Fighting Fantasy is a series of single-player role-playing gamebooks created by Steve Jackson and Ian Livingstone. The first volume in the series was published in paperback by Puffin in 1982; the series distinguished itself by mixing Choose Your Own Adventure-style storytelling with a dice-based role-playing element included within the books themselves. The caption on many of the covers claimed each title was an adventure "in which YOU are the hero!" The majority of the titles followed a fantasy theme, although science fiction, post-apocalyptic and modern horror gamebooks were published. The popularity of the series led to the creation of merchandise such as action figures, board games, role-playing game systems, magazines and video games. Puffin ended the series in 1995, but the rights to the series were purchased by Wizard Books in 2002. Wizard published new editions of the original books and commissioned six new books over two series, ending in 2012; the rights were acquired by Scholastic in 2017, which has since published two new titles and reissued ten of the original books with new artwork.
The main text of each gamebook does not progress in a linear fashion, but rather is divided into a series of numbered sections. Beginning at the first section, the reader must pick one of a series of options provided by the text, each option being detailed at a separate non-sequential numbered section which in turn provides an outcome for the option chosen; the book continues in this fashion until their character is killed in combat, is stopped by the story, or completes the story. “Fighting Fantasy gamebooks empower the reader, who felt the anxiety or joy of being fantasy heroes themselves – they lived or died by their decisions. And if at first you don’t succeed and try again,” said Ian Livingstone of the format; the typical Fighting Fantasy gamebook tasks players with completing a quest. A successful play ends with the player reaching the final numbered section of the book. In some cases this can only be achieved by obtaining various story items. All Fighting Fantasy gamebooks are illustrated, including full-page pieces and smaller, repeated images scattered throughout the book as breaks or space fillers between sections.
Regular contributors included Les Edwards, Terry Oakes, Russ Nicholson, Leo Hartas, Ian Miller, John Blanche, Martin McKenna, Iain McCaig. Each Fighting Fantasy gamebook requires the reader to create their character, randomly assigning scores to three statistics. These, in conjunction with rolling six-sided dice, are used to resolve skill challenges and the combat sections; some titles use conflict resolution mechanics. Most early Fighting Fantasy titles were set in locations revealed to be on the same continent called Allansia. On a whole world named Titan was developed with subsequent gamebooks set on three main continents - Allansia and the Old World. Other titles are set in unrelated fantasy, modern day, sci-fi environments. In 1980, Steve Jackson and Ian Livingstone attended a Games Day, after meeting with a Penguin Books editor Geraldine Cook decided to create a series of single-player gamebooks, their first submission, The Magic Quest, was a short adventure intended to demonstrate the style of game.
The Magic Quest was accepted by Penguin, although the authors devoted a further six months to expanding and improving upon their original concept. The end result was The Warlock of Firetop Mountain and, after several rewrites, the book was accepted and published in 1982 under Penguin's children's imprint, Puffin Books. Following the success of this title and Livingstone began writing individually to create additional Fighting Fantasy gamebooks. In 1983, The Citadel of Chaos and The Forest of Doom were published, by Jackson and Livingstone respectively. Four more titles followed: Starship Traveller, City of Thieves, Deathtrap Dungeon and Island of the Lizard King. In 1984, a decision was made to hire more writers to continue the series: Steve Jackson was the first, followed by others such as Andrew Chapman, Carl Sargent, Marc Gascoigne, Peter Darvill-Evans. Jackson and Livingstone, continued to be involved and approved all cover and internal illustrations within the UK. Jackson wrote a self-contained four-part series titled Steve Jackson's Sorcery!, which combined the use of combat and sorcery, introduced the continent known as the Old World.
These featured dice images at the bottom of each page, making it possible for the player to randomly flip through the pages for the equivalent of a dice roll. Andrew Chapman and Martin Allen wrote a two-book, two-player adventure titled Clash of the Princes. There were several supplemental books produced that provided more information about the Fighting Fantasy universe, including a comprehensive bestiary of monsters and a sample adventure. Although the Fighting Fantasy titles had successful sales the increasing dominance of video games in the 1990s caused a gradual decline; the series was scheduled to conclude with Return to Firetop Mountain, but due to strong sale
Ian Livingstone CBE (born 29 December 1949 is an English fantasy author and entrepreneur. Along with Steve Jackson, he is the co-founder of a series of role-playing gamebooks, Fighting Fantasy, the author of many books within that series, he is one of the co-founders of prominent games company Games Workshop. Livingstone attended Altrincham Grammar School for Boys, according to him, he only earned one A-level in Geography, he has kept his close links with the school and has visited it on numerous occasions, including to donate money for a refurbishment of the ICT suite, to present awards to GCSE recipients in 1998. Livingstone co-founded Games Workshop in early 1975 with flatmates John Steve Jackson, they started publishing a monthly newsletter and Weasel, sent copies of the first issue to subscribers of the defunct fanzine Albion. Livingstone and Jackson felt that this game was more imaginative than anything being produced in the UK at the time, so worked out an arrangement with Blume for an exclusive deal to sell D&D in Europe.
They began distributing Dungeons & Dragons and other TSR products in 1975. In late 1975, Livingstone and Jackson organised the first Games Day; because they were selling products out of their flat, people would come looking for a store that did not exist. Under the direction of Livingstone and Jackson, Games Workshop expanded from a bedroom mail order company to a successful gaming manufacturer and retail chain, with the first Games Workshop store opening in Hammersmith in 1977. In June of that year to advertise the opening and Jackson launched the gaming magazine White Dwarf, with Livingstone as the editor. Livingstone picked the title, which had meaning for both fantasy and science fiction readers: a white dwarf could be a stellar phenomenon or a fantasy character. Livingstone stepped down as editor of the magazine after White Dwarf #74. In 1980, Livingstone and Jackson began to develop the concept of the Fighting Fantasy gamebook series, the first volume of, published in 1982 by Puffin Books.
Livingstone and Jackson sold Games Workshop in 1991 for £10 million. The pair, together with Bryan Ansell, founded Citadel Miniatures in Newark to make miniatures for games. Livingstone has invented several board games, including Boom Town, Judge Dredd, Legend of Zagor, Dragonmasters. In 1982, Jackson and Livingstone co-wrote The Warlock of Firetop Mountain, the first book in the Fighting Fantasy series, but following an instruction from publishers Penguin to write more books "as as possible" the pair wrote subsequent books separately; the series had sold over 18 million copies as of 2017, with Livingstone's Deathtrap Dungeon selling over 350,000 copies in its first year alone. Livingstone wrote another twelve Fighting Fantasy gamebooks, including The Forest of Doom, City of Thieves and Caverns of the Snow Witch before marking the 30th anniversary of The Warlock of Firetop Mountain with a new gamebook, Blood of the Zombies, in 2012, with The Port of Peril in 2017 for the 35th anniversary. In the mid-1980s Livingstone did design work for video game publisher Domark.
Livingstone recounted, "After the success of Games Workshop, I retired, got bored, invested in Domark to fund their cartridge development. I got in at just the wrong time - it was all going flat." In 1995, Domark was acquired by the video technology company Eidos Interactive, floated on the London Stock Exchange in 1990, formed the major part of the newly created Eidos Interactive. In 2005 Eidos was taken over by SCi and Livingstone was the only former board member to be retained, taking on the role of product acquisition director. Livingstone secured many of the company's major franchises, including Hitman, he contributed to the Tomb Raider project Tomb Raider: Anniversary, released in 2007. In 2009, Japanese video-game company Square Enix completed a buyout of Eidos Interactive and Livingstone was promoted to Life President of Eidos, a position he resigned from in 2013. In 2014 Livingstone appeared in the documentary feature film From Bedrooms to Billions a film that tells the story of the British Video Games Industry from 1979 to present.
In 2010 Livingstone was asked to act as the Skills Champion by government minister Ed Vaizey, tasked with producing a report reviewing the UK video games industry. The'NextGen' report, co-authored with Alex Hope of visual effects firm Double Negative, was released in 2011. In 2002, Livingstone won the BAFTA Interactive Special Award for outstanding contribution to the industry. Livingstone was appointed Officer of the Order of the British Empire in the 2006 New Year Honours, Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the 2013 New Year Honours both for services to the computer gaming industry. In 2011, Livingstone received an Honorary Doctorate of Arts from Bournemouth University; the Warlock of Firetop Mountain with Steve Jackson, Puffin Books The Forest of Doom City of Thieves Deathtrap Dungeon Island of the Lizard King Caverns of the Snow Witch Freeway Fighter Temple of Terror Trial of Champions Crypt of the Sorceror Armies of Death Return to Firetop Mountain Eye of the Dragon Blood of the Zombies The Port of Pe
RPGnet is a role-playing game website. It includes sections on wargames, tabletop games and video games, as well as columns on gaming topics. RPGnet was founded in 1996 by Emma and Sandy Antunes, Shawn Althouse and Brian David Phillips, as a way to unify a number of transient game sites. In 2001 it maintains creative and editorial autonomy, it is being run by Shannon Appelcline of Skotos, while a number of volunteer moderators and administrators help maintain the forums. Based on Matt's WWWBoard script, the 1997 RPGnet forums were formatted in earlier message boards threaded style, being dedicated to game design and industry news. With the change to vBulletin on 2002, new sections catering to the growing player and enthusiast user bases were added; the boards used vBulletin for the next sixteen years, until November, 2018, when they were migrated to the XenForo 2 software package. Over time, the RPGnet forums have grown to encompass a broad range of subjects related to gaming and modern media.
Tabletop Roleplaying Open, the general game discussion forum, has the most posts per day. There are video games, play-by-post and board games forums, a section dedicated to game design and brainstorming in general, while the Other Media covers television, comic books and books; the site hosts small forums for photography and other specific interests. Like most large forums, RPGnet has developed numerous in-jokes and recurring flame wars. Many game writers and designers post. Moderation was at one time loose, but now follows a strict set of guidelines, referenced by other platforms and forums when drawing their own policies. A wide range of tastes are present on the forums. Smaller niche and indie role-playing games are well represented and the latest releases generate a great deal of discussion. Threads on Dungeons & Dragons, World of Darkness, GURPS and other popular systems are common. Exalted is known for generating a large number of discussion threads. Other websites will excerpt or reference forum posts that have lasting value, such as ZenDesign excerpting WoW-erizing movie quotes and From the Shop Floor borrowing from the Demotivators thread.
Reviews have been an important part of RPGnet since its inception. Today, RPGnet has an active archive of 13,000 reviews. Most reviews are of roleplaying supplements. In the last few years, users have contributed numerous reviews of card games. RPGnet publishes reviews of movies, music albums and comics, though less frequently; the review system was overhauled in early 2003 and since reviews have appeared with numerous cross-references in an effort to improve navigation of the large review archive. Reviews appear on Mondays and Fridays. RPG reviews are published on Mondays and Fridays, while reviews of other products are published on Wednesdays. RPGnet has 20 regular columns. Columns are posted on a four-week, Monday-Friday schedule, with any "extra weeks" in the schedule filled in with additional columns, as they become available. Most columns cover gamemasters offering advice on running roleplaying games to other gamemasters, but there is some variety; this site has become noted as a source for player theory on role-playing games, these are written by authors with an academic background.
Notable columns have included: 52 Pickup. Noteworthy columnists have included game industry veterans such as Ross Winn, Chad Underkoffler and Matt Drake. Sandy Antunes' monthly column has run without interruption since inception; the forums include threads describing actual play of role-playing games in concrete terms. These threads include descriptions of how players have overcome specific challenges, they allow observers to view how a role-playing game is performed without having to participate; the columns software was upgraded in 2006, it now includes full RSS feeds as well as a variety of database-oriented lookups and full integration into the RPGnet forums. Prior to 2008, Columns Editing was handled by C. W. Richeson, Shannon Appelcline, Michael Fiegel and Sandy Antunes; as of January 2008, it is handled by Shannon Appelcline. RPGnet columns have been referenced on Slashdot, as well as on many blogs and gaming sites; the RPGnet wiki was added in early 2005. Conceived as a place for people jointly design roleplaying supplements and game systems, it has been used assemble an encyclopedia of roleplaying terms and resources, compile information about ongoing campaigns taking place on the forums.
The RPGnet Wiki is built on the same software used by Wikipedia. 2005 saw a facelift of the News & Press section of RPGnet. RPGnet now aggregates RSS feeds, with over two dozen feeds in six different gaming categories available. In 2006, RPGnet added a catalog of role-playing games known as the Gaming Index; this system is intended to hold every English RPG product, is searchable through a variety of means, notable hyperlinks to other products by the publisher, authors or game line and links to RPGnet's reviews of the product. Users can add pr
Scorpion Swamp is a single-player adventuring gamebook written by Steve Jackson, illustrated by Duncan Smith and published in 1984 by Puffin Books. It forms part of Steve Ian Livingstone's Fighting Fantasy series, it is the 8th in the series in the original Puffin series. It was the first Fighting Fantasy book to be written by an author other than the co-creators of the series. Scorpion Swamp is a fantasy scenario. Having acquired a magical Brass Ring from a mysterious old woman, the player enters the notorious Scorpion Swamp. Gameplay differed from previous titles in several ways: The story allows the player to choose one of three quests: the patrons of said quests being either good, evil or neutral respectively. Gameplay has a non-linear design, allowing "free roaming": the player may explore the swamp at will and return to locations visited; the game design employed a grid system of locations to explore. Whereas in previous titles choosing an option to follow a point of the compass was nebulous and backtracking impossible, in this title each location was equidistant from all others and options only led in the four primary compass directions.
On entering a location, the player was asked if they had visited and instructed accordingly. This format was a new innovation for Fighting Fantasy; the 400th reference does not contain an ending to the adventure. "Fighting Fantasy Gamebooks on gamebooks.org". "Scorpion Swamp on the Internet Archive record of the old fightingfantasy.com site". Archived from the original on November 27, 2005
Android (operating system)
Android is a mobile operating system developed by Google. It is based on a modified version of the Linux kernel and other open source software, is designed for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. In addition, Google has further developed Android TV for televisions, Android Auto for cars, Wear OS for wrist watches, each with a specialized user interface. Variants of Android are used on game consoles, digital cameras, PCs and other electronics. Developed by Android Inc. which Google bought in 2005, Android was unveiled in 2007, with the first commercial Android device launched in September 2008. The operating system has since gone through multiple major releases, with the current version being 9 "Pie", released in August 2018. Google released the first Android Q beta on all Pixel phones on March 13, 2019; the core Android source code is known as Android Open Source Project, is licensed under the Apache License. Android is associated with a suite of proprietary software developed by Google, called Google Mobile Services that frequently comes pre-installed in devices, which includes the Google Chrome web browser and Google Search and always includes core apps for services such as Gmail, as well as the application store and digital distribution platform Google Play, associated development platform.
These apps are licensed by manufacturers of Android devices certified under standards imposed by Google, but AOSP has been used as the basis of competing Android ecosystems, such as Amazon.com's Fire OS, which use their own equivalents to GMS. Android has been the best-selling OS worldwide on smartphones since 2011 and on tablets since 2013; as of May 2017, it has over two billion monthly active users, the largest installed base of any operating system, as of December 2018, the Google Play store features over 2.6 million apps. The name Andrew and the noun Android share the Greek root andros. Andy Rubin picked android.com as his personal website, his colleagues used Android as his nickname at work. That became the name of the company he founded, the name of the operating system they developed. Android Inc. was founded in Palo Alto, California, in October 2003 by Andy Rubin, Rich Miner, Nick Sears, Chris White. Rubin described the Android project as "tremendous potential in developing smarter mobile devices that are more aware of its owner's location and preferences".
The early intentions of the company were to develop an advanced operating system for digital cameras, this was the basis of its pitch to investors in April 2004. The company decided that the market for cameras was not large enough for its goals, by five months it had diverted its efforts and was pitching Android as a handset operating system that would rival Symbian and Microsoft Windows Mobile. Rubin had difficulty attracting investors early on, Android was facing eviction from its office space. Steve Perlman, a close friend of Rubin, brought him $10,000 in cash in an envelope, shortly thereafter wired an undisclosed amount as seed funding. Perlman refused a stake in the company, has stated "I did it because I believed in the thing, I wanted to help Andy."In July 2005, Google acquired Android Inc. for at least $50 million. Its key employees, including Rubin and White, joined Google as part of the acquisition. Not much was known about the secretive Android at the time, with the company having provided few details other than that it was making software for mobile phones.
At Google, the team led by Rubin developed a mobile device platform powered by the Linux kernel. Google marketed the platform to handset makers and carriers on the promise of providing a flexible, upgradeable system. Google had "lined up a series of hardware components and software partners and signaled to carriers that it was open to various degrees of cooperation". Speculation about Google's intention to enter the mobile communications market continued to build through December 2006. An early prototype had a close resemblance to a BlackBerry phone, with no touchscreen and a physical QWERTY keyboard, but the arrival of 2007's Apple iPhone meant that Android "had to go back to the drawing board". Google changed its Android specification documents to state that "Touchscreens will be supported", although "the Product was designed with the presence of discrete physical buttons as an assumption, therefore a touchscreen cannot replace physical buttons". By 2008, both Nokia and BlackBerry announced touch-based smartphones to rival the iPhone 3G, Android's focus switched to just touchscreens.
The first commercially available smartphone running Android was the HTC Dream known as T-Mobile G1, announced on September 23, 2008. On November 5, 2007, the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of technology companies including Google, device manufacturers such as HTC, Motorola and Samsung, wireless carriers such as Sprint and T-Mobile, chipset makers such as Qualcomm and Texas Instruments, unveiled itself, with a goal to develop "the first open and comprehensive platform for mobile devices". Within a year, the Open Handset Alliance faced two other open source competitors, the Symbian Foundation and the LiMo Foundation, the latter developing a Linux-based mobile operating system like Google. In September 2007, InformationWeek covered an Evalueserve study reporting that Google had filed several patent applications in the area of mobile telephony. Since 2008, Android has seen numerous updates which have incrementally improved the operating system, adding new features and fixing bugs in previous releases.
Each major release is named in alphabetical order after a dessert or sugary treat, with the first few Android versions being called "Cupcake", "Donut"
Curse of the Mummy
Curse of the Mummy is a single-player roleplaying gamebook, written by Jonathan Green, illustrated by Martin McKenna and published in 1995 by Puffin Books. It was republished by Wizard Books in 2007, it forms part of Steve Ian Livingstone's Fighting Fantasy series. It is the 59th in 27th in the modern Wizard series; the adventure was edited for the Wizard edition. The player must defeat an evil ruler from a former age, before he is resurrected. If the player fails, he will enslave all of Allansia; the player must search for Akharis' tomb in the Desert of Skulls in a race against time. The Wizard editions of Curse of the Mummy and Spellbreaker have been revised in order to make them more playable. Several enemies have lower SKILL scores in the Wizard version of this book, however this has resulted in several errors in the text as other numbers that should have been changed as a result of the edits have remained the same; the description of a certain item has been changed. The Wizard edition of Curse of the Mummy is the second to keep the cover from the original Puffin version.
Changes to Curse of the Mummy "Fighting Fantasy Gamebooks on gamebooks.org". "Curse of the Mummy on gamebooks.org". "Curse of the Mummy on the Internet Archive record of the old fightingfantasy.com site". Archived from the original on November 27, 2005. Official sites: "Curse of the Mummy on the official Fighting Fantasy website". Archived from the original on 2007-10-17. "Curse of the Mummy on the Wizard Books website". Archived from the original on 2007-09-27
The Forest of Doom
The Forest of Doom is a single-player adventure gamebook written by Ian Livingstone, illustrated by Malcolm Barter. Published by Puffin Books in 1983, the title is the third gamebook in the Fighting Fantasy series, the first of several to feature the character Yaztromo, it was republished by Wizard Books in 2002. The gamebook was adapted into a video game; the Forest of Doom is a fantasy scenario in which the hero undertakes a quest through a perilous forest to find the missing pieces of a magic warhammer that can help the dwarves in their war with the trolls. Marcus L. Rowland reviewed The Forest of Doom for the June 1983 issue of White Dwarf, rating the title a 10 out of a possible 10. Rowland suggested that only "eally stupid players" would try to loot the home of the mage, because they "will not like the consequences", noted the lethality of the forest area with "some encounters being survivable only by luck or remarkably good combat rolls, while others can be settled without any conflict".
A ZX Spectrum and Commodore 64 video game based on the book was released by Puffin Books in 1984. The gamebook was converted into a 40-page d20 System role-playing adventure by Jamie Wallis, it was published by Myriador in 2004 and reissued in pdf format by Greywood Publishing in 2008. This gamebook has been released by Tin Man Games. In 2018, the audio company FoxYason Music Productions, known for their work with Big Finish Productions announced that they would be releasing an original, full-cast audio drama based on The Forest of Doom in a CD boxset with The Citadel of Chaos, Deathtrap Dungeon, Creature of Havoc for summer 2018, it will be written by David N. Smith, directed by Richard Fox and will feature Rachel Atkins returning to the role of Vale Moonwing from FoxYason Music's first release based on The Warlock of Firetop Mountain, sub-titled The Hero's Quest. Fighting Fantasy Gamebooks - the official website Wizard Books - the Publisher's site