian Massif in Cauca Department to the Serranía de San Lucas in Bolivar Departments; the highest peak is Nevado del Huila at 5,364 m. The range is bounded by the Magdalena river valleys to the west and east, respectively. Nevado del Huila - 5,364 m - Cauca, Huila & Tolima Nevado del Ruiz - 5,311 m - Caldas & Tolima Nevado del Tolima - 5,215 m - Tolima Nevado de Santa Isabel - 5,100 m - Risaralda, Tolima & Caldas Nevado del Quindio - 4,760 m - Quindio, Tolima & Risaralda Cerro Pan de Azucar - 4,670 m - Cauca & Huila Puracé - 4,646 m - Cauca & Huila PNN Los Nevados PNN Nevado del Huila PNN Puracé PNN Las Hermosas PNN Selva de Florencia SFF Otún Quimbaya SFF Serranía de las Minas - proposed Geography of Colombia Andean Region, Colombia Cordillera Occidental Cordillera Oriental
El Tiempo (Colombia)
El Tiempo is a nationally distributed broadsheet daily newspaper in Colombia. As of 2012, it had the highest circulation in Colombia with an average daily weekday of 1,137,483 readers, rising to 1,921,571 readers for the Sunday edition. After longtime rival El Espectador was reduced to a weekly publication following an internal financial crisis in 2001, El Tiempo enjoyed monopoly status in Colombian media as the only daily that circulated nationally, as most smaller dailies have limited distribution outside their own regions. However, El Espectador returned to the daily format on May 11, 2008. From 1913 to 2007, El Tiempo's main shareholders were members of the Santos family. Several participated in Colombian politics: Eduardo Santos Montejo was President of Colombia from 1938 to 1942. Francisco Santos Calderón served as Vice-President, and Juan Manuel Santos as Defense Minister during Álvaro Uribe's administration. The latter was elected president in 2010. In 2007, Spanish Grupo Planeta acquired 55% of the Casa Editorial El Tiempo media group, including the newspaper and its associated TV channel Citytv Bogotá.
In 2012, businessman Luis Carlos Sarmiento Angulo bought the shares of Planeta, the Santos family and other small shareholders, becoming the only owner of the newspaper. The newspaper was founded in 1911 by Alfonso Villegas Restrepo. In 1913 it was purchased by Eduardo Santos Montejo. From until 2007, El Tiempo's main shareholders were members of the Santos family, as part of the media conglomerate Casa Editorial El Tiempo. In 2007, the Spanish Grupo Planeta obtained majority ownership of the daily, but in 2012 sold majority ownership to Luis Carlos Sarmiento Angulo who now owns 86% of El Tiempo. Between 2001 and 2008, due to El Espectador being published as a weekly newspaper, it was Colombia's only national daily newspaper. El Tiempo is published in six regional editions: Bogotá Caribe Medellín Café Cali Region, for the remainder of the country. On Sundays there are special sections. For about 3 years it published every Sunday a special section with a weekly selection of articles from The New York Times, translated into Spanish and using the same pictures.
This section was dropped in January 2008 and since August 2008 it has been published by rival newspaper El Espectador. El Tiempo is part of Grupo de Diarios América, an organization of eleven leading newspapers from eleven Latin American countries. El Tiempo
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock, formed as rock strata called coal seams. Coal is carbon with variable amounts of other elements. Coal is formed if dead plant matter decays into peat and over millions of years the heat and pressure of deep burial converts the peat into coal. Vast deposits of coal originates in former wetlands—called coal forests—that covered much of the Earth's tropical land areas during the late Carboniferous and Permian times; as a fossil fuel burned for heat, coal supplies about a quarter of the world's primary energy and two-fifths of its electricity. Some iron and steel making and other industrial processes burn coal; the extraction and use of coal causes much illness. Coal damages the environment, including by climate change as it is the largest anthropogenic source of carbon dioxide, 14 Gt in 2016, 40% of the total fossil fuel emissions; as part of the worldwide energy transition many countries use less coal. The largest consumer and importer of coal is China.
China mines account for half the world's coal, followed by India with about a tenth. Australia accounts for about a third of world coal exports followed by Russia; the word took the form col in Old English, from Proto-Germanic *kula, which in turn is hypothesized to come from the Proto-Indo-European root *gu-lo- "live coal". Germanic cognates include the Old Frisian kole, Middle Dutch cole, Dutch kool, Old High German chol, German Kohle and Old Norse kol, the Irish word gual is a cognate via the Indo-European root. Coal is composed of macerals and water. Fossils and amber may be found in coal. At various times in the geologic past, the Earth had dense forests in low-lying wetland areas. Due to natural processes such as flooding, these forests were buried underneath soil; as more and more soil deposited over them, they were compressed. The temperature rose as they sank deeper and deeper; as the process continued the plant matter was protected from biodegradation and oxidation by mud or acidic water.
This trapped the carbon in immense peat bogs that were covered and buried by sediments. Under high pressure and high temperature, dead vegetation was converted to coal; the conversion of dead vegetation into coal is called coalification. Coalification starts with dead plant matter decaying into peat. Over millions of years the heat and pressure of deep burial causes the loss of water and carbon dioxide and an increase in the proportion of carbon, thus first lignite sub-bituminous coal, bituminous coal, lastly anthracite may be formed. The wide, shallow seas of the Carboniferous Period provided ideal conditions for coal formation, although coal is known from most geological periods; the exception is the coal gap in the Permian -- Triassic extinction event. Coal is known from Precambrian strata, which predate land plants—this coal is presumed to have originated from residues of algae. Sometimes coal seams are interbedded with other sediments in a cyclothem; as geological processes apply pressure to dead biotic material over time, under suitable conditions, its metamorphic grade or rank increases successively into: Peat, a precursor of coal Lignite, or brown coal, the lowest rank of coal, most harmful to health, used exclusively as fuel for electric power generation Jet, a compact form of lignite, sometimes polished.
Bituminous coal, a dense sedimentary rock black, but sometimes dark brown with well-defined bands of bright and dull material It is used as fuel in steam-electric power generation and to make coke. Anthracite, the highest rank of coal is a harder, glossy black coal used for residential and commercial space heating. Graphite is difficult to ignite and not used as fuel. Cannel coal is a variety of fine-grained, high-rank coal with significant hydrogen content, which consists of liptinite. There are several international standards for coal; the classification of coal is based on the content of volatiles. However the most important distinction is between thermal coal, burnt to generate electricity via steam. Hilt's law is a geological observation, the higher its rank, it applies if the thermal gradient is vertical. The earliest recognized use is from the Shenyang area of China where by 4000 BC Neolithic inhabitants had begun carving ornaments from black lignite. Coal from the Fushun mine in northeastern China was used to smelt copper as early as 1000 BC.
Marco Polo, the Italian who traveled to China in the 13th century, described coal as "black stones... which burn like logs", said coal was so plentiful, people could take three hot baths a week. In Europe, the earliest reference to the use of coal as fuel is from the geological treatise On stones by the Greek scientist Theophrastus: Among the materials that are dug because they are useful, those known as anthrakes are made of earth, once set on fire, they burn like charcoa
Bauxite is a sedimentary rock with a high aluminium content. It is the world's main source of aluminium. Bauxite consists of the aluminium minerals gibbsite and diaspore, mixed with the two iron oxides goethite and haematite, the aluminium clay mineral kaolinite and small amounts of anatase and ilmenite. In 1821 the French geologist Pierre Berthier discovered bauxite near the village of Les Baux in Provence, southern France. Numerous classification schemes have been proposed for bauxite but, as of 1982, there was no consensus. Vadász distinguished lateritic bauxites from karst bauxite ores: The carbonate bauxites occur predominantly in Europe and Jamaica above carbonate rocks, where they were formed by lateritic weathering and residual accumulation of intercalated clay layers – dispersed clays which were concentrated as the enclosing limestones dissolved during chemical weathering; the lateritic bauxites are found in the countries of the tropics. They were formed by lateritization of various silicate rocks such as granite, basalt and shale.
In comparison with the iron-rich laterites, the formation of bauxites depends more on intense weathering conditions in a location with good drainage. This enables the precipitation of the gibbsite. Zones with highest aluminium content are located below a ferruginous surface layer; the aluminium hydroxide in the lateritic bauxite deposits is exclusively gibbsite. In the case of Jamaica, recent analysis of the soils showed elevated levels of cadmium, suggesting that the bauxite originates from recent Miocene ash deposits from episodes of significant volcanism in Central America. Australia is the largest producer of bauxite, followed by China. In 2017, China was the top producer of aluminium with half of the world's production, followed by Russia and India. Although aluminium demand is increasing, known reserves of its bauxite ore are sufficient to meet the worldwide demands for aluminium for many centuries. Increased aluminium recycling, which has the advantage of lowering the cost in electric power in producing aluminium, will extend the world's bauxite reserves.
In November 2010, Nguyen Tan Dung, the prime minister of Vietnam, announced that Vietnam's bauxite reserves might total 11,000 Mt. Bauxite is strip mined because it is always found near the surface of the terrain, with little or no overburden; as of 2010 70% to 80% of the world's dry bauxite production is processed first into alumina and into aluminium by electrolysis. Bauxite rocks are classified according to their intended commercial application: metallurgical, cement and refractory. Bauxite ore is heated in a pressure vessel along with a sodium hydroxide solution at a temperature of 150 to 200 °C. At these temperatures, the aluminium is dissolved as sodium aluminate; the aluminium compounds in the bauxite may be present as boehmite or diaspore. The undissolved waste, bauxite tailings, after the aluminium compounds are extracted contains iron oxides, calcia and some un-reacted alumina. After separation of the residue by filtering, pure gibbsite is precipitated when the liquid is cooled, seeded with fine-grained aluminium hydroxide.
The gibbsite is converted into aluminium oxide, Al2O3, by heating in rotary kilns or fluid flash calciners to a temperature in excess of 1,000 °C. This aluminium oxide is dissolved at a temperature of about 960 °C in molten cryolite. Next, this molten substance can yield metallic aluminium by passing an electric current through it in the process of electrolysis, called the Hall–Héroult process, named after its American and French discoverers. Prior to the invention of this process, prior to the Deville process, aluminium ore was refined by heating ore along with elemental sodium or potassium in a vacuum; the method was consumed materials that were themselves expensive at that time. This made early elemental aluminium more expensive than gold. Bauxite is the main source of the rare metal gallium. During the processing of bauxite to alumina in the Bayer process, gallium accumulates in the sodium hydroxide liquor. From this it can be extracted by a variety of methods; the most recent is the use of ion-exchange resin.
Achievable extraction efficiencies critically depend on the original concentration in the feed bauxite. At a typical feed concentration of 50 ppm, about 15 percent of the contained gallium is extractable; the remainder reports to the red mud and aluminium hydroxide streams. Bauxite, Arkansas Rio Tinto Alcan United Company RUSAL MS Bulk Jupiter Bárdossy, G.: Karst Bauxites: Bauxite deposits on carbonate rocks. Elsevier Sci. Publ. 441 p. Bárdossy, G. and Aleva, G. J. J.: Lateritic Bauxites. Developments in Economic Geology 27, Elsevier Sci. Publ. 624 p. ISBN 0-444-98811-4 Grant, C.. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry p. 385–388 Vol.266, No.3 Hanilçi, N.. Geological and geochemical evolution of the Bolkardaği bauxite deposits, Turkey: Transformation from shale to bauxite. Journal of Geochemical Exploration USGS Minerals Information: Bauxite Mineral Information Institute "Bauxite". New International Encyclopedia. 1905
Santiago de Cali, or Cali, is the capital of the Valle del Cauca department, the most populous city in southwest Colombia, with an estimated 2,319,655 residents according to 2005-2020/DANE population projections. The city spans 560.3 km2 with 120.9 km2 of urban area, making Cali the second-largest city in the country by area and the third most populous. As the only major Colombian city with access to the Pacific Coast, Cali is the main urban and economic centre in the southwest of the country, has one of Colombia's fastest-growing economies; the city was founded on 25 July 1536 by the Spanish explorer Sebastián de Belalcázar. Cali is a centre for sports in Colombia, is the only Colombian city to have hosted the Pan American Games, it hosted the 1992 World Wrestling Championships, the ninth edition of the World Games in 2013, the UCI Track Cycling World Championships in 2014 and the World Youth Championships in Athletics in 2015. Cali will host the first Junior Pan American Games in 2021. Cali is the shortened form of the official name of the city: Santiago de Cali.
"Santiago" honours Saint James. The origin of the word "Cali" comes from the local Amerindians the "Calima". Before the arrival of the Spaniards, the region was inhabited by indigenous tribes speakers of Cariban languages. In the region between the Cauca River and the Western Cordillera, the Gorrones established themselves between the present day Roldanillo and Santiago de Cali; the biggest town of the Morrones was sited on the River Pescador near the present-day towns of Zarzal and Bugalagrande. The Morrones traded with the Quimbayas. On his way to Cali, Sebastián de Belalcázar first met the Timbas who ran away before the arrival of the men, leaving behind gold. After the Timbas, towards the north, the Spaniards entered the territory of the chief Jamundí and his tribe, the Jamundíes, between the rivers Pance and Jamundí; this tribe offered a strong resistance to the invaders, fighting with poisonous darts and arrows against the arquebuses and swords of the Spaniards. The Spanish prevailed in the struggle over the central valley.
Before taking control over the region, the Spaniards had to defeat the chief Petecuy, whose tribe inhabited the area between the river Lilí and the Western Cordillera. Petecuy formed a big army with many tribes and fought the Spaniards on Holy Tuesday of 1536; the natives lost to the Spaniards and the region was divided in encomiendas. Santiago de Cali was important for Belalcázar. After the capture and execution of the Inca Atahualpa at Cajamarca, Francisco Pizarro had sent Belalcázar to take possession of Guayaquil and Quito on his behalf, but Cali, being outside the Quechua empire, was claimed by Belalcazar as his own territory. After his death, his descendants maintained possession of much of the land until the war of independence against Spain; the founder of Cali, Sebastián de Belalcázar, came to the American continent in the third voyage made by Columbus in 1498. In 1532, after serving in Darién and Nicaragua, he joined Francisco Pizarro in the conquest of Perú. In 1534, Belalcázar separated from Pizarro's expedition to find the city of Quito, in his search of El Dorado he entered the territory of what is now Colombia, founding the cities of Pasto and Popayán.
Belalcázar founded Santiago de Cali on 25 July 1536, a few kilometres north of its present location, near what are now the towns of Vijes and Riofrío. Under the orders of Belalcázar, captain Miguel Muñoz moved the city to its present location in 1537, where the chaplain Brother Santos de Añasco celebrated a mass in the place occupied by the Church La Merced today, Belalcázar designated Pedro de Ayala as the first municipal authority. During the Colonia, Santiago de Cali was part of the gobernación of Popayán, part of Quito's Audiencia. Although Cali was the capital of Popayán's gobernación, Belalcázar moved this function to Popayán in 1540, owing to "better" weather there; until the 18th century most of the territory of what is now Santiago de Cali was occupied by haciendas, the city was only a small town near the Cali River. In 1793, Santiago de Cali had 6,548 inhabitants; the haciendas were the property of the dominant noble class with many slaves dedicated to stockbreeding and raising sugar cane crops.
Many of these haciendas became zone of the present city like Cañaveralejo, Pasoancho, Arroyohondo, Cañasgordas and Meléndez. Santiago de Cali was strategically positioned for trade, centrally located in relation to the mining regions of Antioquia, Chocó, Popayán. In the colonial period, the first trail for mules and horses between Santiago de Cali and the port of Buenaventura was completed. On 3 July 1810 Santiago de Cali refused to recognize the Council of Regency of Spain, established its own junta; this local uprising predates the national one in Bogotá by 17 days. The Governor of Popayán, Miguel Tacón organized an army to control the uprising; the people from Cali called for help to the "Junta Suprema" in Bogotá, which sent a contingent under colonel Antonio Baraya to support the independence cause. For mutual defense, Cali formed, with Anserma, Toro and Caloto, the Confederated cities of the Cauca Valley, which declared independence from the Governorate of Popayán on 1 February 1811, although they continued to recognize the absent Ferdinand VII as their head of state.
On 28 March 1811 in the battle of Bajo Palacé, the first in C