A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes. Often it is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state declares or owns, although individual nations designate their own national parks differently, there is a common idea, the conservation of wild nature for posterity and as a symbol of national pride. An international organization, the International Union for Conservation of Nature, although Yellowstone was not officially termed a national park in its establishing law, it was always termed such in practice and is widely held to be the first and oldest national park in the world. The first area to use national park in its legislation was the USs Mackinac Island. Australias Royal National Park, established in 1879, was the third official national park. In 1895 ownership of Mackinac Island was transferred to the State of Michigan as a state park, as a result, Australias Royal National Park is by some considerations the second oldest national park now in existence.
The largest national park in the meeting the IUCN definition is the Northeast Greenland National Park. According to the IUCN,6,555 national parks worldwide met its criteria in 2006, IUCN is still discussing the parameters of defining a national park. National parks are almost always open to visitors, in 1971, these criteria were further expanded upon leading to more clear and defined benchmarks to evaluate a national park. In 1810, the English poet William Wordsworth described the Lake District as a sort of property, in which every man has a right and interest who has an eye to perceive. It was known as Hot Springs Reservation, but no authority was established. Federal control of the area was not clearly established until 1877, John Muir is today referred to as the Father of the National Parks due to his work in Yosemite. He published two articles in The Century Magazine, which formed the base for the subsequent legislation. President Abraham Lincoln signed an Act of Congress on July 1,1864, ceding the Yosemite Valley, according to this bill, private ownership of the land in this area was no longer possible.
The state of California was designated to manage the park for use, resort. Leases were permitted for up to ten years and the proceeds were to be used for conservation, a public discussion followed this first legislation of its kind and there was a heated debate over whether the government had the right to create parks. The perceived mismanagement of Yosemite by the Californian state was the reason why Yellowstone at its establishment six years was put under national control, in 1872, Yellowstone National Park was established as the United States first national park, being the worlds first national park. In some European countries, national protection and nature reserves already existed, such as Drachenfels, Yellowstone was part of a federally governed territory
The Cerrado is a vast tropical savanna ecoregion of Brazil, particularly in the states of Goiás, Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso and Minas Gerais. The Cerrado biome core areas are the plateaus in the center of Brazil, the main habitat types of the Cerrado include, forest savanna, wooded savanna, park savanna and gramineous-woody savanna. Savanna wetlands and gallery forests are included, the second largest of Brazils major habitat types, after the Amazonian rainforest, the Cerrado accounts for a full 21 percent of the countrys land area. Since vast amounts of research have proved that the Cerrado is one of the richest of all tropical regions and has high levels of endemism. There are nearly 200 species of mammal in the Cerrado, though only 14 are endemic, the Cerrados climate is typical of the rather moister savanna regions of the world, with a semi-humid tropical climate. The Cerrado is limited to two dominant seasons throughout the year and dry, annual temperatures for the Cerrado average between 22 and 27 °C and average precipitation between 800–2000 mm for over 90% of the area.
This ecoregion has a strong dry season during the southern winter. The Cerrado is characterized by unique vegetation types and it is composed of a shifting mosaic of habitats, with the savanna-like cerrado itself on well-drained areas between strips of gallery forest which occur along streams. The savanna portion of the Cerrado is heterogeneous in terms of canopy cover, goodland divided the Cerrado into four categories ranging from least to most canopy cover, campo sujo, campo cerrado, cerrado sensu stricto and cerradao. Probably around 800 species of trees are found in the Cerrado, among the most diverse families of trees in the Cerrado are the Leguminosae, Myrtaceae and Rubiaceae. Much of the Cerrado is dominated by the Vochysiaceae due to the abundance of three species in the genus Qualea, the herbaceous layer usually reaches about 60 cm in height and is composed mainly of the Poaceae, Leguminosae, Compositae and Rubiaceae. Much of the vegetation in the forests is similar to nearby rainforest, however.
Soil fertility, fire regime and hydrology are thought to be most influential in determining Cerrado vegetation, Cerrado soils are always well-drained and most are oxisols with low pH and low calcium and magnesium. The amount of potassium and phosphorus has been found to be correlated with tree trunk basal area in Cerrado habitats. Cerrado vegetation is believed to be ancient, stretching back perhaps as far in a prototypic form during the Cretaceous before Africa, a dynamic expansion and contraction between cerrado and Amazonian rainforest has probably occurred historically, with expansion of the Cerrado during glacial periods like the Pleistocene. These processes and the resulting fragmentation have probably contributed to the species richness both of the Cerrado and of the Amazonian rainforest. The insects of the Cerrado are relatively understudied, a yearlong survey of the Cerrado at one reserve in Brazil found that the orders Coleoptera, Hymenoptera and Isoptera accounted for 89. 5% of all captures.
The Cerrado supports high density of leaf cutter ant nests which are very diverse
The ocelot, known as the dwarf leopard, is a wild cat distributed extensively within South America, including the islands of Trinidad and Margarita, Central America, and Mexico. North of Mexico, it is found only in the extreme southern part of Texas. Its fur was once regarded as particularly valuable, as a result, hundreds of thousands of ocelots were killed for their fur. The cat was listed as a Vulnerable from 1972 until 1996 and is now listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List, the ocelot is a member of the genus Leopardus and is classified under the family Felidae. The name ocelot comes from the Nahuatl word ōcēlōtl, which refers to the jaguar rather than the ocelot. Another possible origin for the name is the Latin cellatus, in reference to the spotted coat. Other names for the ocelot include cunaguaro, mathuntori, onsa, tigri-kati, the ocelot is between 55 and 100 centimetres in head-and-body length and weighs 8–16 kilograms. Larger individuals have occasionally been recorded, the thin tail, 26–45 centimetres long, is ringed or striped and is shorter than the hindlimbs.
The round ears are marked with a white spot, in contrast with the black background. The eyes are brown, and gleam golden when exposed to light, ocelots have 28 to 30 teeth, and the dental formula is 3.1. 2–220.127.116.11.1. The subspecies differ mainly in cranial measurements, the fur is short and smooth, the back is basically creamy, yellowish, reddish grey or grey, while the neck and underside are white. The guard hairs are 1 centimetre long, while the fur on the underbelly measures 0.8 centimetres. The coat is marked with a variety of solid black markings – these vary from open or closed bands and stripes on the back and flanks to small spots on the head. A few dark stripes run straight from the back of the neck up to the tip of the tail, a few horizontal streaks can be seen on the insides of the legs. English naturalist Richard Lydekker observed that the ocelot is one of the most difficult members of the family to describe. The spoor measures nearly 2 by 2 centimetres, the similar jaguar is notably larger and heavier, and has rosettes instead of spots and stripes.
The ocelot is active around twilight and at night, and hence difficult to observe, however, it can be seen hunting in daytime as well – especially on cloudy or rainy days. The ocelot is active for 12 to 14 hours every day and it rests mainly during the day and in a variety of places, such as tree branches, depressions at the base of trees or under fallen trees
Armenia, officially the Republic of Armenia, is a sovereign state in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia. The Republic of Armenia constitutes only one-tenth of historical Armenia, Armenia is a unitary, multi-party, democratic nation-state with an ancient cultural heritage. Urartu was established in 860 BC and by the 6th century BC it was replaced by the Satrapy of Armenia, in the 1st century BC the Kingdom of Armenia reached its height under Tigranes the Great. Armenia became the first state in the world to adopt Christianity as its official religion, in between the late 3rd century to early years of the 4th century, the state became the first Christian nation. The official date of adoption of Christianity is 301 AD. The ancient Armenian kingdom was split between the Byzantine and Sasanian Empires around the early 5th century, under the Bagratuni dynasty, the Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia was restored in the 9th century. Declining due to the wars against the Byzantines, the fell in 1045. An Armenian principality and a kingdom Cilician Armenia was located on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea between the 11th and 14th centuries.
By the 19th century, Eastern Armenia had been conquered by the Russian Empire, during World War I, Armenians living in their ancestral lands in the Ottoman Empire were systematically exterminated in the Armenian Genocide. By 1920, the state was incorporated into the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, in 1936, the Transcaucasian state was dissolved, transforming its constituent states, including the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, into full Union republics. The modern Republic of Armenia became independent in 1991 during the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Republic of Armenia recognises the Armenian Apostolic Church, the worlds oldest national church, as the countrys primary religious establishment. The unique Armenian alphabet was invented by Mesrop Mashtots in 405 AD, Armenia is a member of the Eurasian Economic Union, the Council of Europe and the Collective Security Treaty Organization. Armenia supports the de facto independent Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, which was proclaimed in 1991, the native Armenian name for the country is Հայք.
The name in the Middle Ages was extended to Հայաստան, by addition of the Persian suffix -stan, the further origin of the name is uncertain. It is postulated that the name Hay comes from one of the two confederated, Hittite vassal states—the Ḫayaša-Azzi. The exonym Armenia is attested in the Old Persian Behistun Inscription as Armina, the ancient Greek terms Ἀρμενία and Ἀρμένιοι are first mentioned by Hecataeus of Miletus. Xenophon, a Greek general serving in some of the Persian expeditions, describes many aspects of Armenian village life and he relates that the people spoke a language that to his ear sounded like the language of the Persians. According to the histories of both Moses of Chorene and Michael Chamchian, Armenia derives from the name of Aram, a descendant of Hayk
Cave paintings are painted drawings on cave walls or ceilings, mainly of prehistoric origin, to some 40,000 years ago in Eurasia. The exact purpose of the Paleolithic cave paintings is not known, evidence suggests that they were not merely decorations of living areas since the caves in which they have been found do not have signs of ongoing habitation. They are located in areas of caves that are not easily accessible. Some theories hold that cave paintings may have been a way of communicating with others, the paintings are remarkably similar around the world, with animals being common subjects that give the most impressive images. Humans mainly appear as images of hands, mostly hand stencils made by blowing pigment on a hand held to the wall. The earliest known cave paintings/drawings of animals are at least 35,000 years old and are found in Pettakere cave on the island of Sulawesi in Indonesia, previously it was believed that the earliest paintings were in Europe. The earliest non-figurative rock art dates back to approximately 40,000 years ago, nearly 340 caves have now been discovered in France and Spain that contain art from prehistoric times.
But subsequent technology has made it possible to date the paintings by sampling the pigment itself, the choice of subject matter can indicate chronology. For instance, the reindeer depicted in the Spanish cave of Cueva de las Monedas places the drawings in the last Ice Age. The oldest date given to a cave painting is now a pig that has a minimum age of 35,400 years old at Pettakere cave in Sulawesi. Indonesian and Australian scientists have dated other non-figurative paintings on the walls to be approximately 40,000 years old, the method they used to confirm this was dating the age of the stalactites that formed over the top of the paintings. The art is similar in style and method to that of the Indonesian caves as there were hand stencils and this date coincides with the earliest known evidence for Homo sapiens in Europe. Because of the cave arts age, some scientists have conjectured that the paintings may have made by Neanderthals. The earliest known European figurative cave paintings are those of Chauvet Cave in France and these paintings date to earlier than 30,000 BCE according to radiocarbon dating.
Some researchers believe the drawings are too advanced for this era, the radiocarbon dates from these samples show that there were two periods of creation in Chauvet,35,000 years ago and 30,000 years ago. In 2009, cavers discovered drawings in Coliboaia Cave in Romania, an initial dating puts the age of an image in the same range as Chauvet, about 32,000 years old. Some caves probably continued to be painted over a period of thousands of years. This was created roughly between 10,000 and 5,500 years ago, and painted in rock shelters under cliffs or shallow caves, though individual figures are less naturalistic, they are grouped in coherent grouped compositions to a much greater degree
Devetàshka cave is a huge karst cave around 7 km east of Letnitsa and 15 km northeast of Lovech, near the village of Devetaki on the east bank of the river Osam, in Bulgaria. The site has continuously occupied by Paleo humans for tens of thousands of years. Devetashka cave is located approximately 2 km from the village of Devetaki, a narrow path by the river lead from the village to the cave. It can be accessed directly via Road 301 along a 400 m long dirt road, the site is 35 m wide and 30 m high at the entrance. The cave widens after around 40 m, forming a hall with an area of 2,400 m2. Earliest traces of human presence back to the Middle Paleolithic around 70,000 years ago. The site contained one of the richest sources of Neolithic cultural artifacts, besides significant archaeological findings, Devetashka cave is provides a habitat for a wide diversity of faunal residents. During the breeding season of mammalian species in the cave from early June to the end of July, thirty-four species of mammals, four of which are included in the Red List and fifteen species of bats are to be found at the Devetashka cave.
Devetashka cave was shown in the action movie The Expendables 2, the Supreme Administrative Court of Bulgaria declared that several activities during filming violated Bulgarias environmental regulations. A contractor hired by The Expendables crew was subsequently fined for trimming the shrubbery in front of the site, after a fatal accident during the filming of a stunt, the production team again clashed with the authorities over damages to the cave. Loud noises, bright lights, crowds of people and fires in close proximity to the cave might have caused the displacement of large numbers of bats from the cave, however, by late 2012, the majority of the bats had returned to the cave. Media related to Devetashka cave at Wikimedia Commons Devetashka Cave
Minas Gerais is a state in the north of Southeastern Brazil. It ranks as the second most populous, the third by gross domestic product, Minas Gerais is the state with the largest number of Brazilian presidents. With an area of 586,528 square kilometres —larger than Metropolitan France—it is the fourth most extensive state in Brazil. In the south, the tourist points are the mineral spas, such as Caxambu, Lambari, São Lourenço, Poços de Caldas, São Thomé das Letras, Monte Verde. The landscape of the State is marked by mountains, valleys, in the Serra do Cipó, Sete Lagoas and Lagoa Santa, the caves and waterfalls are the attractions. Some of Brazils most famous caverns are located there, in recent years, the state has emerged as one of the largest economic forces of Brazil, exploring its great economic potential. Two interpretations are given for the origin of the name Minas Gerais and it comes from Minas dos Matos Gerais, the former name of the colonial province. Another explanation is that this ignores the two large geographical spaces which conformed the state in its history, the region of the mines, and these corresponded to the areas of Sertão which were farther and hard to access from the mining spots.
The confusion comes from the fact that the term Gerais is taken as an adjective to Minas in the first version, Minas Gerais is in the north of the southeastern subdivision of Brasil, which contains the states of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo. It borders on Bahia, Goiás, Mato Grosso do Sul, the states of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro and it shares a short boundary with the Distrito Federal. Minas Gerais is situated between 14°1358 and 22°5400 S latitude and between 39°5132 and 51°0235 W longitude and it is larger in area than Metropolitan France or Spain. Minas Gerais features some of the longest rivers in Brazil, most notably the São Francisco, the Paraná and to a lesser extent, the state holds many hydroelectric power plants, including Furnas. The most notable one is the Pico da Bandeira, the third highest mountain in Brazil at 2890 m, the state has huge reserves of iron and sizeable reserves of gold and gemstones, including emerald and aquamarine mines. Emeralds found in location are comparable to the best Colombia-origin emeralds.
Each region of the state has a character, geographically. The central and eastern area of the state is hilly and rocky, around Lagoa Santa and Sete Lagoas a typical Karst topography with caves and lakes is found. Some of the mountains are almost entirely iron ore, which led to extensive mining, recent advances in environmental policy helped to put limits to mining. Vale do Aços largest cities are Ipatinga, Coronel Fabriciano and Timóteo, now that mining is restricted large areas of forest are being removed for timber, charcoal and to clear land for cattle ranching
National park (Brazil)
National Parks are a legally-defined type of protected area of Brazil. The first parks were created in the 1930s, and other parks were gradually added, at least two early parks were submerged by hydroelectric reservoirs. The first park in the Amazon rainforest was inaugurated in 1974, today the national parks cover a huge area, particularly in the Amazon. National parks are the oldest type of protected area in Brazil, at the federal level the parks are managed by the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation. State parks fall under the regulations as national parks. Both types are now defined by law 9.985 of July 2000 and they are classed as IUCN protected area category II. The parks are owned, and any privately owned land within their boundary must be expropriated. Existing landowners and communities with land use rights have to be relocated, with strictly limited budgets, poor land records and inefficient bureaucracy it can take many years to complete this process. Conditions for public visits are defined in the management plan.
Officially a park may not be visited by the public unless it has a management plan, scientific research requires prior authorization from the responsible agency and is subject to conditions and restrictions. The concept of park was first defined in the 1934 forest code. The system of national parks started in 1937 with the creation of Itatiaia National Park, another two national parks were created in 1939, after a period of 20 years, the program of park creation was restarted in the late 1950s. The Ubajara National Park was created in 1959, protecting a limestone cave in the caatinga biome of the north east. The Paulo Afonso and Sete Quedas national parks were created in 1948 and 1961 respectively to let visitors see exceptional waterfalls, although all countries define national parks as permanent, Brazil violated this principal and submerged the features under the dams of hydroelectric power plants. The forest code was revised in 1965 to cover all types of native vegetation, under the 1934 and 1965 codes the parks and other conservation units have been created by executive decree.
As a result, Congress has tended not to give support to the parks. Many of the parks have their origins in federal or state forestry reserves used for a variety of research or conservation purposes, the effect of this random development was that by the late 1970s many of the parks were near coastal population centres. The Amazônia National Park was created in 1974 on the Tapajós River and it was designed to be accessible via the trans-Amazonian highway, which ran through the park