A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monks or nuns, whether living in communities or alone. A monastery includes a place reserved for prayer which may be a chapel, church, or temple, may serve as an oratory. Monasteries vary in size, comprising a small dwelling accommodating only a hermit, or in the case of communities anything from a single building housing only one senior and two or three junior monks or nuns, to vast complexes and estates housing tens or hundreds. A monastery complex comprises a number of buildings which include a church, cloister, library and infirmary. Depending on the location, the monastic order and the occupation of its inhabitants, the complex may include a wide range of buildings that facilitate self-sufficiency and service to the community; these may include a hospice, a school, a range of agricultural and manufacturing buildings such as a barn, a forge, or a brewery. In English usage, the term monastery is used to denote the buildings of a community of monks.
In modern usage, convent tends to be applied only to institutions of female monastics communities of teaching or nursing religious sisters. A convent denoted a house of friars, now more called a friary. Various religions may apply these terms in more specific ways; the word monastery comes from the Greek word μοναστήριον, neut. of μοναστήριος – monasterios from μονάζειν – monazein "to live alone" from the root μόνος – monos "alone". The earliest extant use of the term monastērion is by the 1st century AD Jewish philosopher Philo in On The Contemplative Life, ch. III. In England the word monastery was applied to the habitation of a bishop and the cathedral clergy who lived apart from the lay community. Most cathedrals were not monasteries, were served by canons secular, which were communal but not monastic. However, some were run by monasteries orders, such as York Minster. Westminster Abbey was for a short time a cathedral, was a Benedictine monastery until the Reformation, its Chapter preserves elements of the Benedictine tradition.
See the entry cathedral. They are to be distinguished from collegiate churches, such as St George's Chapel, Windsor. In most of this article, the term monastery is used generically to refer to any of a number of types of religious community. In the Roman Catholic religion and to some extent in certain branches of Buddhism, there is a somewhat more specific definition of the term and many related terms. Buddhist monasteries are called vihara. Viharas may be occupied by men or women, in keeping with common English usage, a vihara populated by females may be called a nunnery or a convent. However, vihara can refer to a temple. In Tibetan Buddhism, monasteries are called gompa. In Thailand and Cambodia, a monastery is called a wat. In Burma, a monastery is called a kyaung. A Christian monastery may be a priory, or conceivably a hermitage, it may be a community of men or of women. A charterhouse is any monastery belonging to the Carthusian order. In Eastern Christianity, a small monastic community can be called a skete, a large or important monastery can be given the dignity of a lavra.
The great communal life of a Christian monastery is called cenobitic, as opposed to the anchoretic life of an anchorite and the eremitic life of a hermit. There has been under the Osmanli occupation of Greece and Cyprus, an "idiorrhythmic" lifestyle where monks come together but being able to own things individually and not being obliged to work for the common good. In Hinduism monasteries are called matha, koil, or most an ashram. Jains use the Buddhist term vihara. In most religions the life inside monasteries is governed by community rules that stipulate the gender of the inhabitants and require them to remain celibate and own little or no personal property; the degree to which life inside a particular monastery is separate from the surrounding populace can vary widely. Others focus on interacting with the local communities to provide services, such as teaching, medical care, or evangelism; some monastic communities are only occupied seasonally, depending both on the traditions involved and the local weather, people may be part of a monastic community for periods ranging from a few days at a time to an entire lifetime.
The life within the walls of a monastery may be supported in several ways: by manufacturing and selling goods agricultural products, by donations or alms, by rental or investment incomes, by funds from other organizations within the religion, which in the past formed the traditional support of monasteries. There has been a long tradition of Christian monasteries providing hospitable and hospital services. Monasteries have been associated with the provision of education and the encouragement of scholarship and research, which has led to the establishment of schools and colleges and the association with universities. Christian monastic life has adapted to modern society by offering computer services, accounting services and management as well as modern hospital and educational administration. Buddhist monasteries, known as vihāra i
Óengus son of Fergus, was king of Picts from 732 until his death in 761. His reign can be reconstructed in some detail from a variety of sources; the unprecedented gains he made and the legacy he left, mean Óengus can be considered the first king of what would become Scotland. Wresting power from his rivals, Óengus became the chief king in Pictland following a period of civil war in the late 720s. During his reign, the neighbouring kingdom of Dál Riata was subsumed under Pictish rule and he extended Pictish influence through Northumbria and Ireland, Óengus is credited with establishing the cult of Saint Andrew in Scotland, at Cennrígmonaid; the most powerful ruler in Scotland over more than two decades, kings from Óengus' family dominated Pictland for a century, until defeat at the hands of Vikings in 839 began a new period of instability, ending with the coming to power of another Pictish line, that of Cináed mac Ailpín. Surviving Pictish sources for the period are few, limited to king lists, the original of, prepared in the early 720s, a number of accounts relating to the foundation of St Andrews called Cennrígmonaid.
Beyond Pictland, the principal sources are the Irish annals, of which the Annals of Ulster and the Annals of Tigernach are the most reliable. These include materials from an annal kept at the monastery of Iona in Scotland. Óengus and the Picts appear in Welsh sources, such as the Annales Cambriae, more in Northumbrian sources, of which the Continuation of Bede's chronicle and the Historia Regum Anglorum attributed to Symeon of Durham are the most important. The Picts were one of four political groups in north Britain in the early 8th century. Pictland ran from the River Forth northwards, including Orkney and the Western Isles. Prior to the Viking Age, the main power in Pictland appears to have been the kingdom of Fortriu. Known high-status sites in Fortriu include Craig Phádraig by Inverness. Pictland appears to have had only one bishop with his seat at Rosemarkie. From the Forth south to the River Humber lay the kingdom of Northumbria. Once the dominant force in Britain, it remained a powerful kingdom, but the end of the old dynasty of kings with the death of Osric in 729 led to conflict between rival families for the throne.
The growing power of the Mercian kingdom to the south added to the problems faced by Northumbrian kings. For most of Óengus's reign Northumbria was ruled by the capable King Eadberht Eating. To the south-west of Pictland were the Gaels of Dál Riata where the kingship was disputed between the Cenél Loairn of northern Argyll and the Cenél nGabráin of Kintyre. In 723 Selbach mac Ferchair abdicated as head of the Cenél Loairn and king of Dál Riata in favour of his son Dúngal, driven out as king of Dál Riata by Eochaid mac Echdach of the Cenél nGabráin in 726. Dúngal and Eochaid were still in conflict as late as 731; the history of the fourth group, the Britons of Alt Clut the kingdom of Strathclyde, leaves little trace in the record. King Teudebur map Beli had ruled from Dumbarton Rock since 722, continued to do so until his death in 752 when his son Dumnagual succeeded him. An early medieval Irish genealogy tract claims Óengus to be a descendent of Cairpre Cruithnecháin or "Cairbre the little Pict", of the Eóganachta of Munster.
The branch of the kindred from which it's claimed he came, known in the annals as the Éoganachta of Mag Gergind, are accepted as having been located in modern Angus and the Mearns.Óengus thus appears to have been a native of the Mearns born into an established Verturian kindred there. Indeed, it's nearby, at the hill of Moncrieffe, near Perth, that he first appears in the records, defeating his rival, Alpin, in battle; that the Irish annals envision his kin as'Éoganachta' suggests he was the descendent of an obscure'Vuen', the Pictish British cognate of Gaelic Éogan. Otherwise much of Óengus' early life is unknown, his close kin included at least two sons and Talorgan, two brothers and Bridei. King Nechtan son of Der-Ile abdicated to enter a monastery in 724 and was imprisoned by his successor Drest in 726. In 728 and 729, four kings competed for power in Pictland: Drest. Four battles large enough to be recorded in Ireland were fought in 728 and 729. Alpín was defeated twice by Óengus. In 729 a battle between supporters of Óengus and Nechtan's enemies was fought at Monith Carno where the supporters of Óengus were victorious.
Nechtan was restored to the kingship until his death in 732. On 12 August 729 Óengus defeated and killed Drest in battle at Druimm Derg Blathuug, a place which has not been identified. In the 730s, Óengus fought against Dál Riata whose traditional overlords and protectors in Ireland, the Cenél Conaill, were much weakened at this time. A fleet from Dál Riata fought for Flaithbertach mac Loingsig, chief of the Cenél Conaill, in his war with Áed Allán of the Cenél nEógan, suffered heavy losses in 733. Dál Riata was ruled by Eochaid mac Echdach of the Cenél nGabráin who died in 733, the king lists are unclear as to who, if anyone, succeeded him as overking; the Cenél Loairn of north Argyll were ruled by Dúngal mac Selbaig whom Eochaid had deposed as overking of Dál Riata in the 720s. Fighting between the Picts, led by Óengus's son Bridei, the Dál Riata, led by Talorgan mac Congussa, is reco
University College Dublin
University College Dublin is a research university in Dublin, Ireland. It has over 1,482 faculty and 32,000 students, it is Ireland's largest university. Rooted in Roman Catholicism, UCD originates in a body founded in 1854, which opened as the Catholic University of Ireland on the Feast of Saint Malachy and with John Henry Newman as its first rector; the Universities Act, 1997 renamed the constituent university as the "National University of Ireland, Dublin", a ministerial order of 1998 renamed the institution as "University College Dublin - National University of Ireland, Dublin". In locations across Dublin city, all faculties have since relocated to a 133-hectare campus at Belfield, four kilometres to the south of the city centre; the 2019 QS World University Rankings rates UCD as the second highest ranked irish university. A report published in May 2015 showed the economic output generated by UCD and its students in Ireland amounted to €1.3 billion annually. UCD is ranked among the top universities in Europe.
Five Nobel Laureates are among current and former staff. UCD can trace its history to the institution founded in 1854 as the Catholic University of Ireland, was established as UCD in 1880 under the auspices of the Royal University of Ireland, received its charter in 1908. After the Catholic Emancipation period of Irish history, a movement led by Paul Cullen, Archbishop of Armagh attempted to provide for the first time in Ireland higher-level education both accessible to followesr of Roman Catholicism and taught by such people. In the 19th century, the question of denominational education in Ireland was a contentious one. For many years it had divided the Young Ireland Movement; the Catholic Hierarchy demanded a Catholic alternative to the University of Dublin's Trinity College, whose Anglican origins the Hierarchy refused to overlook. The Hierarchy wanted to counteract the "Godless Colleges" of the Queen's University of Ireland - established in the cities of Galway and Cork; the University of Dublin had since the 1780s admitted Catholics to study.
Thus, in 1850 at the Synod of Thurles, it was decided to open in Dublin - for Catholics - a rival institution to that city's University. As a result of these efforts, a new "Catholic University of Ireland" opened in 1854, with John Henry Newman appointed as its first rector. Newman had been an integral figure in the Oxford Movement in the 19th century; the Catholic University opened its doors on the feast of St Malachy, 3 November 1854. On that day the names of seventeen students were entered on the register and Newman gave the students an address "What are we here for" and prophesied that in years they would look back with pride on the day; the Catholic University opened with three houses: 86 St Stephen's Green, known as St Patrick's or University House, under the care of The Rev. Michael Flannery. To prepare students for entry to the new Catholic University, a feeder school under the guidance of Bartholomew Woodlock and Cardinal Newman, referred to as the Catholic University School, was established.
Among the first students enrolled were the grandson of Daniel O'Connell. Another included William O'Shea who would go on to become a Captain in the British Army and was central to the divorce crises which brought down Charles Stewart Parnell's career in trying to establish Home Rule for Ireland. O'Shea, clashed with Newman and found the Catholic University insufficiently inspiring, so departed after one year to instead attend Trinity. Of the eight original students in Newman's own home, two were Irish, two English, two Scottish and two French. Among them were a French viscount, Irish baronet Sir Reginald Barnewall, the son of a French countess, the grandson of a Scottish marquis, the son of an English lord. Were added to his care two Belgian princes and a Polish count. Many were attracted to the Catholic University on the basis of the reputation of Newman; as a private university, the Catholic University was never given a royal charter, so was unable to award recognized degrees and suffered from chronic financial difficulties.
Newman left the university in 1857. Bartholomew Woodlock was appointed Rector and served until he became Bishop of Ardagh and Clonmacnoise in 1879. In this period he attempted to secure a site of 34 acres at Clonliffe West but the scheme collapsed when expansion of the railway system on the north side of Dublin cut across the site, he turned his attention to expanding along St Stephen's Green and over these years bought from No. 82 to 87. The decline was halted in 1880 with the establishment of the Royal University of Ireland; the Royal Universities charter entitled all Irish students to sit the Universities examinations and receive its degrees. Although in many respects the Catholic University can be viewed as a failure, UCD would inherit substantial assets from it including a successful medical school and two beautiful buildings, Newman House on St Stephen's Green and the adjoining University Ch
The Monymusk Reliquary is an eighth century Scottish reliquary made of wood and metal characterised by an Insular fusion of Gaelic and Pictish design and Anglo-Saxon metalworking by Ionan monks. It has been said to be the Brecbennoch of St. Columba, a sacred battle ensign of the Scottish army, used for saintly assistance, but is now thought not to be the object mentioned in historical records. Few Insular reliquaries survive, although many are mentioned in contemporary records, it is an early example of the chasse or house-shaped reliquary, that became popular across Europe in the Middle Ages influenced by Insular styles. The Monymusk Reliquary is now empty, its dimensions are W 112mm x D 51mm x H 89mm. It is characterised by a mixture of Pictish artistic designs and Irish artistic traditions, fused with Anglo-Saxon metalworking techniques, an artistic movement now classified as Insular or Hiberno-Saxon art; the casket is covered with silver and copper-alloy. It was made around 750 by Ionan monks.
It shows a combination of the Pictish and Insular styles which appear in manuscripts such as the Lindisfarne Gospels. The silver plates on the front and lid of the casket are decorated with beasts leaping and twisting, biting at their tails on a spotted field, characteristic of animal style in Celtic art; the stippled punch marks are characteristically Irish in style. It was significant because it was said to have contained Holy relics of St. Columba, the most popular saint in mediaeval Scotland, from the 19th century believed to be the "Brecbennoch of St. Columba", a sacred battle ensign of the Scottish army, though this is now doubted by scholars, it may have been handed to the abbot of Arbroath Abbey during the reign of William I, who in turn passed it to someone else's care at Forglen. The custodian was charged with the care of the reliquary, so that it could be used for saintly assistance by the Scots in battle, it was carried by the Scottish army who were victorious against the army of king Edward II of England at the Battle of Bannockburn.
It stayed at Forglen until the sixteenth century, when both Forglen and Monymusk came into the hands of the Forbes family. In 1712 it was transferred to Sir Francis Grant of Cullen, it stayed in the Grant collection until 1933. It is now in the care of the Museum of Scotland, where it is arguably one of the most important pieces in the Museum's entire collection. Wormald, Scotland: A History, Plate 2, opp. p. 42 Caldwell, David H. "The Monymusk Reliquary: the Breccbennach of St Columba?", Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, 131, archived from the original on 17 January 2014 Eeles, Francis C. "The Monymusk Reliquary", Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, 68, archived from the original on 17 January 2014 The Monymusk Reliquary at the National Museum of Scotland Friends of Grampian Stones
In religion, a relic consists of the physical remains of a saint or the personal effects of the saint or venerated person preserved for purposes of veneration as a tangible memorial. Relics are an important aspect of some forms of Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam and many other religions. Relic derives from the Latin reliquiae, meaning "remains", a form of the Latin verb relinquere, to "leave behind, or abandon". A reliquary is a shrine. In ancient Greece, a city or sanctuary might claim to possess, without displaying, the remains of a venerated hero as a part of a hero cult. Other venerable objects associated with the hero were more to be on display in sanctuaries, such as spears, shields, or other weaponry; the sanctuary of the Leucippides at Sparta claimed to display the egg of Leda. The bones were not regarded as holding a particular power derived from the hero, with some exceptions, such as the divine shoulder of Pelops held at Olympia. Miracles and healing were not attributed to them; the bones of Orestes and Theseus were supposed to have been stolen or removed from their original resting place and reburied.
On the advice of the Delphic Oracle, the Spartans searched for the bones of Orestes and brought them home, without which they had been told they could not expect victory in their war against the neighboring Tegeans. Plutarch says that the Athenians were instructed by the oracle to locate and steal the relics of Theseus from the Dolopians; the body of the legendary Eurystheus was supposed to protect Athens from enemy attack, in Thebes, that of the prophet Amphiaraus, whose cult was oracular and healing. Plutarch narrates transferrals similar to that of Theseus for the bodies of the historical Demetrius I of Macedon and Phocion the Good The bones or ashes of Aesculapius at Epidaurus, of Perdiccas I at Macedon, were treated with the deepest veneration; as with the relics of Theseus, the bones are sometimes described in literary sources as gigantic, an indication of the hero's "larger than life" status. On the basis of their reported size, it has been conjectured that such bones were those of prehistoric creatures, the startling discovery of which may have prompted the sanctifying of the site.
The head of the poet-prophet Orpheus was supposed to have been transported to Lesbos, where it was enshrined and visited as an oracle. The 2nd-century geographer Pausanias reported that the bones of Orpheus were kept in a stone vase displayed on a pillar near Dion, his place of death and a major religious center; these too were regarded as having oracular power, which might be accessed through dreaming in a ritual of incubation. The accidental exposure of the bones brought a disaster upon the town of Libretha, whence the people of Dion had transferred the relics to their own keeping. According to the Chronicon Paschale, the bones of the Persian Zoroaster were venerated, but the tradition of Zoroastrianism and its scriptures offer no support of this. In Hinduism, relics are less common than in other religions since the physical remains of most saints are cremated; the veneration of corporal relics may have originated with the śramaṇa movement or the appearance of Buddhism, burial practices became more common after the Muslim invasions.
However one prominent example is the preserved body of the 11th century religious philosopher and proponent of Qualified Non-Dualism Swami Ramanuja in a separate shrine inside Sri Rangam Temple. In Buddhism, relics of the Buddha and various sages are venerated. After the Buddha's death, his remains were divided into eight portions. Afterward, these relics were enshrined in stupas; some relics believed to be original remains of the body of the Buddha still survive, including the much-revered Sacred Relic of the tooth of the Buddha in Sri Lanka. A stupa is a building created for the relics. Many Buddhist temples have stupas and the placement of relics in a stupa became the initial structure around which the whole temple would be based. Today, many stupas hold the ashes or ringsel of prominent/respected Buddhists who were cremated. In rare cases the whole body is conserved, for example in the case of Dudjom Rinpoche, after his death his physical body was moved a year from France and placed in a stupa in one of his main monasteries near Boudhanath, Nepal in 1988.
Pilgrims may view his body through a glass window in the stupa. The Buddha's relics are considered to show people that enlightenment is possible, to remind them that the Buddha was a real person, to promote good virtue. One of the earliest sources that purports to show the efficacy of relics is found in 2 Kings 13:20–21: 20 Elisha died and was buried. Now Moabite raiders used to enter the country every spring. 21 Once while some Israelites were burying a man they saw a band of raiders. When the body touched Elisha's bones, the man stood up on his feet. Cited is the veneration of Polycarp's relics recorded in the Martyrdom of Polycarp. With regard to relics that are objects, an cited passage is Acts 19:11–12, which says that Paul's handkerchiefs were imbued by God with healing power. In the gospel accounts of Jesus healing the bleeding woman and again at Gospel of Mark 6:56, those who touched Jesus's garment were healed; the practice of venerating relics seems to have been taken for granted by writers like Augustine, St. Ambrose, Gregory of Nyssa, St. Chrysostom, St. Gregory Nazian
Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, St George's Channel. Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, the twentieth-largest on Earth. Politically, Ireland is divided between the Republic of Ireland, which covers five-sixths of the island, Northern Ireland, part of the United Kingdom. In 2011, the population of Ireland was about 6.6 million, ranking it the second-most populous island in Europe after Great Britain. Just under 4.8 million live in the Republic of Ireland and just over 1.8 million live in Northern Ireland. The island's geography comprises low-lying mountains surrounding a central plain, with several navigable rivers extending inland, its lush vegetation is a product of its mild but changeable climate, free of extremes in temperature. Much of Ireland was woodland until the end of the Middle Ages. Today, woodland makes up about 10% of the island, compared with a European average of over 33%, most of it is non-native conifer plantations.
There are twenty-six extant mammal species native to Ireland. The Irish climate is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean and thus moderate, winters are milder than expected for such a northerly area, although summers are cooler than those in continental Europe. Rainfall and cloud cover are abundant; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC. Gaelic Ireland had emerged by the 1st century AD; the island was Christianised from the 5th century onward. Following the 12th century Norman invasion, England claimed sovereignty. However, English rule did not extend over the whole island until the 16th–17th century Tudor conquest, which led to colonisation by settlers from Britain. In the 1690s, a system of Protestant English rule was designed to materially disadvantage the Catholic majority and Protestant dissenters, was extended during the 18th century. With the Acts of Union in 1801, Ireland became a part of the United Kingdom. A war of independence in the early 20th century was followed by the partition of the island, creating the Irish Free State, which became sovereign over the following decades, Northern Ireland, which remained a part of the United Kingdom.
Northern Ireland saw much civil unrest from the late 1960s until the 1990s. This subsided following a political agreement in 1998. In 1973 the Republic of Ireland joined the European Economic Community while the United Kingdom, Northern Ireland, as part of it, did the same. Irish culture has had a significant influence on other cultures in the field of literature. Alongside mainstream Western culture, a strong indigenous culture exists, as expressed through Gaelic games, Irish music and the Irish language; the island's culture shares many features with that of Great Britain, including the English language, sports such as association football, horse racing, golf. The names Éire derive from Old Irish Eriu; this in turn comes from the Proto-Celtic *Iveriu, the source of Latin Hibernia. Iveriu derives from a root meaning'fat, prosperous'. During the last glacial period, up until about 10,000 BC, most of Ireland was periodically covered in ice. Sea levels were lower and Ireland, like Great Britain, formed part of continental Europe.
By 16,000 BC, rising sea levels due to ice melting caused Ireland to become separated from Great Britain. Around 6000 BC, Great Britain itself became separated from continental Europe; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC, demonstrated by a butchered bear bone found in a cave in County Clare. It is not until about 8000 BC, that more sustained occupation of the island has been shown, with evidence for Mesolithic communities around the island; these Mesolithic communities lived as hunter-gatherers across the island until about 4000 BC. Some time before 4000 BC, Neolithic settlers arrived introducing cereal cultivars, domesticated animals such as cattle and sheep, large timber building, stone monuments; the earliest evidence for farming in Ireland or Great Britain is from Co.. Kerry, where a flint knife, cattle bones and a sheep's tooth were carbon-dated to c. 4350 BC. Field systems were developed in different parts of Ireland, including at the Céide Fields, preserved beneath a blanket of peat in present-day Tyrawley.
An extensive field system, arguably the oldest in the world, consisted of small divisions separated by dry-stone walls. The fields were farmed for several centuries between 3500 BC and 3000 BC. Wheat and barley were the principal crops; the Bronze Age – defined by the use of metal – began around 2500 BC, with technology changing people's everyday lives during this period through innovations such as the wheel. According to John T. Koch and others, Ireland in the Late Bronze Age was part of a maritime trading-network culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age that included Britain, western France and Iberia, that this is where Celtic languages developed; this contrasts with the traditional view that their origin lies in mainland Europe with the Hallstatt culture. During the Iron Age, a Celtic language and culture emerged in Ireland. How and when the island became Celtic has been debated for close to a century, with the migrations of the Celts being one of the more enduring themes of archaeological and linguistic studies.
The most recent genetic research s
Applecross is a village in the council area of Highland, Scotland. The name Applecross is at least 1300 years old and is not used locally to refer to the 19th century village with the Applecross Inn, lying on the small Applecross Bay, facing the Inner Sound, on the opposite side of which lies the Inner Hebridean island of Raasay; the village of Applecross was established in the 7th century. A sculptured stone is the only relic of St. Maelrubha remaining; the Applecross peninsula is a peninsula in Wester Ross, Highland, on the north west coast of Scotland. This row of houses, referred to as'Applecross', is marked as Applecross on some maps, is called'Shore Street' and is referred to locally just as'The Street'; the name Applecross applies to all the settlements around the peninsula, including Toscaig, Camusterrach and many others. Applecross is the name of the local estate and the civil parish, which includes Shieldaig and Torridon, has a population of 544; the small River Applecross flows into the bay at Applecross.
Isolated, Applecross was only accessible by boat until the early 20th century, for many years after that the only road access was over one of Scotland's most notoriously treacherous roads, the Bealach na Ba, which crosses the peninsula and reaches a maximum height of 626 m, below the 774 m high Sgùrr a' Chaorachain. The settlement is now connected via a winding coastal road which travels around the edge of the peninsula to Shieldaig and Torridon; the road skirts the shore of the Inner Loch Torridon. Applecross's name is an anglicisation of the Pictish name Aporcrosan,'confluence of the Crossan'; the settlement is linked with St Máelrubai or Maelrubha, who came to Scotland in 671 from the major Irish monastery of Bangor, County Down. He founded Aporcrosan in 672 in what was Pictish territory, was the monastery's first abbot, dying on 21 April 722 in his eightieth year; the deaths of several of his successors as abbot are recorded in the Irish Annals into the early ninth century. The early monastery was located around the site of the parish church.
A large, unfinished cross-slab standing in the churchyard and three finely carved fragments of another preserved within the church are evidence of the early monastery. The surrounding district is known as a' Chomraich'the sanctuary' in Gaelic, its boundaries were once marked by crosses. The stub of one, destroyed in 1870, survives among farm buildings at Camusterrach. There are many churches dedicated to Maelrubha on Skye and throughout northern Scotland, the saint's name sometimes taking distorted forms. Loch Maree and its holy island of Eilean Ma-Ruibhe are both named after the saint; the area around Applecross is believed to be one of the earliest settled parts of Scotland. The coastal settlement of Sand, just to the north of Applecross, is the location of a major archaeological site; the Applecross estate extends to 70,000 acres and covers most of the peninsula. In the second half of the 16th century, the lands of Applecross came into the possession of Alexander Mackenzie, an illegitimate son of Colin Cam Mackenzie of Kintail.
With a brief interruption between 1715 and 1724, the estate remained in the ownership of Mackenzie's heirs until the mid-19th century, when it was sold to the Duke of Leeds. In the early 1860s, the estate was sold to Lord Middleton. Following the death of the 10th Baron Middleton in 1924, the estate was sold to the Wills family; the Estate is now owned by the Applecross Trust, a registered Scottish charity with the declared aim of preserving "the special character of the Applecross peninsula in a responsible and progressive manner whilst acknowledging its wilderness heritage and its importance as an area of outstanding natural beauty". The Applecross Trust is controlled by seven people and chaired by Richard Wills, of Andover, Hampshire. None of the members live in Applecross. In July 2010, at a cost of £40,000, the UK's first unmanned petrol station was opened, it uses a credit card reader to enable customers to serve themselves. The business was taken over by Applecross Community Company in 2008 in response to its possible closure.
The only alternative involves a 36-mile round trip to Lochcarron. Applecross appeared as Laxdale in the 1953 film Laxdale Hall, in which the villagers protest against the poor condition of the access road by withholding their Road Tax. In 2009 Applecross was featured in the television programme Monty Halls' Great Escape, it is referred to in the writings of Margaret Leigh. Applecross appeared in Channel 4's Time Team series 13 episode 12 when a broch was excavated, it is the setting for Graeme Macrae Burnet's 2015 novel His Bloody Project, nominated for The Man Booker Prize in 2016. It appeared in the 4 books of Enchanted Emporium by, Pierdomenico Baccalario, as the place where the story takes place. Aber and Inver as place-name elements Applecross Landscape Partnership Applecross Historical Society Applecross Walks The Applecross Trust