Geographic Names Information System
It is a type of gazetteer. GNIS was developed by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the United States Board on Geographic Names to promote the standardization of feature names, the database is part of a system that includes topographic map names and bibliographic references. The names of books and historic maps that confirm the feature or place name are cited, variant names, alternatives to official federal names for a feature, are recorded. Each feature receives a permanent, unique feature record identifier, sometimes called the GNIS identifier, the database never removes an entry, except in cases of obvious duplication. The GNIS accepts proposals for new or changed names for U. S. geographical features, the general public can make proposals at the GNIS web site and can review the justifications and supporters of the proposals. The Bureau of the Census defines Census Designated Places as a subset of locations in the National Geographic Names Database, U. S. Postal Service Publication 28 gives standards for addressing mail.
In this publication, the postal service defines two-letter state abbreviations, street identifiers such as boulevard and street, department of the Interior, U. S. Geological Survey, National Mapping Division, Digital Gazeteer, Users Manual. Least Heat Moon, Blue Highways, A Journey Into America, standard was withdrawn in September 2008, See Federal Register Notice, Vol.73, No. 170, page 51276 Report, Principles and Procedures, Domestic Geographic Names, U. S. Postal Service Publication 28, November 2000. Board on Geographic Names website Geographic Names Information System Proposals from the general public Meeting minutes
United States Geological Survey
The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its resources. The organization has four science disciplines, concerning biology, geology. The USGS is a research organization with no regulatory responsibility. The USGS is a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior, the USGS employs approximately 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia. The USGS has major offices near Lakewood, Colorado, at the Denver Federal Center, the current motto of the USGS, in use since August 1997, is science for a changing world. The agencys previous slogan, adopted on the occasion of its anniversary, was Earth Science in the Public Service. Prompted by a report from the National Academy of Sciences, the USGS was created, by a last-minute amendment and it was charged with the classification of the public lands, and examination of the geological structure, mineral resources, and products of the national domain.
This task was driven by the need to inventory the vast lands added to the United States by the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, the legislation provided that the Hayden and Wheeler surveys be discontinued as of June 30,1879. Clarence King, the first director of USGS, assembled the new organization from disparate regional survey agencies, after a short tenure, King was succeeded in the directors chair by John Wesley Powell. Administratively, it is divided into a Headquarters unit and six Regional Units, Other specific programs include, Earthquake Hazards Program monitors earthquake activity worldwide. The National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines detects the location, the USGS runs or supports several regional monitoring networks in the United States under the umbrella of the Advanced National Seismic System. The USGS informs authorities, emergency responders, the media, and it maintains long-term archives of earthquake data for scientific and engineering research.
It conducts and supports research on long-term seismic hazards, USGS has released the UCERF California earthquake forecast. The USGS National Geomagnetism Program monitors the magnetic field at magnetic observatories and distributes magnetometer data in real time, the USGS operates the streamgaging network for the United States, with over 7400 streamgages. Real-time streamflow data are available online, since 1962, the Astrogeology Research Program has been involved in global and planetary exploration and mapping. USGS operates a number of related programs, notably the National Streamflow Information Program. USGS Water data is available from their National Water Information System database
Heard Island and McDonald Islands
The groups overall size is 372 square kilometres in area and it has 101.9 km of coastline. Discovered in the century, the islands have been an Australian territory since 1947. The summit of one, Mawson Peak, is higher than any mountain on the Australian mainland, the islands lie on the Kerguelen Plateau in the Indian Ocean. Heard Island, by far the largest of the group, is a 368-square-kilometre bleak and its mountains are covered by 41 glaciers and dominated by Mawson Peak, a 2, 745-metre high complex volcano which forms part of the Big Ben massif. The McDonald Islands are located 44 kilometres to the west of Heard Island at 53°02′20″S 72°36′04″E, the islands are small and rocky. In 1980 they consisted of McDonald Island, Flat Island and Meyer Rock and they totalled approximately 2.5 square kilometres in area, where McDonald Island was 1.13 square kilometres. There is a group of islets and rocks about 10 kilometres north of Heard Island, consisting of Shag Islet, Sail Rock, Morgan Island. They total about 1.1 square kilometres in area, Mawson Peak and McDonald Island are the only two active volcanoes in Australian territory.
Mawson Peak is one of the highest Australian mountains, surpassed only by Mount McClintock range in the Antarctic territory, Mawson Peak has erupted several times in the last decade, the most recent eruption was filmed on 2 February 2016. The volcano on McDonald Island, after being dormant for 75,000 years, became active in 1992 and has erupted several times since, Heard Island and the McDonald Islands have no ports or harbours, ships must anchor offshore. The coastline is 101.9 kilometres, and a 12-nautical-mile territorial sea, the islands have an Antarctic climate, tempered by their maritime setting. The weather is marked by low seasonal and daily temperature ranges and generally low cloud cover, frequent precipitation and strong winds. Monthly average temperatures at Atlas Cove range from 0.0 to 4.2 °C, with an average range of 3.7 to 5.2 °C in summer. The winds are westerly and persistently strong. At Atlas Cove, monthly average wind speeds range between around 26 to 33.5 km/h, gusts in excess of 180 km/h have been recorded.
Annual precipitation at sea level on Heard Island is in the order of 1,300 to 1,900 mm, meteorological records at Heard Island are incomplete. The islands are part of the Southern Indian Ocean Islands tundra ecoregion that includes several subantarctic islands, in this cold climate plant life is mainly limited to grasses and mosses. Low plant diversity reflects the islands’ isolation, small size, severe climate, at Heard Island, exposure to salt spray and the presence of breeding and moulting seabirds and seals are particularly strong influences on vegetation composition and structure in coastal areas
Sir Douglas Mawson OBE FRS FAA was an Australian geologist, Antarctic explorer and academic. Along with Roald Amundsen, Robert Falcon Scott, and Ernest Shackleton, Mawson was a key leader during the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration. Mawson was born on 5 May 1882 to Robert Ellis Mawson and he was born in Shipley, West Yorkshire, but was only two years old when his family immigrated to Australia and settled at Rooty Hill, now in the western suburbs of Sydney. He attended Fort Street Model School and the University of Sydney and he was appointed geologist to an expedition to the New Hebrides in 1903, his report, The Geology of the New Hebrides, was one of the first major geological works of Melanesia. Also that year he published a paper on Mittagong, New South Wales. His major influences in his career were Professor Edgeworth David. He became a lecturer in petrology and mineralogy at the University of Adelaide in 1905 and he identified and first described the mineral davidite. Mawson joined Ernest Shackletons Nimrod Expedition to the Antarctic, originally intending to stay for the duration of the presence in the first summer.
Instead both he and his mentor, Edgeworth David, stayed an extra year. In doing so they became, in the company of Alistair Mackay, the first to climb the summit of Mount Erebus and to trek to the South Magnetic Pole, which at that time was over land. Mawson turned down an invitation to join Robert Falcon Scotts Terra Nova Expedition in 1910, the objectives were to carry out geographical exploration and scientific studies, including a visit to the South Magnetic Pole. Mawson raised the funds in a year, from British and Australian governments. A second camp was located to the west on the ice shelf in Queen Mary Land, Cape Denison proved to be unrelentingly windy, the average wind speed for the entire year was about 50 mph, with some winds approaching 200 mph. They built a hut on the cape and wintered through nearly constant blizzards. Mawson wanted to do aerial exploration and brought the first aeroplane to Antarctica, type Monoplane, was to be flown by Francis Howard Bickerton. When it was damaged in Australia shortly before the expedition departed, the engine did not operate well in the cold, and it was removed and returned to Vickers in England.
The aircraft fuselage itself was abandoned, on 1 January 2009, fragments of it were rediscovered by the Mawsons Huts Foundation, which is restoring the original huts. Mawsons exploration program was carried out by five parties from the Main Base, Mawson himself was part of a three-man sledging team, the Far Eastern Party, with Xavier Mertz and Lieutenant Belgrave Ninnis, who headed east on 10 November 1912, to survey King George V Land
A cove is a small type of bay or coastal inlet. Coves usually have narrow, restricted entrances, are circular or oval. Small, sheltered bays, creeks, or recesses in a coast are often considered coves, the term can be used to describe a sheltered bay. Geomorphology describes coves as precipitously-walled and rounded cirque-like openings as in a valley extending into or down a mountainside, coves are formed by differential erosion, which occurs when softer rocks are worn away faster than the harder rocks surrounding them. These rocks further erode to form a bay with a narrow entrance. A notable example is Lulworth Cove on the Jurassic Coast in Dorset, to its west, a second cove, Stair Hole, is forming. Clark, John O. E. Stiegler, the Facts on File, Dictionary of Earth Science. New York, Market House Books Ltd