The brown bear is a large bear with the widest distribution of any living ursid. The species is distributed across much of northern Eurasia and North America. It is one of the two largest terrestrial carnivorans alive today, rivaled in size only by its close cousin, the polar bear. There are several recognized subspecies, many of which are quite well-known within their native ranges, the brown bears principal range includes parts of Russia, Central Asia, Canada, the United States and the Carpathian region and Caucasus. The brown bear is recognized as a national and state animal in several European countries, as of 2012, this and the American black bear are the only bear species not classified as threatened by the IUCN. One of the subspecies, the Himalayan brown bear, is critically endangered, occupying only 2% of its former range. The Marsican brown bear, one of several isolated populations of the main Eurasian brown bear race. The brown bear is referred to as the bruin, from Middle English. This name originated in the fable, History of Reynard the Fox, translated by William Caxton, from Middle Dutch bruun or bruyn, in the mid-19th century United States, the brown bear was termed Old Ephraim and sometimes as Moccasin Joe.
The scientific name of the bear, Ursus arctos, comes from the Latin ursus, meaning bear. Brown bears are thought to have evolved from Ursus etruscus in Asia, the brown bear, per Kurten, has been stated as clearly derived from the Asian population of Ursus savini about 800,000 years ago, spread into Europe, to the New World. The oldest fossils positivity identified as from this species occur in China from about 0.5 million years ago, Brown bears entered Europe about 250,000 years ago, and North Africa shortly after. Brown bear remains from the Pleistocene period are common in the British Isles, the species entered Alaska 100,000 years ago, though they did not move south until 13,000 years ago. It is speculated that brown bears were unable to migrate south until the extinction of the much larger Arctodus simus, Brown bear fossils discovered in Ontario, Ohio and Labrador show the species occurred farther east than indicated in historic records. There are many used by scientists to define bear species and subspecies as no one method is always effective.
Brown bear taxonomy and subspecies classification has described as formidable. Genetic testing is now perhaps the most important way to scientifically define brown bear relationships, generally genetic testing uses the word clade rather than species because a genetic test alone cannot define a biological species. Most genetic studies report on how closely related the bears are, there are hundreds of obsolete brown bear subspecies, each with its own name, and this can become confusing, Hall lists 86 different types and even as many as 90 have been proposed
The fallow deer is a ruminant mammal belonging to the family Cervidae. Some taxonomers include the rarer Persian fallow deer as a subspecies, the male fallow deer is known as a buck, the female is a doe, and the young a fawn. Adult bucks are 140–160 cm long, 85–95 cm in height, and typically 60–100 kg in weight, does are 130–150 cm long, 75–85 cm in shoulder height. The largest bucks may measure 190 cm long and weigh 150 kg, Fawns are born in spring around 30 cm and weigh around 4.5 kg. Their lifespan is around 12–16 years, much variation occurs in the coat colour of the species, with four main variants, menil and leucistic – a genuine colour variety, not albinistic. The white is the lightest coloured, almost white and menil are darker, Chestnut coat with white mottles, it is most pronounced in summer with a much darker, unspotted coat in the winter. The light-coloured area around the tail is edged with black, the tail is light with a black stripe. Menil, Spots are more distinct than common in summer and no black is seen around the patch or on the tail.
In winter, spots are still clear on a brown coat. Melanistic, All-year the coat is black shading to greyish brown, no light-coloured tail patch or spots are seen. Leucistic, Fawns are cream-coloured, adults become pure white, especially in winter, dark eyes and nose are seen, with no spots. Most herds consist of the common coat variation, yet animals of the menil coat variation are not rare, the melanistic variation is generally rarer, and white is very much rarer still, although wild New Zealand herds often have a high melanistic percentage. Only bucks have antlers, which are broad and shovel-shaped from three years, in the first two years, the antler is a single spike. They are grazing animals, their habitat is mixed woodland. Agile and fast in case of danger, fallow deer can run at a speed of 30 mph over short distances. Fallow deer can make jumps up to 1.75 m high, the fallow deer is a Eurasian deer that was a native to most of Europe during the last interglacial. The fallow deer was introduced to the Victoria Island in the Province of Neuquén by billionaire Aaron Anchorena and he freed wildlife of European and Asian origin, making them common inhabitants of the island and competing for land and food with the native huemul and pudu deer.
The fallow deer was spread across central Europe by the Romans, until recently, the Normans were thought to have introduced them to Great Britain for hunting in the royal forests
A cave is a hollow place in the ground, specifically a natural underground space large enough for a human to enter. Caves form naturally by the weathering of rock and often extend deep underground, the word cave can refer to much smaller openings such as sea caves, rock shelters, and grottos. A cavern is a type of cave, naturally formed in soluble rock with the ability to grow speleothems. Speleology is the science of exploration and study of all aspects of caves, visiting or exploring caves for recreation may be called caving, potholing, or spelunking. The formation and development of caves is known as speleogenesis, which can occur over the course of millions of years, caves are formed by various geologic processes and can be variable sizes. These may involve a combination of processes, erosion from water, tectonic forces, pressure. Isotopic dating techniques can be applied to cave sediments, in order to determine the timescale when geologic events may have occurred to help form and it is estimated that the maximum depth of a cave cannot be more than 3,000 metres due to the pressure of overlying rocks.
For karst caves the maximum depth is determined on the basis of the limit of karst forming processes. Most caves are formed in limestone by dissolution, solutional caves or karst caves are the most frequently occurring caves and such caves form in rock that is soluble. Most occur in limestone, but they can form in other rocks including chalk, marble, salt. Rock is dissolved by acid in groundwater that seeps through bedding planes, joints. Over geological epochs cracks expand to become caves and cave systems, the largest and most abundant solutional caves are located in limestone. Limestone dissolves under the action of rainwater and groundwater charged with H2CO3, the dissolution process produces a distinctive landform known as karst, characterized by sinkholes and underground drainage. Limestone caves are often adorned with calcium carbonate formations produced through slow precipitation and these include flowstones, stalagmites, soda straws and columns. These secondary mineral deposits in caves are called speleothems, the portions of a solutional cave that are below the water table or the local level of the groundwater will be flooded.
Lechuguilla Cave in New Mexico and nearby Carlsbad Cavern are now believed to be examples of type of solutional cave. They were formed by H2S gas rising from below, where reservoirs of oil give off sulfurous fumes and this gas mixes with ground water and forms H2SO4. The acid dissolves the limestone from below, rather than from above, caves formed at the same time as the surrounding rock are called primary caves
The natterjack toad is a toad native to sandy and heathland areas of Europe. Adults are 60–70 mm in length and are distinguished from common toads by a line down the middle of the back. They have relatively short legs, and this gives them a distinctive gait, natterjacks have a very loud and distinctive mating call amplified by the single vocal sac found under the chin of the male, so their name literally means the chattering toad - the jack that natters. Natterjacks live for up to 15 years and feed mainly on insects, at night they move around open terrain with sparse vegetation, and in loose sand their tracks can often be seen. They move considerable distances each night, enabling the species to new habitats very quickly. The natterjack toad spawns between the end of April and July, laying strings of eggs in shallow, warm pools, because the natterjack toad is often present in low numbers, its loud mating calls are important so that the sexes can find each other. For natterjacks, pools need to have a slight slope with sparse vegetation on the banks.
As such pools are often temporary, sometimes the tadpoles die when the pools dry out, the natterjack compensates for that risk by mating over an extended period each summer. Thus in September the age of the juveniles can vary from a month to three months, early breeders are not often the same individuals as the toads that reproduce in the season, though some females do spawn twice in a year. Populations of the natterjack extend through 17 European countries, in the British Isles the toad is now almost completely confined to coastal sites. The natterjack is the species of toad native to Ireland. It is found on the Dingle peninsula and at Derrynane in County Kerry, in mainland Europe, particularly in the southern part of its range, it lives inland in a variety of habitats. In the UK the threatened status of the resulted in the national Biodiversity Action Plan designating it as one of three protected amphibians. For example, in the north-west there are reserves at Hoylake, Ainsdale Sand Dunes, North Walney, in Scotland, where the species is confined to the Solway Firth, there is a reserve at Caerlaverock.
In Wales the species extinct in the twentieth century, but has been reintroduced as part of the Biodiversity Action Plan. To reverse habitat loss the National Parks and Wildlife Service has created ponds for the species with some funding from the Heritage Council, the natterjack is a primary character in the book The Time Garden by Edward Eager. Beebee T and Denton J Natterjack Toad Conservation Handbook, Herpetological Conservation Trust Natterjack Toad Species Action Plan. The Herpetological Conservation Trust Natterjack Toad Survey Guidelines, Natural England Standing Advice Species Sheet, Natterjack toads
Breccia is a rock composed of broken fragments of minerals or rock cemented together by a fine-grained matrix that can be similar to or different from the composition of the fragments. The word has its origins in the Italian language, in which it means either loose gravel or stone made by cemented gravel. A breccia may have a variety of different origins, as indicated by the named types including sedimentary breccia, tectonic breccia, igneous breccia, impact breccia, and hydrothermal breccia. Sedimentary breccia is a type of sedimentary rock which is made of angular to subangular. A conglomerate, by contrast, is a rock composed of rounded fragments or clasts of pre-existing rocks. Both breccia and conglomerate are composed of fragments averaging greater than 2 millimetres in size, the angular shape of the fragments indicates that the material has not been transported far from its source. Sedimentary breccia consists of angular, poorly sorted, immature fragments of rocks in a finer grained groundmass which are produced by mass wasting and it is lithified colluvium or scree.
Thick sequences of sedimentary breccia are generally formed next to fault scarps in grabens, Breccia may occur along a buried stream channel where it indicates accumulation along a juvenile or rapidly flowing stream. Sedimentary breccia may be formed by debris flows. Turbidites occur as fine-grained peripheral deposits to sedimentary breccia flows, in a karst terrain, a collapse breccia may form due to collapse of rock into a sinkhole or in cave development. Fault breccia results from the action of two fault blocks as they slide past each other. Subsequent cementation of these fragments may occur by means of the introduction of mineral matter in groundwater. Volcanic pyroclastic rocks are formed by explosive eruption of lava and any rocks which are entrained within the eruptive column and this may include rocks plucked off the wall of the magma conduit, or physically picked up by the ensuing pyroclastic surge. Lavas, especially rhyolite and dacite flows, tend to form volcanic rocks by a process known as autobrecciation.
This occurs when the thick, nearly solid lava breaks up into blocks, the resulting breccia is uniform in rock type and chemical composition. Lavas may pick up rock fragments, especially if flowing over unconsolidated rubble on the flanks of a volcano, within the volcanic conduits of explosive volcanoes the volcanic breccia environment merges into the intrusive breccia environment. There the upwelling lava tends to solidify during quiescent intervals only to be shattered by ensuing eruptions, clastic rocks are commonly found in shallow subvolcanic intrusions such as porphyry stocks and kimberlite pipes, where they are transitional with volcanic breccias. Intrusive rocks can become brecciated in appearance by multiple stages of intrusion and this may be seen in many granite intrusions where aplite veins form a late-stage stockwork through earlier phases of the granite mass
Clastic rocks are composed of fragments, or clasts, of pre-existing minerals and rock. A clast is a fragment of geological detritus and smaller grains of rock broken off other rocks by physical weathering. Geologists use the term clastic with reference to sedimentary rocks as well as to particles in sediment transport whether in suspension or as bed load, clastic sedimentary rocks are rocks composed predominantly of broken pieces or clasts of older weathered and eroded rocks. Clastic sediments or sedimentary rocks are classified based on size and cementing material composition. The classification factors are often useful in determining a samples environment of deposition, an example clastic environment would be a river system in which the full range of grains being transported by the moving water consist of pieces eroded from solid rock upstream. Grain size varies from clay in shales and claystones, through silt in siltstones, sand in sandstones, the Krumbein phi scale numerically orders these terms in a logarithmic size scale.
Siliciclastic rocks are clastic rocks that are composed almost exclusively of silicon. The composition of sedimentary rocks includes the chemical and mineralogical components of the framework as well as the cementing material that make up these rocks. Boggs divides them into four categories, major minerals, accessory minerals, rock fragments, major minerals can be categorized into subdivisions based on their resistance to chemical decomposition. Those that possess a great resistance to decomposition are categorized as stable, while those that do not are considered less stable, the most common stable mineral in siliciclastic sedimentary rocks is quartz. Quartz makes up approximately 65 percent of framework grains present in sandstones, less stable minerals present in this type of rocks are feldspars, including both potassium and plagioclase feldspars. Feldspars comprise a considerably lesser portion of framework grains and minerals and they only make up about 15 percent of framework grains in sandstones and 5% of minerals in shales.
Clay mineral groups are present in mudrocks but can be found in other siliciclastic sedimentary rocks at considerably lower levels. Accessory minerals are associated with those whose presence in the rock are not directly important to the classification of the specimen and these generally occur in smaller amounts in comparison to the quartz, and feldspars. Furthermore, those that do occur are generally heavy minerals or coarse grained micas, rock fragments occur in the composition of siliciclastic sedimentary rocks and are responsible for about 10 -15 percent of the composition of sandstone. They generally make up most of the gravel size particles in conglomerates, though they sometimes are, rock fragments are not always sedimentary in origin. They can be metamorphic or igneous, chemical cements vary in abundance but are predominantly found in sandstones. The two major types, are based and carbonate based
The Cretaceous is a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic Period 145 million years ago to the beginning of the Paleogene Period 66 Mya. It is the last period of the Mesozoic Era, the Cretaceous Period is usually abbreviated K, for its German translation Kreide. The Cretaceous was a period with a warm climate, resulting in high eustatic sea levels that created numerous shallow inland seas. These oceans and seas were populated with now-extinct marine reptiles and rudists, during this time, new groups of mammals and birds, as well as flowering plants, appeared. The Cretaceous ended with a mass extinction, the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event, in which many groups, including non-avian dinosaurs, pterosaurs. The end of the Cretaceous is defined by the abrupt Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary, the name Cretaceous was derived from Latin creta, meaning chalk. The Cretaceous is divided into Early and Late Cretaceous epochs, or Lower and Upper Cretaceous series, in older literature the Cretaceous is sometimes divided into three series, Neocomian and Senonian.
A subdivision in eleven stages, all originating from European stratigraphy, is now used worldwide, in many parts of the world, alternative local subdivisions are still in use. As with other geologic periods, the rock beds of the Cretaceous are well identified. No great extinction or burst of diversity separates the Cretaceous from the Jurassic and this layer has been dated at 66.043 Ma. A140 Ma age for the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary instead of the usually accepted 145 Ma was proposed in 2014 based on a study of Vaca Muerta Formation in Neuquén Basin. Víctor Ramos, one of the authors of the study proposing the 140 Ma boundary age sees the study as a first step toward formally changing the age in the International Union of Geological Sciences, due to the high sea level there was extensive space for such sedimentation. Because of the young age and great thickness of the system. Chalk is a type characteristic for the Cretaceous. It consists of coccoliths, microscopically small calcite skeletons of coccolithophores, the group is found in England, northern France, the low countries, northern Germany, Denmark and in the subsurface of the southern part of the North Sea.
Chalk is not easily consolidated and the Chalk Group still consists of sediments in many places. The group has other limestones and arenites, among the fossils it contains are sea urchins, belemnites and sea reptiles such as Mosasaurus. In southern Europe, the Cretaceous is usually a marine system consisting of competent limestone beds or incompetent marls
Travertine is a form of limestone deposited by mineral springs, especially hot springs. Travertine often has a fibrous or concentric appearance and exists in white, cream-colored and it is formed by a process of rapid precipitation of calcium carbonate, often at the mouth of a hot spring or in a limestone cave. In the latter, it can form stalactites, and it is frequently used in Italy and elsewhere as a building material. Travertine is a sedimentary rock, formed by the precipitation of carbonate minerals from solution in ground and surface waters. Similar deposits formed from water are known as tufa. The word travertine is derived from the Italian travertino, itself a derivation of the Latin tiburtinus ‘of Tibur’ and its namesake is the origin of Tivoli, a district near Rome. Modern travertine is formed from geothermally heated supersaturated alkaline waters, with raised pCO2, on emergence, waters degas CO2 due to the lower atmospheric pCO2, resulting in an increase in pH. Since carbonate solubility decreases with increased pH, precipitation is induced, precipitation may be enhanced by factors leading to a reduction in pCO2, for example increased air-water interactions at waterfalls may be important, as may photosynthesis.
Precipitation may be enhanced by evaporation in some springs, both calcite and aragonite are found in hot spring travertines, aragonite is preferentially precipitated when temperatures are hot, while calcite dominates when temperatures are cooler. When pure and fine, travertine is white, but often it is brown to yellow due to impurities, travertine may precipitate out directly onto rock and other inert materials as in Pamukkale or Yellowstone for example. The latter has a historic value, because it was one of the quarries that Gian Lorenzo Bernini selected material from to build the famous Colonnade of St. Peters Square in Rome in 1656-1667. Michaelangelo chose travertine as the material for the ribs of the dome of St Peters Basilica. Travertine derives its name from the town, known as Tibur in ancient Roman times. The ancient name for the stone was lapis tiburtinus, meaning tibur stone, detailed studies of the Tivoli and Guidonia travertine deposits revealed diurnal and annual rhythmic banding and laminae, which have potential use in geochronology.
Cascades of natural lakes formed behind travertine dams can be seen in Pamukkale, Turkey, in Central Europes last post-glacial palaeoclimatic optimum, huge deposits of tufa formed from karst springs. On a smaller scale, these karst processes are still working, travertine has been an important building material since the Middle Ages. Travertine has formed sixteen huge, natural dams in a valley in Croatia known as Plitvice Lakes National Park, clinging to moss and rocks in the water, the travertine has built up over several millennia to form waterfalls up to 70 m in height. In the U. S. the most well-known place for travertine formation is Yellowstone National Park, Oklahoma has two parks dedicated to this natural wonder
Hermanns tortoise is one of five tortoise species traditionally placed in the genus Testudo, the others being the marginated tortoise, Greek tortoise, Russian tortoise, and Kleinmanns tortoise. Two subspecies are known, the western Hermanns tortoise and the eastern Hermanns tortoise, sometimes mentioned as a subspecies, T. h. peleponnesica is not yet confirmed to be genetically different from T. h. boettgeri. The specific epithet, honors French naturalist Johann Hermann, Testudo hermanni can be found throughout southern Europe. The western population is found in eastern Spain, southern France, Hermanns tortoises are small to medium-sized tortoises from southern Europe. Young animals, and some adults, have black and yellow-patterned carapaces, although the brightness may fade with age to a less distinct gray, straw. They have slightly hooked upper jaws and, like other tortoises, possess no teeth, just strong and their scaly limbs are greyish to brown, with some yellow markings, and their tails bear a spur at the tip.
Adult males have long and thick tails, and well-developed spurs. The eastern subspecies T. h. boettgeri is much larger than the western T. h. hermanni, a specimen of this size may weigh 3–4 kg. T. h. hermanni rarely grows larger than 18 cm, some adult specimens are as small as 7 cm. In 2006, Hermanns tortoise was suggested to be moved to the genus Eurotestudo, hence, it seems doubtful that the new genus will be accepted for now. The elevation of the subspecies to species was tentatively rejected under the biological species concept at least. Of note, the rate of evolution as measured by mutations accumulating in the mtDNA differs markedly and this is apparently due to stronger fragmentation of the population on the mountainous Balkans during the last ice age. The subspecies T. h. hermanni includes the former subspecies T. h. robertmertensi and has a number of local forms and it has a highly arched shell with an intensive coloration, with its yellow coloration making a strong contrast to the dark patches.
The colors wash out somewhat in older animals, but the yellow is often maintained. The underside has two connected black bands along the central seam, the coloration of the head ranges from dark green to yellowish, with isolated dark patches. A particular characteristic is the yellow fleck on the found in most specimens, although not in all. Generally, the forelegs have no black pigmentation on their undersides, the base of the claws is often lightly colored. The tail in males is larger than in females and possesses a spike, the shell protecting the tail is divided
The aurochs, ure, is an extinct type of large wild cattle that inhabited Europe and North Africa. It is the ancestor of domestic cattle, the species survived in Europe until the last recorded aurochs died in the Jaktorów Forest, Poland in 1627. Other species of wild bovines were domesticated, namely the water buffalo, gaur. In modern cattle, numerous breeds share characteristics of the aurochs, such as a colour in the bulls with a light eel stripe along the back. The aurochs was variously classified as Bos primigenius, Bos taurus, or, in old sources, the words aurochs and wisent have all been used synonymously in English. However, the extinct aurochs/urus is a separate species from the still-extant wisent. The two were confused, and some 16th-century illustrations of aurochs and wisents have hybrid features. The word urus is a Latin word, but was borrowed into Latin from Germanic, in German, OHG ūr was compounded with ohso ox, giving ūrohso, which became early modern Aurochs. The word aurochs was borrowed from early modern German, replacing archaic urochs, the word is invariable in number in English, though sometimes back-formed singular auroch and innovated plural aurochses occur.
The use in English of the plural form aurochsen is nonstandard and it is directly parallel to the German plural Ochsen and recreates by analogy the same distinction as English ox and oxen. During the Pliocene, the colder climate caused an extension of open grassland, Bos acutifrons is an extinct species of cattle that has been suggested as an ancestor for the aurochs. The oldest aurochs remains have been dated to about 2 million years ago, the Indian subspecies was the first to appear. During the Pleistocene, the species migrated west into the Middle East and they reached Europe about 270,000 years ago. The South Asian domestic cattle, or zebu, descended from Indian aurochs at the edge of the Thar Desert, domestic yak and banteng do not descend from aurochs. The first complete mitochondrial genome DNA sequence analysis of Bos primigenius from an archaeologically verified, three wild subspecies of aurochs are recognized. Only the Eurasian subspecies survived until recent times, the Eurasian aurochs once ranged across the steppes and taigas of Europe and Central Asia, and East Asia.
It is noted as part of the Pleistocene megafauna, and declined in numbers along with other species by the end of Pleistocene. The Eurasian aurochs were domesticated into modern taurine cattle breeds around the sixth millennium BC in the Middle East, Aurochs were still widespread in Europe during the time of the Roman Empire, when they were widely popular as a battle beast in Roman arenas
The Iberian lynx is a wild cat species native to the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe that is listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List. It preys almost exclusively on the European rabbit, by the turn of the 21st century, the Iberian lynx was on the verge of extinction, as only about 100 individuals survived in two isolated subpopulations in Andalusia. As an attempt to save species from extinction, an EU LIFE project is underway that includes habitat preservation, lynx population monitoring. Formerly considered a subspecies of the Eurasian lynx, the Iberian lynx is now classified as a separate species, both species occurred together in Central Europe in the Pleistocene and evolved as distinct species in the Late Pleistocene. The Iberian lynx is thought to have evolved from Lynx issiodorensis, the Iberian lynx has a bright yellowish to tawny colored spotted and short fur, a short body, long legs, a short tail, a small head with tufted ears and facial whiskers, called a ruff. Head and body length of males is 74.7 to 82 cm with a 12.5 to 16 cm long tail, males are larger than females who have a head-to-body-length of 68.2 to 77.5 cm and weigh 9.2 to 10 kg.
The spot pattern of the fur varies from uniformly and densely distributed small spots to more elongate spots arranged in lines that decrease in size from the back towards the sides, the Iberian lynx was once present throughout the Iberian Peninsula and southern France. In the 1950s, the population extended from the Mediterranean to Galicia and parts of northern Portugal. Populations declined from 15 subpopulations in the 1940s to only 2 subpopulations in the early 1990s, most noticeably in Montes de Toledo, before 1973, it was present in Sierra de Gata, Montes de Toledo, eastern Sierra Morena, Sierra de Relumbrar and Doñana coastal plains. Between the early 1960s and 2000, it has lost about 80% of its former range and it is now restricted to very limited areas in southern Spain, with breeding only confirmed in Sierra Morena and Doñana coastal plains. The Iberian lynx prefers heterogeneous environments of open grassland mixed with dense shrubs such as tree and juniper. It is now restricted to mountainous areas.
The Iberian lynx preys foremost on the European rabbit for the bulk of its diet, supplemented by red-legged partridge, rodents and it sometimes preys on young fallow deer, roe deer and ducks. A male requires one rabbit per day while a female raising kittens will eat three per day, there were two major outbreaks of the latter in 2011 and 2012. Recovery has occurred in some areas — in 2013, rabbit overpopulation was reported south of Córdoba, causing damage to transport infrastructure and farms. In December 2013, however, it was reported that officials were concerned about the spread of a new strain of the hemorraghic disease. Sierra Morenas rabbit population was worst affected, falling from an average of three per hectare to less than one — below the required level of 1.5 to two per hectare. Forced to travel distances for food, the lynx became more susceptible to death in road accidents
Karst topography is a landscape formed from the dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone and gypsum. It is characterized by underground drainage systems with sinkholes and caves and it has been documented for more weathering-resistant rocks, such as quartzite, given the right conditions. Subterranean drainage may limit surface water, with few to no rivers or lakes, the English word karst was borrowed from German Karst in the late 19th century. The German word came into use before the 19th century, according to the prevalent interpretation, the term is derived from the German name for the Karst region, a limestone plateau above the city of Trieste in the northern Adriatic. Scholars disagree, however, on whether the German word was borrowed from Slovene, the Slovene common noun kras was first attested in the 18th century, and the adjective form kraški in the 16th century. The Slovene words arose through metathesis from the reconstructed form *korsъ, the word is of Mediterranean origin, believed to derive from some Romanized Illyrian base.
It has been suggested that the word may derive from the Proto-Indo-European root karra- rock, the name may be connected to the oronym Karsádios oros cited by Ptolemy, and perhaps to Latin Carusardius. The development of karst occurs whenever acidic water starts to break down the surface of bedrock near its cracks, as the bedrock continues to degrade, its cracks tend to get bigger. As time goes on, these fractures will become wider, if this underground drainage system does form, it will speed up the development of karst formations there because more water will be able to flow through the region, giving it more erosive power. The carbonic acid that causes karstic features is formed as rain passes through the atmosphere picking up carbon dioxide, once the rain reaches the ground, it may pass through soil that can provide much more CO2 to form a weak carbonic acid solution, which dissolves calcium carbonate. The oxidation of sulfides leading to the formation of acid can be one of the corrosion factors in karst formation.
As oxygen -rich surface waters seep into deep anoxic karst systems, they bring oxygen, sulfuric acid reacts with calcium carbonate, causing increased erosion within the limestone formation. This chain of reactions is, This reaction chain forms gypsum, the karstification of a landscape may result in a variety of large- or small-scale features both on the surface and beneath. On exposed surfaces, small features may include solution flutes, limestone pavement, medium-sized surface features may include sinkholes or cenotes, vertical shafts, disappearing streams, and reappearing springs. Large-scale features may include limestone pavements and karst valleys, mature karst landscapes, where more bedrock has been removed than remains, may result in karst towers, or haystack/eggbox landscapes. Beneath the surface, complex underground systems and extensive caves. Some of the most dramatic of these formations can be seen in Thailands Phangnga Bay, calcium carbonate dissolved into water may precipitate out where the water discharges some of its dissolved carbon dioxide.
Rivers which emerge from springs may produce tufa terraces, consisting of layers of calcite deposited over extended periods of time, in caves, a variety of features collectively called speleothems are formed by deposition of calcium carbonate and other dissolved minerals