A cavalier is a fortification, built within a larger fortification, and, higher than the rest of the work. It consists of a raised platform within a fort or bastion, so as to be able to fire over the main parapet without interfering with the fire of the latter. Through the use of cavaliers, a greater volume of fire can be obtained, but its great height makes it an easy target for a besieger's guns. There are two types of cavaliers: Common cavalier – a raised gun platform without any additional defensive features Defensible cavalier – a raised gun platform surrounded by a ditch. If the ditch cuts across the bastion's terreplein and is supported by cuts, the cavalier can be considered as a retrenchment
Cavalier County, North Dakota
Cavalier County is a county in the U. S. state of North Dakota. It is south of the Canada–US border with Manitoba; as of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 3,993. Its county seat is Langdon; the city of Cavalier is in nearby Pembina County. The Dakota Territory legislature created Cavalier County on January 4, 1873 with territory annexed from Pembina County, but did not organize the county government structure at that time, it was named for Charles Cavileer of an early settler. The county organization was effected on July 8, 1884, its boundaries were altered in 1883 and in 1887. After petitioning the Territorial Governor for permission to organize the county, Patrick McHugh, W. Hudson Matthews, L. C. Noracong met on July 8, 1884. On July 26 the new county officials met for the second time and chose Noracong as Chairman of the Board with William H. Doyle and Matthews as Commissioners; the first Register of Deeds and County Clerk was McHugh. W. J. Mooney became the first Judge of Probate, Charles B. Nelson was the first Cavalier County Supt. of Schools, Clarence Hawkes the first Sheriff.
Cavalier took its current form in 1887 after the Territorial Legislature authorized an increase in size by taking a portion from Pembina County. The expansion added 15 new townships to the county. A site for a county seat was selected at the second meeting. Langdon never visited the town, but donated a bell for the local school; the first court house was built in 1884 at a cost of $360.00. It was used and abandoned for warmer and more centrally located quarters in a downtown bank. A large brick court house was built in 1895 on the present site at a contract cost of $9,099.00. This building served county officials until the current court house was constructed in 1957-58. Established after 1969 - The Holy Trinity Church at Dresden, ND became the cornerstone of the County museum, it now landmarks. The Holy Trinity Church at Dresden replaced two previous wooden structures; the present structure was erected in 1936, built out of fieldstone collected by the local parishioners. An architect from Minneapolis, Fabian Redmond, designed the building.
A stonemason from Rugby ND, Edroy Patterson, directed volunteer workers. Assisting in the building of the church were Andrew Bachman-head carpenter, Alphonse Hiltner, Stanley Koehmstedt and William Geisen. Cavalier County is located on the north edge of North Dakota, its north boundary line abuts the south boundary line of Canada. The Pembina River enters from Manitoba and flows southeasterly through the eastern part of the county, exiting near the SE corner; the county terrain consists of rolling hills, dotted with ponds in the western part. The terrain slopes to the east, with its highest point near the midpoint of the south boundary line at 1,644' ASL; the county has a total area of 1,510 square miles, of which 1,489 square miles is land and 21 square miles is water. Rush Lake As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 4,831 people, 2,017 households, 1,361 families in the county; the population density was 3 people per square mile. There were 2,725 housing units at an average density of 2 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 98.10% White, 0.14% Black or African American, 0.52% Native American, 0.10% Asian, 0.10% from other races, 1.03% from two or more races. 0.64% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 44.5 % were of 23.1 % Norwegian and 6.4 % French ancestry. There were 2,017 households out of which 27.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.80% were married couples living together, 3.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.50% were non-families. 30.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.93. The county population contained 24.60% under the age of 18, 3.70% from 18 to 24, 21.30% from 25 to 44, 27.50% from 45 to 64, 22.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 45 years. For every 100 females there were 98.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.60 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $31,868, the median income for a family was $39,601. Males had a median income of $28,886 versus $19,647 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,817. About 7.80% of families and 11.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.60% of those under age 18 and 11.90% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 census, there were 3,993 people, 1,818 households, 1,142 families in the county; the population density was 2.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 2,309 housing units at an average density of 1.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 97.7% white, 0.9% American Indian, 0.2% Asian, 0.1% black or African American, 0.2% from other races, 0.8% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 0.6% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 44.5% were German, 28.8% were Norwegian, 10.8% were American, 5.8% were Irish, 5.7% were Swedish, 5.4% were English. Of the 1,818 households, 21.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.7% were married couples living together, 4.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.2% were non-families, 34.2% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.15 and the average family size was 2.74. The median age was 50.3 years. The median income for a household in the county was $48,786 and the median
Cavalier, North Dakota
Cavalier is the largest city in Pembina County, North Dakota, United States. It is the county seat of Pembina County; the population was 1,302 at the 2010 census. Cavalier was founded in 1875 and became the county seat in 1911. Although they bear the same name, Cavalier is not located in nearby Cavalier County; the Tongue River flows Cavalier Air Force Station is located near the city. Cavalier was laid out in 1875 on open land; the city was named for an early settler in Pembina County. A post office has been in operation at Cavalier since 1877. Cavalier was incorporated in 1902. In the early 1970s, the city of Cavalier’s population quadrupled in size due to the U. S. anti ballistic missile program. This was in preparation of a nuclear attack on the U. S. during the Cold War with the Soviet Union. Cavalier is located at 48°47′43″N 97°37′24″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.82 square miles, all of it land. At the 2010 census, there were 1,302 people, 641 households and 333 families residing in the city.
The population density was 1,587.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 723 housing units at an average density of 881.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95.4% White, 2.2% Native American, 0.2% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 0.2% from other races, 1.9% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.7% of the population. There were 641 households of which 19.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.9% were married couples living together, 8.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 2.2% had a male householder with no wife present, 48.0% were non-families. 43.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.95 and the average family size was 2.69. The median age in the city was 47.3 years. 18.5% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 47.5% male and 52.5% female. At the 2000 census, there were 1,537 people, 679 households and 399 families residing in the city.
The population density was 1,938.1 per square mile. There were 750 housing units at an average density of 945.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 94.27% White, 0.46% African American, 1.04% Native American, 0.52% Asian, 2.08% from other races, 1.63% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.29% of the population. There were 679 households of which 26.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.4% were married couples living together, 6.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 41.1% were non-families. 38.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 21.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.17 and the average family size was 2.92. 22.8% of the population were under the age of 18, 7.2% from 18 to 24, 24.3% from 25 to 44, 21.0% from 45 to 64, 24.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.8 males.
The median household income was $35,667 and the median family income was $48,450. Males had a median income of $30,313 compared with $21,548 for females; the per capita income for the city was $19,586. About 7.8% of families and 9.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.0% of those under age 18 and 9.9% of those age 65 or over. Based on data from the 2000 Census, 6.8% of Cavalier's population is of Icelandic ancestry, making Cavalier the city with the highest proportion of Icelandic residents in the United States. Icelandic State Park is a public recreation area located on Renwick Dam five miles west of Cavalier in Akra Township, Pembina County, North Dakota, it includes Lake Renwick and the Gunlogson Arboretum Nature Preserve, which are used for various recreation activities. Frost Fire Ski and Snow Board Area is located outside of nearby Walhalla, North Dakota and includes tubing and an outdoor amphitheater; the Cavalier Air Force Station is located about 14 miles Southwest of Cavalier.
It was built in the early 1970s. It provides critical missile space surveillance data to various government agencies. 30 military along with several civil service people are stationed on the base. The Pembina Gorge State Recreation Area is a unit of the North Dakota state park system located along the Pembina River that provides a 12 mi looped trail for hiking as well as riding ATVs, dirt bikes and snowmobiles. Built in 1912, the Pembina County Courthouse was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1980; the Historic Cavalier Movie Theater Pembina County Memorial Hospital Cavalier Country Club Cavalier Arena Cavalier Swimming Pool The Cavalier Motorcycle Ride-In occurs every Father's Day weekend which brings in thousands of motorcycles and spectators from the upper midwest and Canada. This event has been called the "Little Sturgis of the North" and has been held every year for more than 20 years. Off The Charts Festival is a free Christian Music Festival held every August featuring national acts.
The Pembina County Fair has been held annually in nearby Hamilton, North Dakota for more than 125 years. Rob Hunt, drafted by the Indianapolis Colts in the 5th round of the 2005 NFL Draft. John Kobs, men's baseball and ice hockey coach at Michigan State University Rodney Scott Webb, federal judge Ashley Ford, Miss North Dakota 2004 The Cavalie
Cavalry or horsemen are soldiers or warriors who fight mounted on horseback. Cavalry were the most mobile of the combat arms. An individual soldier in the cavalry is known by a number of designations such as cavalryman, dragoon, or trooper; the designation of cavalry was not given to any military forces that used other animals, such as camels, mules or elephants. Infantry who moved on horseback, but dismounted to fight on foot, were known in the 17th and early 18th centuries as dragoons, a class of mounted infantry which evolved into cavalry proper while retaining their historic title. Cavalry had the advantage of improved mobility, a man fighting from horseback had the advantages of greater height and inertial mass over an opponent on foot. Another element of horse mounted warfare is the psychological impact a mounted soldier can inflict on an opponent; the speed and shock value of the cavalry was appreciated and exploited in armed forces in the Ancient and Middle Ages. In Europe cavalry became armoured, became known for the mounted knights.
During the 17th century cavalry in Europe lost most of its armor, ineffective against the muskets and cannon which were coming into use, by the mid-19th century armor had fallen into disuse, although some regiments retained a small thickened cuirass that offered protection against lances and sabres and some protection against shot. In the period between the World Wars, many cavalry units were converted into motorized infantry and mechanized infantry units, or reformed as tank troops. However, some cavalry still served during World War II, notably in the Red Army, the Mongolian People's Army, the Royal Italian Army, the Romanian Army, the Polish Land Forces, light reconnaissance units within the Waffen SS. Most cavalry units that are horse-mounted in modern armies serve in purely ceremonial roles, or as mounted infantry in difficult terrain such as mountains or forested areas. Modern usage of the term refers to units performing the role of reconnaissance and target acquisition. In many modern armies, the term cavalry is still used to refer to units that are a combat arm of the armed forces which in the past filled the traditional horse-borne land combat light cavalry roles.
These include scouting, skirmishing with enemy reconnaissance elements to deny them knowledge of own disposition of troops, forward security, offensive reconnaissance by combat, defensive screening of friendly forces during retrograde movement, restoration of command and control, battle handover and passage of lines, relief in place, breakout operations, raiding. The shock role, traditionally filled by heavy cavalry, is filled by units with the "armored" designation. Before the Iron Age, the role of cavalry on the battlefield was performed by light chariots; the chariot originated with the Sintashta-Petrovka culture in Central Asia and spread by nomadic or semi-nomadic Indo-Iranians. The chariot was adopted by settled peoples both as a military technology and an object of ceremonial status by the pharaohs of the New Kingdom of Egypt as well as the Assyrian army and Babylonian royalty; the power of mobility given by mounted units was recognized early on, but was offset by the difficulty of raising large forces and by the inability of horses to carry heavy armor.
Cavalry techniques were an innovation of equestrian nomads of the Central Asian and Iranian steppe and pastoralist tribes such as the Iranic Parthians and Sarmatians. The photograph above left shows Assyrian cavalry from reliefs of 865–860 BC. At this time, the men had no spurs, saddle cloths, or stirrups. Fighting from the back of a horse was much more difficult than mere riding; the cavalry acted in pairs. At this early time, cavalry used swords and bows; the sculpture implies two types of cavalry. Images of Assyrian cavalry show saddle cloths as primitive saddles, allowing each archer to control his own horse; as early as 490 BC a breed of large horses was bred in the Nisaean plain in Media to carry men with increasing amounts of armour, but large horses were still exceptional at this time. By the fourth century BC the Chinese during the Warring States period began to use cavalry against rival states, by 331 BC when Alexander the Great defeated the Persians the use of chariots in battle was obsolete in most nations.
The last recorded use of chariots as a shock force in continental Europe was during the Battle of Telamon in 225 BC. However, chariots remained in use for ceremonial purposes such as carrying the victorious general in a Roman triumph, or for racing. Outside of mainland Europe, the southern Britons met Julius Caesar with chariots in 55 and 54 BC, but by the time of the Roman conquest of Britain a century chariots were obsolete in Britannia; the last mention of chariot use in Britain was by the Caledonians at the Mons Graupius, in 84 AD. During the classical Greek period cavalry were limited to those citizens who could afford expensive war-horses. Three types of cavalry became common: light cavalry, whose riders, armed with javelins, could harass and skirmish.
Cuverville Island or Île de Cavelier de Cuverville is a dark, rocky island lying in Errera Channel between Arctowski Peninsula and the northern part of Rongé Island, off the west coast of Graham Land in Antarctica. Cuverville Island was discovered by the Belgian Antarctic Expedition under Adrien de Gerlache, who named it for J. M. A. Cavelier de Cuverville, a vice admiral of the French Navy; the bedrock on the island is metavolcanic rock with white feldspar crystals, with some volcanic breccia. The metamorphism was of a low grade variety; the island has been identified as an Important Bird Area by BirdLife International because it supports a breeding colony of about 6500 pairs of gentoo penguins, the largest for this species on the Antarctic Peninsula. Other birds nesting at the site include Antarctic shags. List of Antarctic islands south of 60° S Images from Cuverville Island
A knight is a man granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch, bishop or other political or religious leader for service to the monarch or a Christian church in a military capacity. In Europe, knighthood was conferred upon mounted warriors. During the High Middle Ages, knighthood was considered a class of lower nobility. By the Late Middle Ages, the rank had become associated with the ideals of chivalry, a code of conduct for the perfect courtly Christian warrior. A knight was a vassal who served as an elite fighter, a bodyguard or a mercenary for a lord, with payment in the form of land holdings; the lords trusted the knights. Knighthood in the Middle Ages was linked with horsemanship from its origins in the 12th century until its final flowering as a fashion among the high nobility in the Duchy of Burgundy in the 15th century; this linkage is reflected in the etymology of chivalry and related terms. The special prestige accorded to mounted warriors in Christendom finds a parallel in the furusiyya in the Muslim world, the Greek hippeis and Roman eques of classical antiquity.
In the late medieval period, new methods of warfare began to render classical knights in armour obsolete, but the titles remained in many nations. The ideals of chivalry were popularized in medieval literature the literary cycles known as the Matter of France, relating to the legendary companions of Charlemagne and his men-at-arms, the paladins, the Matter of Britain, relating to the legend of King Arthur and his Round Table. Today, a number of orders of knighthood continue to exist in Christian Churches, as well as in several Christian countries and their former territories, such as the Roman Catholic Order of the Holy Sepulchre and Order of Malta, the Protestant Order of Saint John, as well as the English Order of the Garter, the Swedish Royal Order of the Seraphim, the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav; each of these orders has its own criteria for eligibility, but knighthood is granted by a head of state, monarch, or prelate to selected persons to recognise some meritorious achievement, as in the British honours system for service to the Church or country.
The modern female equivalent in the United Kingdom is Dame. The word knight, from Old English cniht, is a cognate of the German word Knecht; this meaning, of unknown origin, is common among West Germanic languages. Middle High German had the phrase guoter kneht, which meant knight; the meaning of cniht changed over time from its original meaning of "boy" to "household retainer". Ælfric's homily of St. Swithun describes a mounted retainer as a cniht. While cnihtas might have fought alongside their lords, their role as household servants features more prominently in the Anglo-Saxon texts. In several Anglo-Saxon wills cnihtas are left either money or lands. In his will, King Æthelstan leaves his cniht, eight hides of land. A rādcniht, "riding-servant", was a servant on horseback. A narrowing of the generic meaning "servant" to "military follower of a king or other superior" is visible by 1100; the specific military sense of a knight as a mounted warrior in the heavy cavalry emerges only in the Hundred Years' War.
The verb "to knight" appears around 1300. An Equestrian was a member of the second highest social class in the Roman Republic and early Roman Empire; this class is translated as "knight". In the Roman Empire, the classical Latin word for horse, was replaced in common parlance by the vulgar Latin caballus, sometimes thought to derive from Gaulish caballos. From caballus arose terms in the various Romance languages cognate with the English cavalier: Italian cavaliere, Spanish caballero, French chevalier, Portuguese cavaleiro, Romanian cavaler; the Germanic languages have terms cognate with the English rider: German Ritter, Dutch and Scandinavian ridder. These words are derived from Germanic rīdan, "to ride", in turn derived from the Proto-Indo-European root reidh-. In ancient Rome there was a knightly class Ordo Equestris; some portions of the armies of Germanic peoples who occupied Europe from the 3rd century AD onward had been mounted, some armies, such as those of the Ostrogoths, were cavalry.
However, it was the Franks who fielded armies composed of large masses of infantry, with an infantry elite, the comitatus, which rode to battle on horseback rather than marching on foot. When the armies of the Frankish ruler Charles Martel defeated the Umayyad Arab invasion at the Battle of Tours in 732, the Frankish forces were still infantry armies, with elites riding to battle but dismounting to fight. In the Early Medieval period any well-equipped horseman could be described as a knight, or miles in Latin; the first knights appeared during the reign of Charlemagne in the 8th century. As the Carolingian Age progressed, the Franks were on the attack, larger numbers of warriors took to their horses to ride with the Emperor in his wide-ranging campaigns of conquest. At about this time the Franks remained on horseback to fight on the battlefield as true cavalry rather than mounted in
Cavaliers and Roundheads
Cavaliers and Roundheads is a set of rules for English Civil War miniature wargaming. It was written by Gary Gygax and Jeff Perren and published by Tactical Studies Rules in 1973; the unassuming booklet was the first product released by the company better known for Dungeons and Dragons. Cavaliers and Roundheads, a miniatures game designed by Gary Gygax and Jeff Perren, was the first game published by Tactical Studies Rules. TSR partners Gygax and Don Kaye had planned to use the revenue generated by this game to finance the publication of D&D; the basic troop types are pikemen, heavy infantry, musketeers and lobsters. Six-sided dice are used and melee is resolved like in Chainmail, a ruleset Gygax and Perren collaborated on; the booklet is 36 pages long, with illustrations by Greg Bell. Cavalier Roundhead Cavaliers and Roundheads at BoardGameGeek