The Toxandri were a people living at the time of the Roman empire. Their territory was called Toxandria, Toxiandria or Taxandria, a name which survived into the Middle Ages, it was equivalent to the modern Campine geographical region of northeastern Flanders and southern Netherlands. In modern terms this covered all or most of North Brabant, the east of Antwerp Province, the north of Belgian Limburg, their name is preserved in modern placenames such as Tessenderlo, in the modern Belgian province of Limburg where it borders upon the provinces of Antwerp and Flemish Brabant. Pliny the Elder in his Naturalis Historia reported that they were divided into "various peoples with many names", he placed them at the extreme edge of Gallia Belgica, the River Scaldis which some translations interpret as being "beyond" that river, with the Menapii on the more Roman side. This means that the Texuandri were either within, or close to, the part of the river delta frontier area of Belgic Gaul, that became part of Roman "Lower Germany".
The coastal Menapii and Morini were west of the Scheldt, so the Texuandri were on the eastern bank north of modern Antwerp, in or near the area known as Toxandria in the Middle Ages. From military records around the empire it appears that the Texuandri may have formed at least one administrative district or "pagus" which contributed troops to Roman armies, but it appears to be associated with more than one higher level district. One is the Civitas Tungrorum, the civitas of the Tungri, but there seems to be an association with the civitas of the Nervii, to the west; the modern town of Tongerloo, named after the Tungri, is close to Tessenderlo, but further from the city of the Tungri, modern Tongeren. The relationship between the Tungri and Toxandri is unclear. Prior to Pliny, the Toxandrians were not mentioned by Julius Caesar or Strabo in their reports of the region, it has been speculated in modern times that their name may have been a calque of the name of the Eburones who lived in the same area and were mentioned by both authors, but whom Caesar claimed to have destroyed in revenge for their rebellion against him.
The name of the Eburones is based on the Celtic word for a yew tree, which in Latin is called "taxus". Alternatively, the Toxandri and Tungri, whose name only appears for the first time in Roman times, may have been made up of Germanic immigrants from the east of the Rhine, settling Roman territory, as happened closer to the Rhine - for example the Ubii to the east near Cologne, the Cugerni to the northeast near Xanten, the Batavians and Canenefates directly to the north of the Toxandri, in the Rhine-Meuse delta. Tacitus does not mention the Toxandri, but mentions that the Tungri, unlike the Ubii and Canenefates, had changed tribal name, having been known as the Germani, a grouping which had included the Eburones. Before the takeover of Rome in this region, in Julius Caesar's commentary tribal boundaries in the area where the Toxandri are found are left unclear, it is described as thorny low forest and marshy lowlands, northwards of main populations of the cisrhenane Germani and Nervii. Caesar mentions both these politically important tribes retreating into estuarine areas, but more connects those regions to the Menapii, who in Caesar's time, as opposed to Strabo's, stretched through the delta all the way to the Rhine.
At one point Caesar says that the cisrhenane Germani bordering the Menapii were the Eburones, who he describes as the biggest and most important tribe of the Germani. In one isolated passage, Caesar did describe a tribe in the area of the Toxandri, the Ambivariti, he describes their position incidentally only, mentioning that a raiding group from Germany had crossed the Rhine at a point where Menapii lived on both sides of the river, crossed the Meuse in order to raid the Ambivariti. But this tribe is never mentioned by any other known classical source, Caesar does not describe the associations of these people with any others. In the middle of the 4th century, the area of Toxandria became de-populated, was exposed to constant raiding from tribes across the Rhine, outside the empire. Having been amongst the worst raiders, the Salian Franks were settled as foederati in Toxandria. Julian the Apostate had at first fought against Saxons and Franks, including the Salians, but allowed this one group "descended from the Franks" to settle in Toxandria in 358.
According to Zosimus, in the years previous to this agreement, the Salians had settled in the island of the Batavians, a border island of the Roman empire, forced there by Saxons from northern Germany. But they had come under attack from Saxons." " commanded his army to attack them briskly. The Salians became Roman allies and provided troops for the imperial army, in the period that Roman influence in the area was weakening. Toxandria therefore became the name of a Frankish county in early medieval Lower Lotharingia. Texandria is mentioned as a large county in the 870 Treaty of Meersen, remained th
Gaulish was an ancient Celtic language, spoken in parts of Europe before and during the period of the Roman Empire. In the narrow sense, Gaulish was the language spoken by the Celtic inhabitants of Gaul. In a wider sense, it comprises varieties of Celtic that were spoken across much of central Europe, parts of the Balkans, Asia Minor, which are thought to have been related; the more divergent Lepontic of Northern Italy has sometimes been subsumed under Gaulish. Together with Lepontic and the Celtiberian language spoken in the Iberian Peninsula, Gaulish forms the geographic group of Continental Celtic languages; the precise linguistic relationships among them, as well as between them and the modern Insular Celtic languages, are uncertain and a matter of ongoing debate because of their sparse attestation. Gaulish is found in some 800 fragmentary, inscriptions including calendars, pottery accounts, funeral monuments, short dedications to gods, coin inscriptions, statements of ownership, other texts curse tablets.
Gaulish texts were first written in the Greek alphabet in southern France and in a variety of the Old Italic script in northern Italy. After the Roman conquest of those regions, writing shifted to the use of the Latin alphabet. Gaulish in Western Europe was supplanted by Vulgar Latin and various Germanic languages from around the 5th century AD onwards, it is thought to have gone extinct some time around the late 6th century. It is estimated that during the Bronze Age, Proto-Celtic started fragmenting into distinct languages, including Celtiberian and Gaulish; as a result of the expansion of Celtic tribes during the 4th and 3rd centuries BC related varieties of Celtic came to be spoken in a vast arc extending from present-day Britain and France through the Alpine region and Pannonia in central Europe, into parts of the Balkans and Anatolia. Their precise linguistic relationships are uncertain because of the fragmentary nature of the evidence; the Gaulish varieties of central and eastern Europe and of Anatolia are attested, but from what little is known of them it appears that they were still quite similar to those of Gaul and can be considered dialects of a single language.
Among those regions where substantial inscriptional evidence exists, three varieties are distinguished. Lepontic, attested from a small area on the southern slopes of the Alps, around the present-day Swiss town of Lugano, is the oldest Celtic language known to have been written, with inscriptions in a variant of the Old Italic script appearing circa 600 BC, it has been described as either an "early dialect of an outlying form of Gaulish" or a separate Continental Celtic language. Attestations of Gaulish proper in present-day France are known as "Transalpine Gaulish", its written record begins in the 3rd century BC with inscriptions in the Greek alphabet, found in the Rhône area of southern France, where Greek cultural influence was present via the colony of Massilia, founded circa 600 BC. After the Roman conquest of Gaul, the writing of Gaulish shifted to the Latin alphabet. There are a small number of inscriptions from the second and first centuries BC in Cisalpine Gaul, which share the same archaic alphabet as the Lepontic inscriptions but are found outside the Lepontic area proper.
As they were written after the time of the Gaulish conquest of Cisalpine Gaul, they are identified as "Cisalpine Gaulish". They share some linguistic features both with Transalpine Gaulish. Scholars have debated to what extent the distinctive features of Lepontic reflect its earlier origin or a genuine genealogical split, to what extent Cisalpine Gaulish should be seen as a continuation of Lepontic or an independent offshoot of mainstream Transalpine Gaulish; the relationship between Gaulish and the other Celtic languages is subject to debate. Most scholars today agree that Celtiberian was the first to branch off from the remaining Celtic languages. Gaulish, situated in the centre of the Celtic language area, shares with the neighbouring Brittonic languages of Great Britain, the change of the Indo-European labialized voiceless velar stop /kʷ/ > /p/, whereas both Celtiberian in the south and Goidelic in Ireland retain /kʷ/. Taking this as the primary genealogical isogloss, some scholars see the Celtic languages to be divided into a "q-Celtic" group and a "p-Celtic" group, in which the p-Celtic languages Gaulish and Brittonic form a common "Gallo-Brittonic" branch.
Other scholars place more emphasis on shared innovations between Brittonic and Goidelic and group these together as an Insular Celtic branch. Sims-Williams discusses a composite model, in which the Continental and Insular varieties are seen as part of a dialect continuum, with genealogical splits and areal innovations intersecting. At least 13 references to Gaulish speech and Gaulish writing can be found in Greek and Latin writers of antiquity; the word "Gaulish" as a language term is first explicitly used in the Appendix Vergiliana in a poem referring to Gaulish letters of the alphabet. Julius Caesar reported in his Commentarii de Bello Gallico of 58 BC that the Celts/Gauls and their language are separated from the neighboring Aquitanians and Belgae by the rivers Garonne and Seine/Marne, respectively. Caesar relates that census accounts written in the Gre
The Tricastin French pronunciation: is a natural and historic region in the southern Rhône valley of southeastern France comprising the southwestern portion of the Drôme department and the northwestern portion of Vaucluse and centered on the modern town of Saint-Paul-Trois-Châteaux. The region is the cradle of the ancient Tricastini tribe, whose capital was Augusta Tricastinorum under Augustus's reign, now Saint-Paul-Trois-Châteaux; the name Tricastini, which for a long time was interpreted as meaning "the land of the Three Castles" in reality derives its name from the Ligurian tribe the Tricastini, which occupied the territory in antiquity. Nowadays, the Tricastin region is known as the site of the Tricastin Nuclear Power Plant situated on the Donzère-Mondragon canal, a tributary of the Rhône, for its Rhône valley AOC wine grape Grignan-Les Adhemar, for its natural and architectural endowment; the Tricastini were one of the groups of people in the Narbonne area of Gaul. Pliny the Elder spoke of their capital named Augusta Tricastinorum in Natural History, Book 3.
That some take this to be the modern Saint-Paul was noted by editor J. Bostock in note 63 of his 1855 translation. Tricastin was considered as the "land of white stone" due to the fact that it is one of the only areas of the Rhône valley where the stone has such a light color. Numerous quarries were active up to the middle of the 20th century in Saint-Paul-Trois-Châteaux and Saint-Restitut; the capital Saint-Paul-Trois-Châteaux was the seat of a bishopric until the French Revolution when it was dissolved, the same fate as those of Uzes and Vaison-la-Romaine. The southern Tricastin town of Bollène was a commercial center during the whole medieval era and its center still contains traces of its flourishing past. Pont-Saint-Esprit and Bourg-Saint-Andéol, located on the western border, are very old settlements where the mark left by religious influence is still evident, they remained pilgrimage sites throughout the medieval era up until the French Revolution, house numerous religious communities today.
In modern times, the 20th century saw vast improvements in the transportation infrastructure. More the Tricastin nuclear power plant has attracted protests by anti-nuclear groups such as Greenpeace. Located in the southern Rhône valley, the Tricastin plain extends from the Donzère canal on one side, by the ancient riverbed of the Rhône on the other. To the north, it extends to the narrows at the Pont du Robinet bridge, to the south, to the Mondragon cliffs; the area straddles the Mediterranean and the continental climatic regions where in this part of France the climatic transition is rapid, winter snow being frequent in Montélimar but rare some 20 - 30 kilometers further south. In this transitional area that constitutes the northern limit of Provence, the climate in Saint-Paul is more Mediterranean than the cooler areas dominated by Lance Mountain in the Drôme provençal; the Tricastin has a climate, Mediterranean augmented by the mistral in winter, a marked increase in aridity in summer. Winters are milder than in the northern part of the Drôme and in the Ardèche but cooler than in Provence where the difference is two to three degrees Celsius on average.
Temperatures can thus be hot in summer and the downpours brutal, the Tricastin valley being located as it is between the Cévennes Piedmont and the town of Nyons in the Baronnies. This is a wine-growing region; the wine Coteaux du Tricastin AOC is produced in the area, was classed VDQS in 1964 and achieved AOC status on 27 July 1973. The Tricastin truffle is protected by AOC certification since 1978, it ranges over 68 communes in the Drôme and 15 communes in the Vaucluse. In order to meet the AOC designation, the Tricastin truffle requires sterilization during the first boil and only with T. melanosporum. In this region, as in others, truffle growers got together and formed professional associations such as the Drôme des Collines or the Syndicat général de la truffe noire du Tricastin with headquarters at the Maison de la Truffe et du Tricastin in Saint Paul Trois Châteaux; the Tricastin nuclear power plant, situated in the heart of the Tricastin valley since 1974, is a pressurized water reactor and one of the most important nuclear plants in France.
It straddles the communes of Bollène, Lapalud and Pierrelatte. It is the chief industrial plant in the Tricastin valley area and supplies the energy needs for the departments of Ardèche, Drôme, Vaucluse and the Gard; the Donzère-Mondragon dam, a major development in French industrial history, is located on the Donzère-Mondragon canal. Improved by construction during the 20th century, the Tricastin valley is criss-crossed by Route nationale 7, freeway A7, the TGV Méditerranée high-speed train, a dense network of departmental roads, by the Donzère-Mondragon canal; the Tricastin valley is having a rich heritage. Some highlights: Saint-Paul-Trois-Châteaux - medieval cathedral, ancient neighborhoods, private homes dating back to the 15th century, museum of archaeology, House of Truffles and Wine Bollène - 11th century, Collégiale Saint Martin, Convent of the Holy Sacrament, old quarters, private villas dating to the 16th century, cave dwellings of Barry, Notre Dame du Pont chapel Bourg-Saint Andéol - Bishop's Palace, Romanesque church, private villas dating back to the 15th century, multiple chapels, Convent of the Presentation of Mary, statue of Diane Huntress, banks of the Rhône, hospital with baroque cloister and chapel, gothic tower Donzère - old quarters, ruins of château and ramparts, private villas, Robine
The Baiocasses were a Celtic tribe in ancient Gaul. They were a tribal division of the civitas of the Lexovii, in the Roman province of Gallia Lugdunensis; the Baiocasses were located east of west of the Belgic Veliocasses. The Latin name for their territory was the Pagus Baiocensis, corresponding to the area in Normandy now known as le Bessin; this is the location of the modern city of Bayeux. Their principal city was known during the late Roman Imperial era as Civitas Baiocassium, from which Bayeux derives. Earlier it had been called Augustodurum, named as were several new Gallo-Roman towns for the emperor Augustus and compounded with the Gaulish word duron, "gate" and hence "enclosed place, forum. By Merovingian times, the city was called Baiocas. In the time of William the Conqueror the name was being written as Bayeaux. Julius Caesar does not mention the Baiocasses in his commentaries on the Gallic Wars of the 50s BC, but they are listed in the Notitia dignitatum and are the same people Pliny calls Bodiocasses.
The Celtic word badios or bodios, "yellow, blond," forms several personal names found in Gaulish inscriptions. The meaning of the element -casses is less certain. Most of the coins show a Celtic-style male head with elaborated hair on the obverse, on the reverse a horse with a chariot rider above or behind, below either a lyre or small boar. A number of these are in existence; the 4th-century Bordelaise poet Ausonius teases a friend as a Baiocassis who claimed to be of druidic heritage and descended from priests of Belenus. Smith, William, ed. 1854. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, illustrated by numerous engravings on wood. London: Walton and Maberly Hazlit, William. 1851. The Classical Gazetteer. Online version at AncientLibrary.com Gaul List of peoples of Gaul List of Celtic tribes
Orange is a commune in the Vaucluse Department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France, about 21 km north of Avignon. It has a agricultural economy. Roman Orange was founded in 35 BC by veterans of the second legion as Arausio, or Colonia Julia Firma Secundanorum Arausio in full, "the Julian colony of Arausio established by the soldiers of the second legion." The name was unrelated to that of the orange fruit, but was conflated with it. A previous Celtic settlement with that name existed in the same place, a major battle, known as the Battle of Arausio, had been fought in 105 BC between two Roman armies and the Cimbri and Teutones tribes. Arausio was well-endowed with civic monuments, it was the capital of a wide area of northern Provence, parcelled up into lots for the Roman colonists. "Orange of two thousand years ago was a miniature Rome, complete with many of the public buildings that would have been familiar to a citizen of the Roman Empire, except that the scale of the buildings had been reduced – a smaller theater to accommodate a smaller population, for example."
It is found in both the Tabula Le cadastre d'Orange maps. The town prospered, but was sacked by the Visigoths in 412, it had, by become Christianized, from the end of the third century constituted the Ancient Diocese of Orange. No longer a residential bishopric, Arausio, as it is called in Latin, is today listed by the Roman Catholic Church as a titular see, it hosted two important synods, in 441 and 529. The Second Council of Orange was of importance in condemning what came to be called Semipelagianism; the sovereign Carolingian counts of Orange had their origin in the eighth century, passed into the family of the lords of Baux. From the 12th century, Orange was raised to a minor principality, the Principality of Orange, as a fief of the Holy Roman Empire. During this period, the town and the principality of Orange belonged to the administration and province of Dauphiné; when William the Silent, count of Nassau, with estates in the Netherlands, inherited the title Prince of Orange in 1544, the principality was incorporated into the holdings of what became the House of Orange-Nassau.
This pitched it into the Protestant side in the Wars of Religion, during which the town was badly damaged. In 1568, the Eighty Years' War began with William as stadtholder leading the bid for independence from Spain. William the Silent was assassinated in Delft in 1584, his son, Maurice of Nassau, with the help of Johan van Oldenbarnevelt, solidified the independence of the Dutch republic. The United Provinces survived to become the Netherlands, still ruled by the House of Orange-Nassau. William, Prince of Orange, ruled England as William III of England. Orange gave its name to other Dutch-influenced parts of the world, such as the Oranges in New Jersey and the Orange Free State in South Africa; the city remained part of scattered Nassau holdings until it was captured by the forces of Louis XIV during his wars of the late 17th century. The city was occupied by France in 1673, 1679, 1690, 1697 and 1702-1713 before it was ceded to France in 1713 under the Treaty of Utrecht. Following the French Revolution of 1789, Orange was absorbed into the French département of Drôme Bouches-du-Rhône finally Vaucluse.
However, the title remained with the Dutch princes of Orange. Orange attracted international attention in 1995, when it elected a member of Front National, Jacques Bompard, as its mayor. Bompard left the FN in 2005 and became a member of the conservative Movement for France until 2010. Orange was home to the French Foreign Legion's armored First Foreign Cavalry Regiment; the regiment moved to Carpiagne on July 10, 2014. The city of Orange is the 3rd largest town of Vaucluse by population after Carpentras. In 2013, the municipality had 29,193 residents; the evolution of the number of inhabitants is known throughout the population censuses carried out in the town since 1793. From the twenty-first century, censuses of municipalities with more than 10 000 inhabitants are held annually as a result of a sample survey, unlike other cities that have a real census every five years The town is renowned for its Roman architecture, its Roman theatre, the Théâtre antique d'Orange, is described as the most impressive still existing in Europe.
The fine Triumphal Arch of Orange is said to date from the time of Augustus or Tiberius, but is much perhaps Severan. The arch and surroundings were listed in 1981 by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site; the Musée displays the biggest cadastral Roman maps recovered, etched on marble. They cover the area between Orange, Nîmes, Montélimar. In 1869, the Roman theatre has been the site of a music festival; the festival, given the name Chorégies d'Orange in 1902, has been held annually since, is now famous as an international opera festival. In 1971, the "New Chorégies" became an overnight, international success. Many top international opera singers have performed in the theatre, such as Barbara Hendricks, Plácido Domingo, Montserrat Caballé, Roberto Alagna, René Pape and Inva Mula. Operas such as Tosca, Aida and Carmen have been staged here, many with a sumptuous staging and also
Avignon is a commune in south-eastern France in the department of Vaucluse on the left bank of the Rhône river. Of the 90,194 inhabitants of the city, about 12,000 live in the ancient town centre enclosed by its medieval ramparts. Between 1309 and 1377, during the Avignon Papacy, seven successive popes resided in Avignon and in 1348 Pope Clement VI bought the town from Joanna I of Naples. Papal control persisted until 1791; the town is now the capital of the Vaucluse department and one of the few French cities to have preserved its ramparts. The historic centre, which includes the Palais des Papes, the cathedral, the Pont d'Avignon, became a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1995; the medieval monuments and the annual Festival d'Avignon have helped to make the town a major centre for tourism. The earliest forms of the name were reported by the Greeks: Аὐενιὼν = Auenion Άουεννίων = Aouennion; the Roman name Avennĭo Cavarum, i.e. "Avignon of Cavares" shows that Avignon was one of the three cities of the Celtic-Ligurian tribe of Cavares, along with Cavaillon and Orange.
The current name dates to a pre-Indo-European or pre-Latin theme ab-ên with the suffix -i-ōn This theme would be a hydronym – i.e. a name linked to the river, but also an oronym of terrain. The Auenion of the 1st century BC was Latinized to Avennĭo, -ōnis in the 1st century and was written Avinhon in classic Occitan spelling or Avignoun in Mistralian spelling The inhabitants of the commune are called avinhonencs or avignounen in both Occitan and Provençal dialect. Avignon is on the left bank of the Rhône river, a few kilometres above its confluence with the Durance, about 580 km south-east of Paris, 229 km south of Lyon and 85 km north-north-west of Marseille. On the west it shares a border with the department of Gard and the communes of Villeneuve-lès-Avignon and Les Angles and to the south it borders the department of Bouches-du-Rhône and the communes of Barbentane, Rognonas, Châteaurenard, Noves; the city is in the vicinity of Orange, Nîmes, Arles, Salon-de-Provence, Marseille. Directly contiguous to the east and north are the communes of Caumont-sur-Durance, Morières-lès-Avignon, Le Pontet, Sorgues.
The region around Avignon is rich in limestone, used for building material. For example, the current ramparts, measuring 4,330 metres long, were built with the soft limestone abundant in the region called mollasse burdigalienne. Enclosed by the ramparts, the Rocher des Doms is a limestone elevation of urgonian type, 35 metres high and is the original core of the city. Several limestone massifs are present around the commune and they are the result of the oceanisation of the Ligurian-Provençal basin following the migration of the Sardo-Corsican block; the other significant elevation in the commune is the Montfavet Hill – a wooded hill in the east of the commune. The Rhone Valley is an old alluvial zone: loose deposits cover much of the ground, it consists of sandy alluvium more or less coloured with pebbles consisting of siliceous rocks. The islands in the Rhone, such as the Île de la Barthelasse, were created by the accumulation of alluvial deposits and by the work of man; the relief is quite low despite the creation of mounds allowing local protection from flooding.
In the land around the city there are clay, silt and limestone present. The Rhone passes the western edge of the city but is divided into two branches: the Petit Rhône, or "dead arm", for the part that passes next to Avignon and the Grand Rhône, or "live arm", for the western channel which passes Villeneuve-lès-Avignon in the Gard department; the two branches are separated by the Île de la Barthelasse. The southernmost tip of the Île de la Barthelasse once formed of a separated island, the L'Île de Piot; the banks of the Rhone and the Île de la Barthelasse are subject to flooding during autumn and March. The publication Floods in France since the 6th century until today – research and documentation by Maurice Champion tells about a number of them, they have never stopped as shown by the floods in 1943–1944 and again on 23 January 1955 and remain important today – such as the floods of 2 December 2003. As a result, a new risk mapping has been developed; the Durance flows along the southern boundary of the commune into the Rhone and marks the departmental boundary with Bouches-du-Rhône.
It is a river, considered "capricious" and once feared for its floods (it was once called the "3rd scourge of Provence" as well as for its low water: the Durance has both Alpine and Mediterranean morphology, unusual. There are many natural and artificial water lakes in the commune such as the Lake of Saint-Chamand east of the city. There have been many diversions throughout the course of history, such as feeding the moat surrounding Avignon or irrigating crops. In the 10th century part of the waters from the Sorgue d'Entraigues were diverted and today pass under the ramparts to enter the city.. This watercourse is called the Vaucluse Canal but Avignon people still call it the Sorgue or Sorguette, it is visible in the city in the famous Rue des teinturiers. It fed the moat around the first ramparts fed the moat on the newer east
The Lingones were a Celtic tribe that lived in Gaul in the area of the headwaters of the Seine and Marne rivers. Some of the Lingones migrated across the Alps and settled near the mouth of the Po River in Cisalpine Gaul of northern Italy around 400 BC; these Lingones were part of a wave of Celtic tribes that included the Senones. The Lingones may have helped sack Rome in 390 BC; the Gaulish Lingones were Romanized by the 1st century, living in a rich and urbanized society in the region of Langres and Dijon and minting coins, but getting caught up in the Batavian rebellion, described by Tacitus. The strategist Sextus Julius Frontinus, author of the Strategematicon, the earliest surviving Roman military textbook, mentions the Lingones among his examples of successful military tactics: Their capital was called Andematunnum Lingones, now Langres in the Haute-Marne, France, it was built on a rocky promontory above the Marne River, still preserves some of its medieval fortifications, which afford panoramic views of the Marne Valley, the Langres plateau and the Vosges.
The Cathedral St-Mammes, built in the Burgundian Romanesque style for the ancient diocese, referred to as Lingonae and rivaled Dijon. Three of its early bishops were martyred by the invasion of the Vandals, about 407. In Roman Britain, two cohorts of Lingones subscripted from among the Lingones who had remained in the area of Langres and Dijon are attested in the 2nd and 3rd centuries, from dedicatory inscriptions and stamped tiles. Ancient peoples of Italy Celts in the Alps and Po Valley Lepontii Prehistoric Italy Livius.org: Lingones Livius.org: Lingones in the Batavian revolt Second Cohort of Lingones in Roman Britain Lingones in Italy