Japheth, is one of the three sons of Noah in the Book of Genesis, where he plays a role in the story of Noah's drunkenness and the curse of Ham, subsequently in the Table of Nations as the ancestor of the peoples of the Aegean and elsewhere. In medieval and early modern European tradition he was considered to be the progenitor of European and East Asian peoples; the meaning of the name Yafet/Yefet is disputable. There are two possible sources to the meaning of the name. From Aramaic root פתה. In which case, the name would mean may He extend. From Hebrew root יפה. In which case, the name would mean beautiful. Japheth first appears in the Book of Genesis as one of the three sons of Noah, saved through the Ark, they are always in the order "Shem and Japheth" when all three are listed, but Genesis 9:24 calls Ham the youngest, Genesis 10:21 refers ambiguously to Shem as "brother of Japheth the elder," which could mean that either is the eldest. Most modern writers accept Shem-Ham-Japheth as reflecting birth order, but this is not always the case: Moses and Rachel appear at the head of such lists despite explicit descriptions of them as younger siblings.
Following the Flood he features in the story of Noah's drunkenness. Ham sees Noah drunk and naked in his tent and tells his brothers, who cover their father with a cloak while avoiding the sight. Chapter 10 of Genesis, the Table of Nations, tells how the entire Earth was populated by the sons of Noah following the Flood, beginning with the descendants of Japheth: The Book of Genesis is the first of the five books of the Torah, that contains the account of Israel's origins as a people. Scholars see this as a product of the Achaemenid Empire, although some would place its production in the Hellenistic period or the Hasmonean dynasty; the story of Japheth and his brothers may be more recent: none of the persons and stories in the first eleven chapters of Genesis are mentioned anywhere else in the Bible, leading scholars to suppose that the history is a late composition, attached to Genesis to serve as an introduction to that book and to the Torah. Japheth is a transliteration of the ancestor of the Hellenic peoples.
His sons and grandsons associate him with the geographic area of the eastern Mediterranean and Asia - Ionia/Javan, Rhodes/Rodanim, Cyprus/Kittim, other points in the region of Greece and Asia Minor - approximating to one of the three kingdoms into which the generals of Alexander the Great divided his empire on his death. As the point of the "blessing of Japheth" seems to be that Japheth and Shem would rule jointly over Canaan. From the 19th century until the late 20th century it was usual to see Japheth as a reference to the Philistines, who shared dominion over Canaan during the pre-monarchic and early monarchic period of Israel's history; this view accorded with earlier understanding of the origin of the Book of Genesis, seen as having been composed in stages beginning with the time of Solomon, when the Philistines still existed. However, Genesis 10:14 identifies their ancestor as Ham rather than Japheth. For those who take the genealogies of Genesis to be accurate, Japheth is believed to be the father of Europeans.
The link between Japheth and the Europeans stems from Genesis 10:5, which states: "By these were the isles of the Gentiles divided in their lands." According to that book and his two brothers formed the three major races: Japheth is the father of the Japhetic race Shem is the father of the Semitic race Ham is the father of the Hamitic raceWilliam Shakespeare's play Henry IV, Part II contains a wry comment about people who claim to be related to royal families. Prince Hal notes of such people...they will be kin to us, or they will fetch it from Japhet. In the Bible, Japheth is ascribed seven sons: Gomer, Tiras, Meshech and Madai. According to Josephus: Japhet, the son of Noah, had seven sons: they inhabited so, beginning at the mountains Taurus and Amanus, they proceeded along Asia, as far as the river Tanais, along Europe to Cadiz. Josephus subsequently detailed the nations supposed to have descended from the seven sons of Japheth; the "Book of Jasher", published by Talmudic rabbis in the 17th century, provides some new names for Japheth's grandchildren not found in the Bible, provided a much more detailed genealogy.
In the seventh century, Isidore of Seville published his noted history, in which he traces the origins of most of the nations of Europe back to Japheth. Scholars in every European nation continued to repeat and develop Saint Isidore's assertion of descent from Noah through Japheth into the nineteenth century. Ivane Javakhishvili associated Japheth's sons with certain ancient tribes, called Tubals and Meshechs (Meshekhs/Mosokhs, Gre
The Ingush are a Northeast Caucasian native ethnic group of the North Caucasus inhabiting their native Ingushetia, a federal republic of Russian Federation. The Ingush are predominantly Sunni Muslims and speak the Ingush language, a Northeast Caucasian language, related to Chechen; the Ingush and Chechen peoples are collectively known as the Nakh peoples, although the genetics of Ingush and the Chechen indicate a split about 13,000-17,000 Ybp. Caucas is the legendary ancestor of the Vainakh, their name in Georgian is Ghlivi/Ghlighvi. The ancient Greek author Strabo spoke about the Gargars, while American cartographer Joseph Hutchins Colton labeled the people as Gelians; the Ingush came under Russian rule in 1810, but under Soviet rule during World War II they were suspected of collaborating with the Nazis and thus, the entire population was deported to the Kazakh and Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republics. The Ingush were rehabilitated in the 1950s, after the death of Joseph Stalin, allowed to return home in 1957, though by that time western Ingush lands had been ceded to North Ossetia.
The Ingush possess a varied culture of traditions, epics, songs and sayings. Music and dance are highly regarded. Popular musical instruments include the dachick-panderr, kekhat ponder, mirz ponder, zurna and drums; the Ingush are predominantly Sunni Muslims of the Shāfi ` ī Madh ` hab. According to one test by Nasidze in 2003, the Y-chromosome structure of the Ingush resembled that of neighboring Caucasian populations. There has been only one notable study on the Ingush Y chromosome; these following statistics should not be regarded as final, as Nasidze's test had a notably low sample data for the Ingush. However, they do give an idea of the main haplogroups of the Ingush. J2 – 89% of Ingush have the highest reported frequency of J2, associated with the Fertile Crescent. F* – This haplogroup was called "F*" by Nasidze, it may have been any haplogroup under F, not under G, I, J2, or K. G – Typical of the Middle East, the Mediterranean and the Caucasus; the highest values were found among Georgians and Ossetes.
There was a noticeable difference in G between Ingush and Chechens attributable to low samples that were all from the same town. In the mtDNA, the Ingush formed a more distinct population, with distance from other populations; the closest in an analysis by Nasidze were Chechens and Adyghe, but these were all much closer to other populations than they were to the Ingush. Vainakhia News and History of Ingushetia The Ingush people
Chechens are a Northeast Caucasian ethnic group of the Nakh peoples originating in the North Caucasus region of Eastern Europe. They refer to themselves as Nokhchiy. Chechen and Ingush peoples are collectively known as the Vainakh; the majority of Chechens today live in the Chechen Republic, a subdivision of the Russian Federation. The isolated terrain of the Caucasus mountains and the strategic value outsiders have placed on the areas settled by Chechens has contributed much to the Chechen community ethos and helped shape its fiercely independent national character. Chechen society has traditionally been egalitarian and organized around many autonomous local clans, called teips; the term "Chechen" first occurs in Arabic sources from the 8th century. According to popular tradition, the Russian term "Chechen" comes from the name of the village of Chechen-Aul; the word "Chechen", occurs in Russian sources as early as 1692 and the Russians derived it from the Kabardian "Shashan". The Chechens are inhabitants of Chechnya.
There are significant Chechen populations in other subdivisions of Russia. Outside Russia, countries with significant diaspora populations are Kazakhstan, Turkey and Arab states and the 1944 Stalinist deportation in the case of Kazakhstan. Tens of thousands of Chechen refugees settled in the European Union and elsewhere as the result of the recent Chechen Wars in the wave of emigration to the West after 2002; the Chechens are one of the Nakh peoples, who have lived in the highlands of the North Caucasus region since prehistory. There is archeological evidence of historical continuity dating back since 3000 B. C. as well as evidence proving their migration from the Fertile Crescent c. 10,000–8,000 B. C. In the Middle Ages, the lowland of Chechnya was dominated by the Khazars and the Alans. Local culture was subject to Georgian influence and some Chechens converted to Eastern Orthodox Christianity. Islam prevailed, although the Chechens' own pagan religion was still strong until the 19th century. Society was organised along feudal lines.
Chechnya was devastated by the Mongol invasions of the 13th century and those of Tamerlane in the 14th. The Vainakh bear the distinction of being one of the few peoples to resist the Mongols and defend themselves against their invasions; these events were key in the shaping of the Chechen nationhood and their martial-oriented and clan-based society. In the late Middle Ages, the Little Ice Age forced the Chechens down from the hills into the lowlands, where they came into conflict with the Terek and Greben Cossacks who had begun to move into the region; the Caucasus was a major competing area for two neighbouring rival empires: the Ottoman and Persian Empires. Starting from 1555 and decisely from 1639 through the first half of the 19th century, the Caucasus was divided by these two powers, with the Ottomans prevailing in Western Georgia, while Persia kept the bulk of the Caucasus, namely Eastern Georgia, Dagestan and Armenia; the Chechens, never fell under the rule of either empire. As Russia expanded southwards as early as the 16th century, clashes between Chechens and the Russians became more frequent, it became three empires competing for the region.
As Russia set off to increase its political influence in the Caucasus and the Caspian Sea at the expense of Safavid Persia, Peter I launched the Russo-Persian War, in which Russia succeeded in taking much of the Caucasian territories for several years. Notable in Chechen history, this particular Russo-Persian War marked the first military encounter between Imperial Russia and the Vainakh. Sheikh Mansur led a major Chechen resistance movement in the late 18th century. In the late 18th and 19th centuries, Russia embarked on full-scale conquest of the North Caucasus in the Caucasian War. Much of the campaign was led by General Yermolov who disliked the Chechens, describing them as "a bold and dangerous people". Angered by Chechen raids, Yermolov deportations. Chechen resistance to Russian rule reached its peak under the leadership of the Dagestani leader Imam Shamil; the Chechens were defeated in 1861 after a bloody war that lasted for decades, during which they lost most of their entire population.
In the aftermath, large numbers of refugees emigrated or were forcibly deported to the Ottoman Empire. Since there have been various Chechen rebellions against Russian/Soviet power, as well as nonviolent resistance to Russification and the Soviet Union's collectivization and anti-religion campaigns. In 1944, all Chechens, together with several other peoples of the Caucasus, were ordered by the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin to be ruthlessly deported en masse to the Kazakh and Kirghiz SSRs. At least one-quarter—and half—of the entire Chechen population perished in the process, a severe blow was made to their culture and historical records. Though "rehabilitated" in 1956 and allowed to return the next year, the survivors lost economic resources and civil rights
The Caucasus or Caucasia is an area situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia and Armenia. It is home to the Caucasus Mountains, including the Greater Caucasus mountain range, considered a natural barrier between Eastern Europe and Western Asia. Europe's highest mountain, Mount Elbrus, at 5,642 metres is located in the west part of the Greater Caucasus mountain range. On the southern side, the Lesser Caucasus includes the Javakheti Plateau and grows into the Armenian highlands, part of, located in Turkey; the Caucasus region is separated into northern and southern parts – the North Caucasus and Transcaucasus, respectively. The Greater Caucasus mountain range in the north is within the Russian Federation, while the Lesser Caucasus mountain range in the south is occupied by several independent states, namely Georgia, Armenia and the recognised Artsakh Republic; the region is known for its linguistic diversity: aside from Indo-European and Turkic languages, the Kartvelian, Northwest Caucasian, Northeast Caucasian families are indigenous to the area.
The term Caucasus is not only used for the mountains themselves but includes Ciscaucasia and Transcaucasia. According to Alexander Mikaberidze, Transcaucasia is a "Russo-centric" term. Pliny the Elder's Natural History derives the name of the Caucasus from Scythian kroy-khasis. German linguist Paul Kretschmer notes that the Latvian word Kruvesis means "ice". In the Tale of Past Years, it is stated that Old East Slavic Кавкасийскыѣ горы came from Ancient Greek Καύκασος ), according to M. A. Yuyukin, is a compound word that can be interpreted as the "Seagull's Mountain" According to German philologists Otto Schrader and Alfons A. Nehring, the Ancient Greek word Καύκασος is connected to Gothic Hauhs as well as Lithuanian Kaũkas and Kaukarà. British linguist Adrian Room points out that Kau- means "mountain" in Pelasgian; the Transcaucasus region and Dagestan were the furthest points of Parthian and Sasanian expansions, with areas to the north of the Greater Caucasus range impregnable. The mythological Mount Qaf, the world's highest mountain that ancient Iranian lore shrouded in mystery, was said to be situated in this region.
In Middle Persian sources of the Sasanian era, the Caucasus range was referred to as Kaf Kof. The term resurfaced in Iranian tradition on in a variant form when Ferdowsi, in his Shahnameh, referred to the Caucasus mountains as Kōh-i Kāf. "Most of the modern names of the Caucasus originate from the Greek Kaukasos and the Middle Persian Kaf Kof"."The earliest etymon" of the name Caucasus comes from Kaz-kaz, the Hittite designation of the "inhabitants of the southern coast of the Black Sea". It was noted that in Nakh Ков гас means "gateway to steppe" The modern name for the region is similar in the many languages, is between Kavkaz and Kawkaz; the North Caucasus region is known as the Ciscaucasus, whereas the South Caucasus region is known as the Transcaucasus. The Ciscaucasus contains most of the Greater Caucasus mountain range, it consists of Southern Russia the North Caucasian Federal District's autonomous republics, the northernmost parts of Georgia and Azerbaijan. The Ciscaucasus lies between the Black Sea to its west, the Caspian Sea to its east, borders the Southern Federal District to its north.
The two Federal Districts are collectively referred to as "Southern Russia." The Transcaucasus borders the Greater Caucasus range and Southern Russia to its north, the Black Sea and Turkey to its west, the Caspian Sea to its east, Iran to its south. It contains surrounding lowlands. All of Armenia and Georgia are in the South Caucasus; the watershed along the Greater Caucasus range is perceived to be the dividing line between Europe and Southwest Asia. The highest peak in the Caucasus is Mount Elbrus located in western Ciscaucasus, is considered as the highest point in Europe; the Caucasus is one of the culturally diverse regions on Earth. The nation states that comprise the Caucasus today are the post-Soviet states Georgia, Azerbaijan and the Russian Federation; the Russian divisions include Dagestan, Ingushetia, North Ossetia–Alania, Kabardino–Balkaria, Karachay–Cherkessia, Krasnodar Krai and Stavropol Krai, in clockwise order. Three territories in the region claim independence but are recognized as such by only a handful entities: Artsakh and South Ossetia.
Abkhazia and South Ossetia are recognized by the world community as part of Georgia, Artsakh as part of Azerbaijan. The region has language families. There are more than 50 ethnic groups living in the region. No fewer than three language families are unique to the area. In addition, Indo-European languages, such as Armenian and Ossetian, Turkic languages, such as Azerbaijani, Kumyk language and Karachay–Balkar, are spoken in the area. Russian is used as a lingua franca most notably in the North Caucasus; the peoples of the northern and southern Caucasus tend to be either Sunni Muslims, Eastern Orthodox Christians and Armenian Christians. Twelver Shi'
Dali is a goddess who appears in the mythology of the Georgian people of the Caucasus region. She is prominent in the stories of the Svan ethnic subgroup, but others such as the Mingrelians had similar figures considered equivalent to Dali, she is a hunting goddess. Hunters who obeyed her numerous taboos would be assured of success in the hunt, she was described as a beautiful nude woman with golden hair and glowing skin, although she sometimes took on the form of her favored animals with some marking to differentiate her from the herd. She was said to reside in a cavern high in the mountains, where she kept watch over the hoofed game animals who live on the cliffs. Dali was styled with a variety of regional epithets reflecting her different associations. Stories of the Svan people depict her taking human lovers and killing them out of jealousy, giving birth to sons such as the culture hero Amirani, clashing with her rival Saint George; some myths depict her working alongside other forest deities, she is sometimes accompanied by the legendary hunting dog Q'ursha.
Stories, developed after the rise of Christianity in Georgia, conflate Dali with an evil nature spirit called the ali. Many authors have described parallels between stories from other mythologies; as a patron of the hunt associated with hoofed beasts, she has been compared with Artemis of Greek mythology, a Scottish hag called the glaistig, the maiden who tames the unicorn. Her associations with gold and the morning star have led scholars to draw connections with goddesses such as Aphrodite and Ishtar, who have similar mythological themes, her story remains an important part of Georgian culture. Though most younger people treat her as a mythological figure, some older hunters still consider her to be a real figure that one might encounter deep in the forest. Traditionally, Dali lived in a cavern high up in the mountains, far away from human settlements; some traditions specified her home was the distinctive double-peaked mountain Ushba, whose ice-covered south face was sometimes called Dalis panjara, the Window of Dali.
The cave's exact location varied. Sometimes the entrance was concealed by a rock door which Dali opened and closed to hide her dwelling. Dali and her flock lived inside an enormous hollowed-out spruce tree; as a rule, Dali never entered civilized spaces such as villages except on rare occasions, such as the funerals of her human lovers. Dali was described as a beautiful young woman with long braided hair, she was most portrayed as nude wearing gold jewellery. Her skin was so white it was radiant, her beauty was extraordinary: "both irresistible and terrible," it could drive a man to madness if he spoke to her. Dali's long hair was an important component of her mythology. Most stories depicted her hair as gold-colored; some stories depicted this gleaming aspect as actual flame, describing the goddess leaving "little tongues of flame" in her wake, although this is less prevalent. In some tales, Dali used her supernaturally-strong hair to bind hunters. In one story, she used it to strangle a hunter who had stolen one of her hairs to string his hunting bow.
Although strong enough to string a bow with, her hair was not invulnerable. Multiple tales depict hunters cutting Dali's hair in order to subdue and rape her; this tactic did not prevent the goddess from taking revenge at a date. In a story about Dali's Mingrelian equivalent Tkashi-Mapa, the goddess agrees to become a hunter's wife when he threatens to cut off her luxurious hair, he grows tired of her endlessly washing and combing it, hides her prized comb so she will stop. She destroys his family, killing one of his children and stealing another, curses his entire line of descendants in revenge. Women could use Dali's hair against her. A woman whose man had been away hunting too long might cut her own hair off, praying that God would cut Dali's hair in return, which would force the goddess to allow her husband to return home. In one of the major Dali stories, a woman discovers her husband sleeping with Dali, she cuts Dali's hair off in a rage, either banishing her from the world. In one unusual variation of the hair-cutting motif, a woman wishing to rid her son or her husband of Dali's influence sneaks up on the goddess while she is sleeping and washes her hair, sometimes in deer's milk rather than water.
Dali is rendered so grateful, by this act that she becomes the woman's servant. Her Mingrelian equivalent could be dismissed with a similar method, using milk from a black cow instead of deer's milk, it is not known if there are any surviving artistic depictions of Dali contemporaneous to her period of prominence. Folklorist Mikheil Chikovani considered the Trialeti Chalice, a Georgian artifact from the 2nd millennium BCE, to depict a round dance in honor of Dali. Folklorist David Hunt suggested the Chalice could be a depiction of a female mistress of beasts; the etymology of Dali's name is not clear. Although many figures in Georgian mythology have origins in figures from the early Georgian Orthodox Church, Dali is not among them, it has been suggested that the name comes from the Georgian word dila, meaning "morning", or the Ossetian word dælimon meaning "demon", but these links are disputed. Anthropol
In Abrahamic religions, Noah was the tenth and last of the pre-Flood Patriarchs. The story of Noah's Ark is told in the Bible's Genesis flood narrative; the biblical account is followed by the story of the Curse of Ham. In addition to the Book of Genesis, Noah is mentioned in the Old Testament in the First Book of Chronicles, the books of Tobit, Sirach, Ezekiel, 2 Esdras, 4 Maccabees. Noah was the subject of much elaboration in the literature of Abrahamic religions, including the Quran; the primary account of Noah in the Bible is in the Book of Genesis. Noah was the tenth of the Pre-Flood Patriarchs, his father was Lamech and his mother is not named in the biblical accounts. When Noah was five hundred years old, he became the father of Shem and Japheth; the Genesis flood narrative makes up chapters 6–9 in the Book of Genesis, in the Bible. The narrative, one of many flood myths found in human cultures, indicates that God intended to return the Earth to its pre-Creation state of watery chaos by flooding the Earth because of humanity's misdeeds and remake it using the microcosm of Noah's ark.
Thus, the flood was no ordinary overflow but a reversal of Creation. The narrative discusses the evil of mankind that moved God to destroy the world by the way of the flood, the preparation of the ark for certain animals and his family, God's guarantee for the continued existence of life under the promise that he would never send another flood. After the flood, Noah offered burnt offerings to God, who said: "I will not again curse the ground any more for man's sake. "And God blessed Noah and his sons, said unto them, Be fruitful, multiply, replenish the earth". They were told that all fowls, land animals, fishes would be afraid of them. Furthermore, as well as green plants, every moving thing would be their food with the exception that the blood was not to be eaten. Man's life blood would be required from man. "Whoso sheddeth man's blood, by man shall his blood be shed: for in the image of God made he man". A rainbow, called "my bow", was given as the sign of a covenant "between me and you and every living creature that with you, for perpetual generations", called the Noahic covenant or the rainbow covenant.
Noah died 350 years after the flood, at the age of 950, the last of the long-lived Antediluvian patriarchs. The maximum human lifespan, as depicted by the Bible diminishes thereafter, from 1,000 years to the 120 years of Moses. After the flood, the Bible says that Noah became a husbandman and he planted a vineyard, he drank wine made from this vineyard, got drunk. Noah's son Ham, the father of Canaan, saw his father naked and told his brothers, which led to Ham's son Canaan being cursed by Noah; as early as the Classical era, commentators on Genesis 9:20–21 have excused Noah's excessive drinking because he was considered to be the first wine drinker. John Chrysostom, Archbishop of Constantinople, a Church Father, wrote in the 4th century that Noah's behavior is defensible: as the first human to taste wine, he would not know its effects: "Through ignorance and inexperience of the proper amount to drink, fell into a drunken stupor". Philo, a Hellenistic Jewish philosopher excused Noah by noting that one can drink in two different manners: to drink wine in excess, a peculiar sin to the vicious evil man or to partake of wine as the wise man, Noah being the latter.
In Jewish tradition and rabbinic literature on Noah, rabbis blame Satan for the intoxicating properties of the wine. In the field of psychological biblical criticism, J. H. Ellens and W. G. Rollins address the narrative of Genesis 9:18–27 that narrates the unconventional behavior that occurs between Noah and Ham; because of its brevity and textual inconsistencies, it has been suggested that this narrative is a "splinter from a more substantial tale". A fuller account would explain what Ham had done to his father, or why Noah directed a curse at Canaan for Ham's misdeed, or how Noah came to know what occurred; the narrator relates two facts: Noah became drunken and "he was uncovered within his tent", Ham "saw the nakedness of his father, told his two brethren without". Thus, these passages revolve around sexuality and the exposure of genitalia as compared with other Hebrew Bible texts, such as Habakkuk 2:15 and Lamentations 4:21. Other commentaries mention that seeing someone's nakedness could mean having sex with that person as seen in Leviticus 18:7-8 and Leviticus 20:11.
Genesis 10 sets forth the descendants of Shem and Japheth, from whom the nations branched out over the earth after the flood. Among Japheth’s descendants were the maritime nations. Ham’s son Cush had a son named Nimrod, who became the first man of might on earth, a mighty hunter, king in Babylon and the land of Shinar. From there Asshur built Nineveh. Canaan’s descendants – Sidon, the Jebusites, the Amorites, the Girgashites, the Hivites, the Arkites, the Sinites, the Arvadites, the Zemarites, the Hamathites – spread out from Sidon as far as Gerar, near Gaza, as far as Sodom and Gomorrah. Among Shem’s descendants was Eber; these genealogies differ structurally from those set out in Genesis 5 and 11. It has a segmented or treelike structure, going from one father to many offs
Adgilis Deda — the "mother of locality" or "place-mother" — is a deity in the pre-Christian Georgian pantheon revered by the mountaineers of northeast Georgia, such as the Khevsurs, as a protective spirit of a place and as a deity of fertility of humans and livestock alike. The ancient Georgians believed that each place — mountain, ravine — had a "mother" which they called the "place-mother", she was portrayed as a beautiful lady with silver jewelry who patronized not only the location but the foreigners who travelled in this area. With the advent of Christianity, this cult became associated with that of the Virgin Mary, they share some common features of rituals and Adgilis Ghvtismshobeli is still worshipped as a patroness of the community among the Georgian highlanders