By population, Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union. Spains capital and largest city is Madrid, other urban areas include Barcelona, Seville, Bilbao. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago, in the Middle Ages, the area was conquered by Germanic tribes and by the Moors. Spain is a democracy organised in the form of a government under a constitutional monarchy. It is a power and a major developed country with the worlds fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP. Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the span is the Phoenician word spy. Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean the land where metals are forged, two 15th-century Spanish Jewish scholars, Don Isaac Abravanel and Solomon ibn Verga, gave an explanation now considered folkloric. Both men wrote in two different published works that the first Jews to reach Spain were brought by ship by Phiros who was confederate with the king of Babylon when he laid siege to Jerusalem.
This man was a Grecian by birth, but who had given a kingdom in Spain. He became related by marriage to Espan, the nephew of king Heracles, Heracles renounced his throne in preference for his native Greece, leaving his kingdom to his nephew, from whom the country of España took its name. Based upon their testimonies, this eponym would have already been in use in Spain by c.350 BCE, Iberia enters written records as a land populated largely by the Iberians and Celts. Early on its coastal areas were settled by Phoenicians who founded Western Europe´s most ancient cities Cadiz, Phoenician influence expanded as much of the Peninsula was eventually incorporated into the Carthaginian Empire, becoming a major theater of the Punic Wars against the expanding Roman Empire. After an arduous conquest, the peninsula came fully under Roman Rule, during the early Middle Ages it came under Germanic rule but later, much of it was conquered by Moorish invaders from North Africa. In a process took centuries, the small Christian kingdoms in the north gradually regained control of the peninsula.
The last Moorish kingdom fell in the same year Columbus reached the Americas, a global empire began which saw Spain become the strongest kingdom in Europe, the leading world power for a century and a half, and the largest overseas empire for three centuries. Continued wars and other problems led to a diminished status. The Napoleonic invasions of Spain led to chaos, triggering independence movements that tore apart most of the empire, eventually democracy was peacefully restored in the form of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Spain joined the European Union, experiencing a renaissance and steady economic growth
Members of the human clade, that is, the Hominina, including Homo and those species of the australopithecines that arose after the split from the chimpanzees, are called homininans. Not all homininans are directly related to the emergence of early Homo and this is a modern cladogram, For each clade, the cladogram above shows approximately when newer extant clades emerged. Some texts refer to Homonini as the Hominina branch, the subtribe Hominina is the human branch, that is, it contains only the genus Homo. Researchers proposed the taxon Hominini on the basis that the least similar species of a trichotomy should be separated from the other two. The common chimpanzee and the bonobo of the genus Pan are the closest living relatives to humans. All the extinct genera listed to the right are ancestral to, or offshoots of, both Orrorin and Sahelanthropus existed around the time of the split, and so may be ancestral to both Pan and Homo. In the proposal of Mann and Weiss, the tribe Hominini includes Pan as well as Homo and all bipedal apes are referred to the subtribe Hominina, while Pan is assigned to the subtribe Panina.
Wood discusses the different views of this taxonomy, the assumption of late hybridization was in particular based on the similarity of the X chromosome in humans and chimpanzees, suggesting a divergence as late as some 4 million years ago. Sahelanthropus tchadensis is an extinct species that lived seven million years ago. Human Timeline – Smithsonian, National Museum of Natural History
Homo erectus is an extinct species of hominid that lived throughout most of the Pleistocene geological epoch. Its earliest fossil evidence dates to 1.9 million years ago and extends to 70,000 years ago, or, possibly, as recently as 35,000 years ago. It is generally thought that H. erectus originated in Africa and spread from there, migrating throughout Eurasia as far as Georgia, Sri Lanka, China, a new debate appeared in 2013, with the documentation of the Dmanisi skulls.58 million years ago. From there it migrated, in part, by 2, the fossil record shows that its development from about 1.8 mya to one mya was widely distributed, in Africa, the Transcaucasus, and in Vietnam and India. The second hypothesis is that H. erectus evolved in Eurasia and they occupied the Dmanisi site from 1.85 million to 1.77 million years ago, which was about the same time or slightly before their earliest evidence in Africa. There are several proposed explanations of the dispersal of H. erectus georgicus—including whether or not Africa is the source), the Dutch anatomist Eugène Dubois was fascinated by Darwins theory of evolution especially as it applied to humankind.
In 1886, he set out for Asia—which was the region accepted as the cradle of evolution despite Darwins theory of African origin. In 1891, his team discovered a human fossil on the island of Java, the Java fossil from Indonesia aroused much public interest. It was dubbed by the press as Java Man, but few scientists accepted Dubois argument that his fossil was the transitional form—the so-called missing link—between apes. Java Man is now classified as Homo erectus, most of the spectacular discoveries of H. erectus next took place at the Zhoukoudian Project, now known as the Peking Man Site, in Zhoukoudian, China. This site was first discovered by Johan Gunnar Andersson in 1921 and was first excavated in 1921, canadian anatomist Davidson Blacks initial description of a lower molar as belonging to a previously unknown species prompted widely publicized interest. Extensive excavations followed, which altogether uncovered 200 human fossils from more than 40 individuals including five nearly complete skullcaps, german anatomist Franz Weidenreich provided much of the detailed description of this material in several monographs published in the journal Palaeontologica Sinica.
Throughout much of the 20th century, anthropologists debated the role of H. erectus in human evolution, early in the century, due in part to the discoveries at Java and Zhoukoudian, it was widely accepted that modern humans first evolved in Asia. From the 1950s forward, numerous finds in East Africa confirmed the hypothesis of an African genesis and it is now generally accepted that H. erectus descended from either, 1) the earliest hominin genera, or 2) the earliest Homo-species. East Africa provided sympatric coexistence for H. erectus and H, in the 1950s, archaeologists John T. Robinson and Robert Broom named Telanthropus capensis, Robinson had discovered a jaw fragment in 1949 in Swartkrans, South Africa. Later, Simonetta proposed to re-designate it to Homo erectus, in 1961, Yves Coppens discovered a skull of Tchadanthropus uxoris, the earliest fossil human discovered in north Africa. It was reported that the fossil had been so eroded by sand that it mimicked the appearance of an australopith.
Although at first considered to be a specimen of H. habilis, T. uxoris is no longer considered a valid taxon, and has been subsumed into H. erectus
Penghu 1 is a fossil jaw belonging to an extinct hominin species of the genus Homo from Taiwan that is late Pleistocene in age. Penghu 1 is estimated to be between 10,000 and 190,000 years old, the fossil consists of a nearly complete right lower jaw with four teeth, including molars and premolars. In a 2015 paper, Lelo Suvad accepted the validity of the new species H. tsaichangensis, penghu 1 is housed at the National Museum of Natural Science in Taichung. Human timeline Life timeline Human Timeline – Smithsonian, National Museum of Natural History
Art of the Upper Paleolithic
The art of the Upper Paleolithic is amongst the oldest art known. Older possible examples include the incised ochre from Blombos Cave, Cave art in Europe continued to the Mesolithic about 12,000 years ago. As this corresponds to the phase of the last glacial period. As a notable aspect of what some call the Upper Paleolithic Revolution, and evidence for behavioral modernity, Art helps define what makes us human – it is part of what we are or can be. Decoration was made on functional tools, such as spear throwers, perforated batons, common subject matters include the animals that were hunted and predators and other animals that were not, the human form was often expressed – especially female shapes. Men are depicted, such as the Pin Hole man, shells from Mediterranean species have been found at Gönnersdorf, over 1,000 kilometres from the Mediterranean coast. The higher sea levels today mean that the level and nature of settlements in the Upper Paleolithic are unable to be explored. It is possible that they were used in rituals, or alternatively heated on a fire, either type of use may account for the many broken examples, often with the fragments dispersed over some distance.
Many sites have large quantities of flat stones apparently used as flooring, Ice Age art can be naturalistic and figurative, it can be geometric and non-representational. Some of the oldest works of art were found in the Schwäbische Alb, Baden-Württemberg, the Venus figurine known as the Venus of Hohle Fels, dates to some 40,000 years ago. Other fine examples of art from the Upper Palaeolithic includes, cave painting, incised / engraved cave art such as at Creswell Crags, portable art, and open-air art. There are numerous carved or engraved pieces of bone and ivory and these include spear throwers, including one shaped like a mammoth, and many of the type of objects called a bâton de commandement. One of the most famous pieces of art from Britain is the Robin Hood Cave Horse from Derbyshire. Other examples include the Kendricks Cave Decorated Horse Jaw, many of the finest examples were featured in the Ice Age Art, Arrival of the Modern Mind exhibition at the British Museum in 7 February –26 May 2013.
A cave at Turobong in South Korea containing human remains has found to contain carved deer bones. Petroglyphs of deer or reindeer found at Sokchang-ri may date to the Upper Paleolithic, potsherds in a style reminiscent of early Japanese work have been found at Kosan-ri on Jeju island, due to lower sea levels at the time, would have been accessible from Japan. The oldest African petroglyphs are dated to approximately the Mesolithic and late Upper Paleolithic boundary, zimbabwes oldest art finds date to at least 10,000 years. The earliest undisputed African rock art dates back about 10,000 years, apparently originating in the Nile River valley and spread as far west as Mali
National Museum of Natural History
The National Museum of Natural History is a natural history museum administered by the Smithsonian Institution, located on the National Mall in Washington, D. C. Opened in 1910, the museum on the National Mall was one of the first Smithsonian buildings constructed exclusively to hold the national collections and research facilities. The main building has an area of 1,500,000 square feet with 325,000 square feet of exhibition and public space. The museums collections contain over 126 million specimens of plants, fossils, rocks, human remains, the United States National Museum was founded in 1846 as part of the Smithsonian Institution. The museum was housed in the Smithsonian Institution Building, which is better known today as the Smithsonian Castle. A formal exhibit hall opened in 1858, the growing collection led to the construction of a new building, the National Museum Building. Covering a then-enormous 2.25 acres, it was built in just 15 months at a cost of $310,000, congress authorized construction of a new building on June 28,1902.
The regents began considering sites for the new building in March, the D. C. architectural firm of Hornblower & Marshall was chosen to design the structure. Testing of the soil for the foundations was set for July 1903, the Natural History Building opened its doors to the public on March 17,1910, in order to provide the Smithsonian Institution with more space for collections and research. The building was not fully completed until June 1911, the structure cost $3.5 million dollars. The Neoclassical style building was the first structure constructed on the side of the National Mall as part of the 1901 McMillan Commission plan. In addition to the Smithsonians natural history collection, it housed the American history, art. Between 1981 and 2003, the National Museum of Natural History had 11 permanent, there were six directors alone between 1990 and 2002. Turnover was high as the directors were disenchanted by low levels of funding. Robert W. Fri was named the director in 1996. One of the largest donations in Smithsonian history was made during Fris tenure, kenneth E.
Behring donated $20 million in 1997 to modernize the museum. Fri resigned in 2001 after disagreeing with Smithsonian leadership over the reorganization of the scientific research programs. J. Dennis OConnor, Provost of the Smithsonian Institution was named acting director of the museum on July 25,2001, eight months later, OConner resigned to become the vice president of research and dean of the graduate school at the University of Maryland
Cantabria is a historic Spanish community and autonomous community with Santander as its capital city. It is bordered on the east by the Basque Autonomous Community, on the south by Castile and León, on the west by the Principality of Asturias, and on the north by the Cantabrian Sea. The most significant site for cave paintings is that in the cave of Altamira, dating from about 37,000 BC and declared, along with nine other Cantabrian caves, the modern Province of Cantabria was constituted on 28 July 1778 at Bárcena la Puente, Reocín. The Organic Law of the Autonomy Statute of Cantabria was approved on 30 December 1981, numerous authors, including Isidore of Seville, Julio Caro Baroja, Aureliano Fernández Guerra and Adolf Schulten, have explored the etymology of the name Cantabria, yet its origins remain uncertain. It is generally accepted that the root cant- comes from Celtic for rock or stone, Cantabrian could mean people who live in the rocks or highlanders, a reference to the steep and mountainous territory of Cantabria.
Cantabria is a mountainous and coastal region, with important natural resources and it has two distinct areas which are well differentiated morphologically, Coast. Santander Bay is the most prominent indentation in the coastline, to the south, the coastal strip rises to meet the mountains. This is a barrier made up of abruptly rising mountains parallel to the sea. The mountains are made of limestone with karst topography. They form deep valleys running north-south, the torrential rivers are short, fast flowing and of great eroding power, so the slopes are steep. The valleys define different natural regions, delimited physically by the mountain ranges, Liébana, Saja-Nansa, Pas-Pisueña, Miera, Asón-Gándara. To the mountain region belongs the Escudo Range, a range of 600 to 1,000 metres high that covers 15 or 20 km in a parallel line to the coast in the West part of Cantabria. Towards the south are higher mountains, the tops of which form the watershed between the basins of the Rivers Ebro and the rivers that flow into the Bay of Biscay.
The great limestone masses of Picos de Europa stand out in the southwest of the region, most of their summits exceed 2,500 m, and their topography is shaped by the former presence of glaciers. Due to the stream, Cantabria, as well as the rest of Green Spain, has a much more temperate climate than might be expected for its latitude. The region has a oceanic climate, with warm summers. Annual precipitation is around 1,200 mm at the coasts, the mean temperature is about 14 °C. Snow is frequent in higher zones of Cantabria between the months of October and March, some zones of Picos de Europa, over 2,500 metres high, have an alpine climate with snow persisting year round
Paranthropus is a genus of extinct hominins. Also known as robust australopithecines, they were bipedal hominids that probably descended from the gracile australopithecine hominids 2.7 million years ago, Paranthropus skulls lack the transverse cranial crests that are present in modern gorillas. A partial cranium and mandible of Paranthropus robustus was discovered in 1938 by a schoolboy, Gert Terblanche and it was described as a new genus and species by Robert Broom of the Transvaal Museum. The site has been excavated since 1993 by Francis Thackeray of the Transvaal Museum, a date of at least 1.95 million years has been obtained for Kromdraai B. Paranthropus boisei was discovered by Mary Leakey on July 17,1959, Mary was working alone, as Louis Leakey was ill in camp. She rushed back to camp and, at the news, Louis made a remarkable recovery and they refrained from excavating until Des Bartlett had photographed the site. In his notes Louis recorded a first name, Titanohomo mirabilis and Mary began to call it Dear Boy.
Recovery was halted on August 7, Dear Boy was found in context with Oldowan tools and animal bones. The fossil was published in Nature dated August 15,1959, in it Louis placed the fossil in Brooms Australopithecinae family, creating a new genus for it, species boisei. Zinj is an ancient Arabic word for the coast of East Africa and boisei referred to Charles Watson Boise, Louis based his classification on twenty differences from Australopithecus. Broom had died in 1951 but Dart was still living and he is said to have wept for joy on Louis behalf on being personally shown Zinj, which Louis and Mary carried around in a tin. Louis had considered Brooms Paranthropus genus, but rejected it because he believed Zinj was in the Homo ancestral stock and he relied heavily on the larger size of Zinjs canines. At that time palaeoanthropology was in a mood to lump and was preaching against splitting. Dart rescued him with the now famous joke, what would have happened if Mrs. Ples had met Dear Boy one dark night.
The battle of the name raged on for years and drove a wedge between Louis and Sir Wilfrid LeGros Clark, from 1955, who took the Paranthropus view. On the other hand, it brought the Leakeys and Dr. Melville Bell Grosvenor of the National Geographic Society together, the Leakeys became international figures and had no trouble finding funds from on. The Zinj question ultimately became part of the Australopithecus/Paranthropus question, all species of Paranthropus were bipedal, and many lived during a time when species of the genus Homo, were prevalent. Paranthropus first appeared roughly 2.7 million years ago, most species of Paranthropus had a brain about 40 percent of the size of a modern human
Australopithecus afarensis is an extinct hominin that lived between 3.9 and 2.9 million years ago. A. afarensis was slenderly built, like the younger Australopithecus africanus, a. afarensis is thought to be more closely related to the genus Homo, whether as a direct ancestor or a close relative of an unknown ancestor, than any other known primate from the same time. Some researchers include A. afarensis in the genus Praeanthropus, the most famous fossil is the partial skeleton named Lucy found by Donald Johanson and colleagues, who, in celebration of their find, repeatedly played the Beatles song Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds. Australopithecus afarensis fossils have only been discovered within Eastern Africa, despite Laetoli being the type locality for A. Other localities bearing A. afarensis remains include Omo, Maka and Belohdelie in Ethiopia, compared to the modern and extinct great apes, A. afarensis has reduced canines and molars, although they are still relatively larger than in modern humans. A. afarensis has a small brain size and a prognathic face.
Considerable debate surrounds the locomotor behaviour of A. afarensis, some studies suggest that A. afarensis was almost exclusively bipedal, while others propose that the creatures were partly arboreal. The anatomy of the hands and shoulder joints in many ways favour the latter interpretation, in particular, the morphology of the scapula appears to be ape-like and very different from modern humans. The curvature of the finger and toe bones approaches that of modern-day apes, the loss of an abductable great toe and therefore the ability to grasp with the foot suggests A. afarensis was no longer adapted to climbing. A number of traits in the A. afarensis skeleton strongly reflect bipedalism, in overall anatomy, the pelvis is far more human-like than ape-like. The iliac blades are short and wide, the sacrum is wide and positioned directly behind the hip joint, the femur angles in toward the knee from the hip. This trait would have allowed the foot to have closer to the midline of the body. The feet feature adducted big toes, making it difficult if not impossible to grasp branches with the hindlimbs.
The loss of a grasping hindlimb increases the risk of an infant being dropped or falling, without the second set of grasping limbs, the infant cannot maintain as strong a grip, and likely had to be held with help from the mother. The problem of holding the infant would be multiplied if the mother had to climb trees, bones of the foot indicate bipedality. The upright gait would have much more efficient than the bent knee and hip walking. Yet, this can be questioned, as finds of Australopithecus foot bones indicate the Laetoli footprints may not have made by Australopithecus. Many scientists doubt the suggestion of bipedalism, and argue that even if Australopithecus really did walk on two legs, it did not walk in the way as humans
Homo floresiensis is an extinct species in the genus Homo. The remains of an individual that would have stood about 3.5 feet in height were discovered in 2003 at Liang Bua on the island of Flores in Indonesia, partial skeletons of nine individuals have been recovered, including one complete skull, referred to as LB1. These remains have been the subject of research to determine whether they represent a species distinct from modern humans. This hominin had originally considered to be remarkable for its survival until relatively recent times. However, more extensive stratigraphic and chronological work has pushed the dating of the most recent evidence of their back to 50,000 years ago. Fossil teeth and a jaw from hominins assumed to be ancestral to H. floresiensis were discovered in 2014. These remains are from a site on Flores called Mata Menge and they date to about 700,000 years ago and are even smaller than the fossils. The form of the fossils has been interpreted as suggesting that they are derived from a population of H.
erectus that arrived on Flores about a million years ago and rapidly became dwarfed. Some scholars suggest that the historical H. floresiensis may be connected by folk memory to ebu gogo myths prevalent on the isle of Flores, based on previous date estimates, the discoverers proposed that H. floresiensis lived contemporaneously with modern humans on Flores. Doubts that the remains constitute a new species were soon voiced by the Indonesian anthropologist Teuku Jacob, two studies by paleoneurologist Dean Falk and her colleagues rejected this possibility. Falk et al. has been rejected by Martin et al. and Jacob et al. but defended by Morwood and Argue, two orthopedic researches published in 2007 reported evidence to support species status for H. floresiensis. A study of three tokens of carpal bones concluded there were differences from the bones of modern humans. A study of the bones and joints of the arm, shoulder, in 2009, the publication of a cladistic analysis and a study of comparative body measurements provided further support for the hypothesis that H.
floresiensis and Homo sapiens are separate species. Critics of the claim for species status continue to think that individuals are Homo sapiens with pathologies of anatomy. They were not expecting to find a new species, and were surprised at the recovery of a complete skeleton of a hominin they dubbed LB1 because it was unearthed inside the Liang Bua Cave. Subsequent excavations recovered seven additional skeletons, initially dated from 38,000 to 13,000 years ago, an arm bone provisionally assigned to H. floresiensis is about 74,000 years old. The specimens are not fossilized and have described as having the consistency of wet blotting paper, once exposed. Sophisticated stone implements of a size considered appropriate to the 3-foot-tall human are present in the cave