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Causality is efficacy, by which one event, process or state, a cause, contributes to the production of another event, process or state, an effect, where the cause is responsible for the effect, the effect is dependent on the cause. In general, a process has many causes, which are said to be causal factors for it, all lie in its past. An effect can in turn be a cause of, or causal factor for, many other effects, which all lie in its future; some writers have held that causality is metaphysically prior to notions of space. Causality is an abstraction that indicates how the world progresses, so basic a concept that it is more apt as an explanation of other concepts of progression than as something to be explained by others more basic; the concept is like those of efficacy. For this reason, a leap of intuition may be needed to grasp it. Accordingly, causality is implicit in the structure of ordinary language. In the English language, as distinct from Aristotle's own language, Aristotelian philosophy uses the word "cause" to mean "explanation" or "answer to a'why' question", including Aristotle's material, formal and final "causes".

In this case, failure to recognize that different kinds of "cause" are being considered can lead to futile debate. Of Aristotle's four explanatory modes, the one nearest to the concerns of the present article is the "efficient" one; the topic of causality remains a staple in contemporary philosophy. The nature of cause and effect is a concern of the subject known as metaphysics. Kant thought that time and space were notions prior to human understanding of the progress or evolution of the world, he recognized the priority of causality, but he did not have the understanding that came with knowledge of Minkowski geometry and the special theory of relativity, that the notion of causality can be used as a prior foundation from which to construct notions of time and space. A general metaphysical question about cause and effect is what kind of entity can be a cause, what kind of entity can be an effect. One viewpoint on this question is that cause and effect are of one and the same kind of entity, with causality an asymmetric relation between them.

That is to say, it would make good sense grammatically to say either "A is the cause and B the effect" or "B is the cause and A the effect", though only one of those two can be true. In this view, one opinion, proposed as a metaphysical principle in process philosophy, is that every cause and every effect is some process, becoming, or happening. An example is'his tripping over the step was the cause, his breaking his ankle the effect'. Another view is that causes and effects are'states of affairs', with the exact natures of those entities being less restrictively defined than in process philosophy. Another viewpoint on the question is the more classical one, that a cause and its effect can be of different kinds of entity. For example, in Aristotle's efficient causal explanation, an action can be a cause while an enduring object is its effect. For example, the generative actions of his parents can be regarded as the efficient cause, with Socrates being the effect, Socrates being regarded as an enduring object, in philosophical tradition called a'substance', as distinct from an action.

Since causality is a subtle metaphysical notion, considerable intellectual effort, along with exhibition of evidence, is needed to establish knowledge of it in particular empirical circumstances. Causality has the properties of contiguity; these are topological, are ingredients for space-time geometry. As developed by Alfred Robb, these properties allow the derivation of the notions of space. Max Jammer writes "the Einstein postulate... opens the way to a straightforward construction of the causal topology... of Minkowski space." Causal efficacy propagates no faster than light. Thus, the notion of causality is metaphysically prior to the notions of space. In practical terms, this is because use of the relation of causality is necessary for the interpretation of empirical experiments. Interpretation of experiments is needed to establish the physical and geometrical notions of time and space; the deterministic world-view holds that the history of the universe can be exhaustively represented as a progression of events following one after as cause and effect.

The incompatibilist version of this holds that there is no such thing as "free will". Compatibilism, on the other hand, holds that determinism is compatible with, or necessary for, free will. Causes may sometimes be distinguished into two types: sufficient. A third type of causation, which requires neither necessity nor sufficiency in and of itself, but which contributes to the effect, is called a "contributory cause." Necessary causes If x is a necessary cause of y the presence of y implies the prior occurrence of x. The presence of x, does not imply that y will occur. Sufficient causes If x is a sufficient cause of y the presence of x implies the subsequent occurrence of y. However, another cause z may alternatively cause y, thus the presence of y does not imply the prior occurrence of x. Contributory causes For some specific effect, in a singular case, a factor, a contributory cause is one among several co-occurrent causes, it is implicit. For the specific effect, in general, there is no implication that a contributory cause is necessary, though it may be so.

In general, a factor, a contributory cause is not sufficient, because it is by definition accompanied by other causes, which would not count as causes if it were suffici

America's Next Top Model (season 19)

The nineteenth cycle of America's Next Top Model, consisted of thirteen episodes and was broadcast on The CW. It aired from August 24, 2012, until November 16, 2012, was promoted by the catchphrase "Only One Can Be Top of the Class"; the program saw thirteen women, all of whom were enrolled in higher education, compete for the title of America's Next Top Model, providing them with an opportunity to begin their career in the modeling industry. Its premise was originated with model Tyra Banks, who additionally serves as its executive producer and presenter; the international destination during the cycle was Ocho Rios, becoming the second occasion in which the series traveled to the country, after cycle 3. The winner of the competition was 21-year-old Paul Smith's College student Laura James from Cambridge, New York; this was the first season to feature a cast of all-new contestants since Cycle 16. This is the last season to feature only female contestants until Cycle 23. Judge and fashion photographer Nigel Barker, runway coach Miss J. Alexander and photo shoot creative director Jay Manuel were dismissed from the show after the previous cycle in an attempt to revitalize the show.

They were replaced by British model Rob Evans and Filipino fashion blogger Bryanboy. Johnny Wujek joined the crew as the new creative director of photo shoots. Evans and Bryanboy joined the judging panel with Banks and Cutrone, marking the return of four permanent judges since cycle 12; this cycle did not feature guest judges at panel Another change was the incorporation of public voting as a factor in eliminations. A 1–10 scoring system was implemented to determine the merits of each contestant's performances at challenges and photo shoots, the results for each week were calculated on a 50-point scale, with a maximum possible score of 10 from each of the three judges and for each challenge and a maximum possible average social media score of 10.0. Each week, the girl with the lowest combined score was eliminated from the competition; the eliminated girls still participated in every photo shoot, their photos were still available to be voted on by the public. This separate competition was documented on the "Comeback series", untelevised and instead shown on The CW's official website.

It lasted for six weeks, the winning contestant, with the highest average social media score throughout the cycle, was allowed to rejoin the main competition. The prizes for this cycle were a modeling contract with LA Models and NY Model Management, a position the face of the America’s Next Top Model fragrance Dream Come True, a fashion spread in Nylon magazine, campaigns with Nine West and Smashbox cosmetics and a $100,000 cash prize; the following prizes were removed: A position as guest correspondent for Extra, a fashion spread in Vogue Italia, a cover of and fashion spread in Beauty In Vogue, a single produced and released by CBS Records and a US$100,000 contract with CoverGirl cosmetics, the series' long-time sponsor. No episode aired on October 12 due to the network's re-airing of the pilot episode of Arrow. For this cycle, America's Next Top Model launched. After being eliminated, the girls continued to participate in the photo shoots under the premise that the audience would select one of them to return to the competition later.

Leila returned to the competition in episode 9 for having accumulated the highest average fan score for her photographs. The contestant won the challenge The contestant was eliminated The contestant failed to return to the competition The contestant returned to the competition The contestant won the competition The contestant quit the competition The contestant was eliminated after their first time in the bottom two The contestant was eliminated after their second time in the bottom two The contestant was eliminated after their third time in the bottom two Casting call-out order and final three are not included. Indicates the contestant won the competition; the contestant received the highest score of the week The contestant was eliminated The contestant was in the bottom two The contestant quit the competition Episode 1 photo shoot: Posing in bikinis Episode 2 photo shoot: Taxidermy mounted head beauty shots Episode 3 photo shoot: Black and white nude in a garden with Rob Evans Episode 4 photo shoot: Apocalyptic zombies Episode 5 photo shoot: Cheerleaders in the air Episode 6 photo shoot: Steampunk fashion with an owl on a train Episode 7 photo shoot: Gross and sticky situations in a motel Episode 8 photo shoot: Prison mugshots Episode 9 photo shoot: River raft love triangle Episode 10 photo shoot: Waterfall warriors Episode 11 photo shoot: Dream Come True fragrance in a beach Episode 12 photo shoots: Nine West advertisements.

Frank C. Craighead Sr.

Frank Cooper Craighead Sr. was an American entomologist and naturalist, who specialized among other subjects on the larvae of Coleoptera. Craighead worked as principal entomologist for the United States Department of Agriculture and authored many books on various environmentalist subjects, but is best known for the book "An illustrated synopsis of the principal larval forms of the order Coleoptera" that he co authored with Adam Giede Böving in 1930 with some 20 subsequent editions until 1953. Craighead married the biologist technician Carolyn Johnson and together they had three children, twin sons and a daughter; the twins Frank and John became renowned naturalists in their own right as well. The daughter, Jean Carolyn, became a well known author of books with nature and environmental themes for children and young adults. Works by or about Frank C. Craighead Sr. at Internet Archive


Interleukin 18 receptor accessory protein known as IL18RAP and CDw218b, is a human gene. The protein encoded by this gene is an accessory subunit of the heterodimeric receptor for IL18; this protein enhances the IL18 binding activity of IL18R1, a ligand binding subunit of IL18 receptor. The coexpression of IL18R1 and this protein is required for the activation of NF-κB and MAPK8 in response to IL18. Variants at IL18RAP have been linked to susceptibility to Coeliac disease. Interleukin-18 receptor IL18RAP+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, in the public domain

Speechless (Fred Frith album)

Speechless is a 1981 solo album by English guitarist and improviser Fred Frith of the group Henry Cow. It was Frith's third solo album, was released in the United States on LP record on The Residents' Ralph record label, it was the second of three solo albums. Speechless was recorded in France and the United States, featured Frith with French Rock in Opposition group Etron Fou Leloublan on the first side of the LP, Frith's New York City band Massacre on the second, it is a studio album with extracts from a Massacre concert mixed into four of the tracks on side two of the LP. Speechless has been described as a mixture of free improvisation, avant-rock and noise. AllMusic said that it is regarded as one of Frith's best solo albums. Speechless was the second of a series of three solo albums Frith made for The Residents's record label Ralph Records, the first being Gravity, an avant-garde "dance" record that drew on rhythm and dance from folk music across the world, the third being Cheap at Half the Price.

He had recorded with The Residents in the late 1970s and early 1980s, appeared on several of their albums. Gravity was well received by music critics. Just as he had worked with two backing bands on Gravity, on Speechless Frith used French Rock in Opposition group Etron Fou Leloublan and his own New York City band Massacre. Side one of the LP record was recorded with Etron Fou Leloublan at Studio Freeson in Pujaut, France and at Sunrise Studios, Switzerland in July and August 1980. Side two of the LP consists of four tracks built around extracts from a Massacre concert at CBGB in New York City in April 1980: "A Spit in the Ocean", "Navajo" and "Saving Grace" were altered and added to by Frith at Sunrise Studios in July and August 1980, while "Conversations With White Arc" is an unaltered improvised piece; the remaining four tracks of side two were recorded by Frith at Sunrise during the same period. On Speechless, Frith continued his exploration of world folk and dance music that he had begun on Gravity, but unlike Gravity, Speechless included extensive use of found sounds and field recordings.

Frith said that many of the tapes were made while walking the streets of New York City, include street fairs and demonstrations. Recordings were made while visiting friends: the title song's rhythm track is provided by a malfunctioning water pipe in Tim Hodgkinson's kitchen. At the time Frith had a passion for tape manipulation and "sound malfunctions". In a 1982 interview with DownBeat magazine Frith said that so much more can be done with tape: "I'm interested in using the studio for things that you couldn't do in a performance, to use the medium of tape in a way, intrinsic to it." He added that hardware malfunctions result in more interesting sounds than was intended: " lot of the sounds that I get in the studio have been the result of overloading or causing to malfunction various pieces of technology, like harmonizers or digital delays."Frith described the theme of Speechless as revolving around "questions of power and language, of striving to find a voice but remaining always on the edge being understood."

This notion came to him when he once tried to listen to a recording of an interview he had done, the cassette machine played back both sides of the tape at the same time, one of them backwards, rendering the words unintelligible. Andrew Jones wrote in Plunderphonics,'pataphysics & pop mechanics: an introduction to musique actuelle that Speechless is "ultimately about being unable to articulate the words that once flowed freely." Speechless is an instrumental album that includes elements of folk music, free improvisation, avant-rock and noise, plus field recordings and tape manipulation. Featured are many "happy accidents" that resulted from "sound malfunctions" in the studio; the tracks on the album vary from folk and melodic pieces, to noisy avant-rock, to layered sound collages. Glenn Astarita at Jazz Review said that the listener can expect "the unexpected, amid pounding backbeats, variable rhythmic flows, multihued soundscapes." Peter Marsh at BBC Music described the music as being an "unholy alliance" between Captain Beefheart's Magic Band and King Crimson.

Rock critic Peter Marsh, in a BBC Music review, described Speechless as "beautifully progressive musicmaking that doesn't take itself too seriously." Glenn Astarita at Jazz Review said the album was "highly recommended", adding that "Frith’s off-kilter methodologies translate into a fun-filled production, awash with a cartoon-like rationale." Tom Schulte at AllMusic wrote that Speechless is regarded as one of Frith's best solo albums, that its "inspired manipulations hold up under repeated scrutiny."The waltz ballad "Domaine de Planousset" was performed live by Frith several times, including at the 4th Festival International de Musique Actuelle de Victoriaville in Victoriaville in Quebec, Canada with René Lussier in October 1986, at the Bahnhof Langendreer in Bochum, Germany with Frith's band, Keep the Dog in mid-1991. The performance with Lussier was released as "Domaine Revisited" on Nous Autres in 1987, the performance with Keep the Dog was released as "Domaine de Langendreer" on That House We Lived In in 2003.

"Conversations With White Arc" was revisited on Massacre's 1998 album, Funny Valentine as "Further Conversations With White Arc". All tracks composed by Fred Frith except. Fred Frith – guitar, mellotron and bass guitar, voice Etron Fou Leloublan: Guigou Chenevier

1961–62 Creighton Bluejays men's basketball team

The 1961–62 Creighton Bluejays men's basketball team represented Creighton University during the 1961–62 NCAA Division I men's basketball season. The Bluejays, led by third year head coach John J.'Red' McManus, played their home games at the Omaha Civic Auditorium. They finished the season 21-5; the Creighton Bluejays earned a bid into the 1962 NCAA Tournament where they defeated Memphis State in the Midwest Region Quarterfinals round before falling in the Midwest Region Semifinals to the #2 ranked, eventual 1962 National Champion, Cincinnati Bearcats. The Bluejays defeated Texas Tech in the Midwest Region Third Place game. Before the season started, Red appeared before the Quarterback Club in Omaha and with his first words stated that Creighton was going to a post season tournament. A majority of the people felt; the previous year's 8-17 record was far from good. McManus worked tirelessly to turn Creighton into a basketball power, he utilized tough coaching to put the Bluejays back on the road to fame.

The hard work paid off. Sophomore Paul Silas would blossom into a force in the middle, leading the nation in rebounding for the 1961–62 and 1962-63 seasons