The Mesozoic Era is an interval of geological time from about 252 to 66 million years ago. This Era is called from a paleobotanist view the Age of Conifers, Mesozoic means middle life, deriving from the Greek prefix meso-/μεσο- for between and zōon/ζῷον meaning animal or living being. It is one of three eras of the Phanerozoic Eon, preceded by the Paleozoic and succeeded by the Cenozoic. The era is subdivided into three periods, the Triassic and Cretaceous, which are further subdivided into a number of epochs. The Mesozoic was a time of significant tectonic and evolutionary activity, the era witnessed the gradual rifting of the supercontinent Pangaea into separate landmasses that would eventually move into their current positions. The climate of the Mesozoic was varied, alternating between warming and cooling periods, however, the Earth was hotter than it is today. Birds first appeared in the Jurassic, having evolved from a branch of theropod dinosaurs, the first mammals appeared during the Mesozoic, but would remain small—less than 15 kg —until the Cenozoic.
Following the Paleozoic, the Mesozoic extended roughly 186 million years and this time frame is separated into three geologic periods. It is known as the Great Dying because it is considered the largest mass extinction in the Earths history, the upper boundary of the Mesozoic is set at the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event, which may have been caused by the impactor that created Chicxulub Crater on the Yucatán Peninsula. Towards the Late Cretaceous large volcanic eruptions are believed to have contributed to the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event. Approximately 50% of all genera became extinct, including all of the non-avian dinosaurs, the Triassic ranges roughly from 252 million to 201 million years ago. The Triassic is a time in Earths history bracketed between the Permian Extinction and the Triassic–Jurassic extinction event, two of the big five, and precedes the Jurassic Period and it has three major epochs, the Early Triassic, the Middle Triassic and the Late Triassic. The Early Triassic was between about 252 million to 247 million years ago and was dominated by deserts as Pangaea had not yet broken up, thus the interior was nothing, the Earth had just witnessed a massive die-off in which 95% of all life became extinct.
The most common life on earth were Lystrosaurus, labyrinthodonts. Temnospondyls evolved during this time and would be the dominant predator for much of the Triassic, the Middle Triassic spans roughly from 247 million to 237 million years ago. The Middle Triassic featured the beginnings of the breakup of Pangaea, the ecosystem had recovered from the devastation that was the Great Dying. Algae, sponge and crustaceans all had recovered, new aquatic reptiles evolved, such as ichthyosaurs and nothosaurs. Meanwhile, on land, pine forests flourished, as did groups of insects like mosquitoes, the first ancient crocodilians evolved, which sparked competition with the large amphibians that had since ruled the freshwater world
The Gravettian was an archaeological industry of the European Upper Paleolithic that succeeded the Aurignacian c.31,000 BC. It is archaeologically the last unified European culture, and lasted until c.22,000 BC, at this point it developed into the Epigravettian in Italy, the Balkans, and Russia, and was replaced abruptly by the Solutrean in France and Spain. The origins of the Gravettian people are not clear, they seem to appear all over Europe. Like their Aurignacian predecessors, they are well-known for their Venus figurines, the culture was first identified at the site of La Gravette in Southwestern France. One typical artefact of the industry, once considered diagnostic, is a pointed blade with a straight blunt back. These were used to hunt big game including bison, reindeer, Gravettians used nets to hunt small game. Archaeologists usually describe two regional variants, the western Gravettian, known namely from cave sites in France and Britain, and the eastern Gravettian in Central Europe and Russia.
The eastern Gravettians — they include the Pavlovian culture — were specialized mammoth hunters, whose remains are found not in caves. The Aurignacian and Gravettian cultures are featured in Earths children, a series of set in prehistory. In this piece of fiction, the Venus figurines play an important role at the center of a fertility rite
The irish elk called the giant deer or Irish giant deer, is an extinct species of deer in the genus Megaloceros and is one of the largest deer that ever lived. Its range extended across Eurasia during the Pleistocene, from Ireland to Siberia to China, a related form is recorded in China during the Late Pleistocene. The most recent remains of the species have been dated to about 7,700 years ago in Siberia. For this reason, the name Giant deer is used in some publications, a study has suggested that the Irish elk was closely related to the Red deer. However, other phylogenetic analyses support the idea of a relationship between fallow deer and the Irish elk. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries it began to be apparent to scientists that many fossilized specimens being discovered did not represent any organisms that were living on earth. The Irish elk was among these specimens, neither exclusive to Ireland nor an elk, it was named so because the most well-known and most preserved fossil specimens have been found in lake sediments and peat bogs in Ireland.
The Irish elk had a range, being located throughout Europe, northern Africa. The first scientists’ descriptions of the elk erroneously confused the animal with the American moose and these scientists did not have the current conception of evolutionary biology that we have now. They did not consider extinction, believing instead that the fossils had living descendants in undiscovered parts of the globe. French scientist Georges Cuvier was the first to challenge that notion and his study of the Irish elk was a key moment in the history of the study of extinction. The Irish elk evolved throughout the last few years during the Glacial Periods and Ice Age. Once established, the elk spread throughout Europe, northern Asia and Africa, most remains of Irish elk date from between 11,750 BP -with the first Megaloceros giganteus appearing about 400,000 years ago-and 10,950 BP. Studies have shown they possibly evolved from M. antecedens, the earlier taxon — sometimes considered a paleosubspecies M. giganteus antecedens — is similar but had more complex and compact antlers.
The Irish elk stood about 2.1 metres tall at the shoulders carrying the largest antlers of any known cervid. In body size, the Irish Elk tied with the extant moose subspecies of Alaska as the third largest known deer and first belonging to the Cervalces genus. The Irish elk is estimated to have attained a mass of 540–600 kg, with large specimens having weighed 700 kg or more. A significant collection of M. giganteus skeletons can be found at the Natural History Museum in Dublin, the size of Irish elk antlers are distinctive
Among some of the best-known Upper Paleolithic works of art depicted are primarily large animals, typical local and contemporary fauna that corresponds with the fossil record. The paintings are the combined effort of many generations, and despite continuing debate, Lascaux was inducted into the UNESCO World Heritage Sites list in 1979, as element of the Prehistoric Sites and Decorated Caves of the Vézère Valley. On September 12,1940, the entrance to the Lascaux Cave was discovered by 18 year old Marcel Ravidat, Ravidat returned to the scene with three friends, Jacques Marsal, Georges Agnel, and Simon Coencas, and entered the cave via a long shaft. The teenagers discovered that the walls were covered with depictions of animals. Galleries that suggest continuity. Those include the Hall of the Bulls, the Passageway, the Shaft, the Nave, the Apse, the cave complex was opened to the public in 1948. By 1955, carbon dioxide, heat and other contaminants produced by 1,200 visitors per day had visibly damaged the paintings, as air condition deteriorated fungi and lichen increasingly infested the walls.
Consequently the cave was closed to the public in 1963, the paintings were restored to their original state, a full range of Lascauxs parietal art is presented at the Centre of Prehistoric Art at Le Parc du Thot. Ochroconis lascauxensis is a species of fungus of the Ascomycota phylum, in May 2012 officially described and named after the locality of its first emergence, the Lascaux cave. It was along with a closely related second species Ochroconis anomala, first observed in 2000 inside the cave, no official announcement on the effect and/or progress of attempted treatments has ever been made. As of 2008, the cave contained black mold, in January 2008, authorities closed the cave for three months even to scientists and preservationists. A single individual was allowed to enter the cave for 20 minutes once a week to monitor climatic conditions, in 2009 it was announced, Mould problem stable. In 2011 the fungus seemed to be in retreat after the installment of an additional, in its sedimentary composition, the Vézère drainage basin covers one fourth of the département of the Dordogne, the northernmost region of the Black Périgord.
Before joining the Dordogne River near Limeuil, the Vézère flows in a south-westerly direction, at its centre point, the rivers course is marked by a series of meanders flanked by high limestone cliffs that determine the landscape. The Lascaux valley is located some distance from the concentrations of decorated caves and inhabited sites. This is the highest concentration in western Europe, the cave contains nearly 2,000 figures, which can be grouped into three main categories, human figures, and abstract signs. The paintings contain no images of the landscape or the vegetation of the time. Charcoal may have used but seemingly to a sparing extent. In other areas, the colour was applied by spraying the pigments by blowing the mixture through a tube, where the rock surface is softer, some designs have been incised into the stone
A stalagmite is a type of rock formation that rises from the floor of a cave due to the accumulation of material deposited on the floor from ceiling drippings. Stalagmites may be composed of amberat, minerals, peat, sand, the corresponding formation hanging down from the ceiling of a cave is a stalactite. Mnemonics have been developed for which word refers to type of formation, one is that stalactite has a C for ceiling. The most common stalagmites are speleothems, which form in limestone caves. This stalagmite formation occurs only under certain pH conditions within the underground cavern and they form through deposition of calcium carbonate and other minerals, which is precipitated from mineralized water solutions. Limestone is the form of calcium carbonate rock, which is dissolved by water that contains carbon dioxide. If stalactites – the ceiling formations – grow long enough to connect with stalagmites on the floor and dirt from human contact can stain the formation and change its color permanently.
Another type of stalagmite is formed in lava tubes while lava is still active inside, the mechanism of formation is similar to that of limestone stalagmites. A key difference with lava stalagmites is that once the lava has ceased flowing and this means if the stalagmite were to be broken it would never grow back. Stalagmites in lava tubes are rarer than their stalactite counterparts because during formation the dripping material falls onto still-moving lava floors that absorb or carry the material away, the generic term lavacicle has been applied to lava stalactites and stalagmites indiscriminately, and evolved from the word icicle. A common stalagmite found seasonally or year round in many caves is the ice stalagmite, commonly referred to as icicles, water seepage from the surface will penetrate into a cave and if temperatures are below freezing temperature, the water will collect on the floor into stalagmites. Deposition may directly from the freezing of water vapor. Similar to lava stalagmites, ice stalagmites form very quickly within hours or days, unlike lava stalagmites however, they may grow back as long as water and temperatures are suitable.
Ice stalagmites are more common than their stalactite counterparts because warmer air rises to the ceilings of caves, ice stalactites may form corresponding stalagmites below them, and given time, may grow together to form an ice column. Stalactites and stalagmites can form on concrete ceilings and floors, calcium carbonate deposition as a stalagmite occurs when the solution carries the calcium laden leachate solution to the ground under the concrete structure. Carbon dioxide is absorbed into the alkaline solution, which facilitates the chemical reactions to deposit calcium carbonate as a stalagmite. These stalagmites rarely grow taller than a few centimetres, secondary deposits, which create stalagmites, flowstone etc, outside the natural cave environment, are referred to as “calthemites”. These concrete derived secondary deposits can’t be referred to as “speleothems” due to the definition of the word, the largest known stalagmite in the world exceeds 70 metres in height and is located in Sơn Đoòng Cave, Vietnam
The trails in France alone cover approximately 60,000 kilometres. Trails are blazed with characteristic marks consisting of a stripe above a red stripe. These appear regularly along the route, especially at places like forks or crossroads, the network is maintained in France by the Fédération Française de la Randonnée Pédestre, and in Spain by the Federación Española de Deportes de Montaña y Escalada. Many GR routes make up part of the longer European walking routes which cross several countries, waymarks are often painted, but may take the form of metal signs in city centers
It is located near the commune of Vallon-Pont-dArc on a limestone cliff above the former bed of the Ardèche River, in the Gorges de lArdèche. Discovered on December 18,1994, it is considered one of the most significant prehistoric art sites and its paintings, along with those of Lascaux and the Cave of Altamira, have been dubbed a prehistoric Sistine Chapel. The cave was first explored by a group of three speleologists, Eliette Brunel-Deschamps, Christian Hillaire, and Jean-Marie Chauvet for whom it was named, Chauvet has a detailed account of the discovery. In addition to the paintings and other evidence, they discovered fossilized remains, prints. Further study by French archaeologist Jean Clottes has revealed much about the site, the dates have been a matter of dispute but a study published in 2012 supports placing the art in the Aurignacian period, approximately 32, 000–30,000 years BP. The cave is situated above the course of the Ardèche River before the Pont dArc opened up. The gorges of the Ardèche region are the site of numerous caves, the Chauvet Cave is uncharacteristically large and the quality and condition of the artwork found on its walls have been called spectacular.
Based on radiocarbon dating, the cave appears to have used by humans during two distinct periods, the Aurignacian and the Gravettian. Most of the dates to the earlier, era. After the childs visit to the cave, evidence suggests that due to a landslide which covered its historical entrance, the footprints may be the oldest human footprints that can be dated accurately. The soft, clay-like floor of the cave retains the paw prints of cave bears along with large, fossilized bones are abundant and include the skulls of cave bears and the horned skull of an ibex. A set of prints of a young child and a wolf or dog walking side by side was found in this cave. This information suggests the origin of the dog could date to before the last Ice Age. Hundreds of animal paintings have been catalogued, depicting at least 13 different species, there are paintings of rhinoceroses. Typical of most cave art, there are no paintings of human figures. Above the Venus, and in contact with it, is a bison head, there are a few panels of red ochre hand prints and hand stencils made by blowing pigment over hands pressed against the cave surface.
Abstract markings—lines and dots—are found throughout the cave, there are two unidentifiable images that have a vaguely butterfly or avian shape to them. This combination of subjects has led some students of art and cultures to believe that there was a ritual, shamanic
An ice age is a period of long-term reduction in the temperature of Earths surface and atmosphere, resulting in the presence or expansion of continental and polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers. Within a long-term ice age, individual pulses of cold climate are termed glacial periods, in the terminology of glaciology, ice age implies the presence of extensive ice sheets in both northern and southern hemispheres. In 1742 Pierre Martel, an engineer and geographer living in Geneva, two years he published an account of his journey. He reported that the inhabitants of that valley attributed the dispersal of erratic boulders to the glaciers, similar explanations were reported from other regions of the Alps. In 1815 the carpenter and chamois hunter Jean-Pierre Perraudin explained erratic boulders in the Val de Bagnes in the Swiss canton of Valais as being due to glaciers previously extending further. An unknown woodcutter from Meiringen in the Bernese Oberland advocated a similar idea in a discussion with the Swiss-German geologist Jean de Charpentier in 1834, comparable explanations are known from the Val de Ferret in the Valais and the Seeland in western Switzerland and in Goethes scientific work.
Such explanations could be found in parts of the world. When the Bavarian naturalist Ernst von Bibra visited the Chilean Andes in 1849–1850, European scholars had begun to wonder what had caused the dispersal of erratic material. From the middle of the 18th century, some discussed ice as a means of transport, the Swedish mining expert Daniel Tilas was, in 1742, the first person to suggest drifting sea ice in order to explain the presence of erratic boulders in the Scandinavian and Baltic regions. In 1795, the Scottish philosopher and gentleman naturalist, James Hutton, two decades later, in 1818, the Swedish botanist Göran Wahlenberg published his theory of a glaciation of the Scandinavian peninsula. He regarded glaciation as a regional phenomenon, only a few years later, the Danish-Norwegian geologist Jens Esmark argued a sequence of worldwide ice ages. In a paper published in 1824, Esmark proposed changes in climate as the cause of those glaciations and he attempted to show that they originated from changes in Earths orbit.
During the following years, Esmarks ideas were discussed and taken over in parts by Swedish, Scottish, at the University of Edinburgh Robert Jameson seemed to be relatively open to Esmarks ideas, as reviewed by Norwegian professor of glaciology Bjørn G. Andersen. Jamesons remarks about ancient glaciers in Scotland were most probably prompted by Esmark, in Germany, Albrecht Reinhard Bernhardi, a geologist and professor of forestry at an academy in Dreissigacker, since incorporated in the southern Thuringian city of Meiningen, adopted Esmarks theory. In a paper published in 1832, Bernhardi speculated about former polar ice caps reaching as far as the zones of the globe. When he read his paper before the Schweizerische Naturforschende Gesellschaft, most scientists remained sceptical, Venetz convinced his friend Jean de Charpentier. De Charpentier transformed Venetzs idea into a theory with a limited to the Alps. In fact, both men shared the same volcanistic, or in de Charpentiers case rather plutonistic assumptions, about the Earths history, in 1834, de Charpentier presented his paper before the Schweizerische Naturforschende Gesellschaft
A valley is a low area between hills, often with a river running through it. In geology, a valley or dale is a depression that is longer than it is wide, the terms U-shaped and V-shaped are descriptive terms of geography to characterize the form of valleys. Most valleys belong to one of two main types or a mixture of them, with respect to the cross section of the slopes or hillsides. A valley in its broadest geographic sense is known as a dale. A valley through which a river runs may be referred to as a vale, a small and often wooded valley is known as a dell or in Scotland as a glen. A wide, flat valley through which a river runs is known in Scotland as a strath, a mountain cove is a small valley, closed at one or both ends, in the central or southern Appalachian Mountains which sometimes results from the erosion of a geologic window. A small valley surrounded by mountains or ridges is sometimes known as a hollow, a deep, narrow valley is known as a cwm. Similar geological structures, such as canyons, gorges, chines, a valley formed by erosion is called an erosional valley, a valley formed by geologic events such as drop faults or the rise of highlands is called a structural valley. A valley formed by flowing water, or river valley, is usually V-shaped, the exact shape will depend on the characteristics of the stream flowing through it.
Rivers with steep gradients, as in mountain ranges, produce steep walls, shallower slopes may produce broader and gentler valleys. However, in the lowest stretch of a river, where it approaches its base level, it begins to deposit sediment, in prehistory, the rivers were used as a source of fresh water and food, as well as a place to wash and a sewer. The proximity of water moderated temperature extremes and provided a source for irrigation, most of the first civilizations developed from these river valley communities. In geography, a vale is a river valley, usually with a particularly wide flood plain or flat valley bottom. In Southern England, vales commonly occur between the escarpment slopes of pairs of chalk formations, where the dome has been eroded, exposing less resistant underlying rock. Rift valleys, such as the Albertine Rift, are formed by the expansion of the Earths crust due to tectonic activity beneath the Earths surface, there are various forms of valley associated with glaciation that may be referred to as glacial valleys. A valley carved by glaciers is normally U-shaped, the valley becomes visible upon the recession of the glacier that forms it.
When the ice recedes or thaws, the remains, often littered with small boulders that were transported within the ice. Floor gradient does not affect the shape, it is the glaciers size that does
The Aurignacian culture is an archaeological culture of the Upper Palaeolithic. It is the earliest modern human culture in Europe, and is associated with the immigration of anatomically modern humans from the Near East and it first appeared in Eastern Europe around 43,000 BP, and in Western Europe between 40,000 and 36,000 years BP. It was replaced by the Gravettian culture around 28,000 to 26,000 years ago, the name originates from the type site of Aurignac, Haute-Garonne, which is a town in the south-west of France near Toulouse or Andorra. The oldest undisputed example of figurative art, the Venus of Hohle Fels. It was discovered in September 2008 in a cave at Schelklingen in Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany, the Bacho Kiro site is one of the earliest known Aurignacian burials. The Aurignacian tool industry is characterized by worked bone or antler points with grooves cut in the bottom. Their flint tools include blades and bladelets struck from prepared cores rather than using crude flakes.
)The people of this culture produced some of the earliest known cave art, such as the animal engravings at Trois Freres. They made pendants and ivory beads, as well as three-dimensional figurines, perforated rods, thought to be spear throwers or shaft wrenches, are found at their sites. The sophistication and self-awareness demonstrated in the work led archaeologists to consider the makers of Aurignacian artifacts the first modern humans in Europe, human remains and Late Aurignacian artifacts found in juxtaposition support this inference. Although finds of human remains in direct association with Proto-Aurignacian technologies are scarce in Europe. At least three robust, but typically anatomically-modern individuals from the Peștera cu Oase cave in Romania, were dated directly from the bones to ca, although not associated directly with archaeological material, these finds are within the chronological and geographical range of the Early Aurignacian in southeastern Europe. On genetic evidence it has argued that both Aurignacian and the Dabba culture of North Africa came from an earlier big game hunting Aurignacian culture of the Levant.
Many 35, 000-year-old animal figurines were discovered in the Vogelherd Cave in Germany, one of the horses, amongst six tiny mammoth and horse ivory figures found previously at Vogelherd, was sculpted as skillfully as any piece found throughout the Upper Paleolithic. The production of ivory beads for body ornamentation was important during the Aurignacian, there is a notable absence of painted caves, which begin to appear within the Solutrean. Typical statuettes consist of women that are called Venus figurines and they emphasize the hips and other body parts associated with fertility. Feet and arms are lacking or minimized, one of the most ancient figurines was discovered in 2008 in the Hohle Fels cave in Germany. The figurine has been dated to 35,000 years ago, the oldest undisputed musical instrument was the Hohle Fels Flute discovered in the Hohle Fels cave in Germanys Swabian Alb in 2008. The flute is made from a wing bone perforated with five finger holes
Boulogne-sur-Mer, often called Boulogne, is a city in Northern France. It is a sub-prefecture of the department of Pas-de-Calais, Boulogne lies on the Côte dOpale, a tourist coast on the English Channel, and is the most-visited location in its region after the Lille conurbation. Boulogne is its departments second-largest city after Calais, and the 60th largest in France and it is the countrys largest fishing port, specialising in herring. Boulogne was the major Roman port for trade and communication with Britain, the citys 12th-century belfry is recognised by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site, while another popular attraction is the marine conservation centre Nausicaa. The French name Boulogne derives from the Latin Bononia, which was the Roman name for Bologna in Italy, both places—and Vindobona —are thought to have derived from native Celtic placenames, with bona possibly meaning foundation, citadel, or granary. The French epithet sur-Mer distinguishes the city from Boulogne-Billancourt on the edge of Paris, in turn, the Boulogne in Boulogne-Billancourt originates from a church there dedicated to Notre-Dame de Boulogne, Our Lady of Boulogne.
Boulogne-sur-Mer is in Northern France, at the edge of the Channel, Boulogne is a relatively important city of the North, exercising an influence on the Boulonnais territory. The coast consists of important tourist natural sites, like the capes Gris Nez and Blanc Nez, the hinterland is mainly rural and agricultural. Boulogne is close to the A16 motorway, metropolitan bus services are operated by Marinéo. The company Flixbus propose a bus line connecting Paris to Boulogne, there are coach services to Calais and Dunkerque. The city has railway stations, which the most important is Boulogne-Ville station, boulogne-Tintelleries station is used for regional transit. It is located near the university and the city centre, the former Boulogne-Maritime and Boulogne-Aéroglisseurs stations served as a boat connection for the railway. Boulogne currently has no cross channel ferry services since the closure of the route to Dover by LD Lines in 2010. The city is divided into parts, City centre, groups historic and administrative buildings.
Fortified town, old-town where are a lot of monuments and the city hall. It is surrounded by 13th-century ramparts very appreciated today by walkers, gambetta-Sainte-Beuve, tourist area situated in the northwest of the city, on the edge of the beach and the recreational harbour. Capécure and industrial area, situated in the west of the city, saint-Pierre, former neighborhood of the fishermen, destroyed during the World War II and reconstructed after. Chemin Vert, zone borned in the 1950s, knowing today poverty and it is the neighborhood of Franck Ribéry
The mandible, lower jaw or jawbone is the largest and lowest bone in the face. It forms the lower jaw and holds the teeth in place. The mandible sits beneath the maxilla, the bone is formed from a fusion of left and right processes, and the point where these sides join, the mandibular symphysis, is still visible as a faint ridge in the midline. Like other symphyses in the body, this is a midline articulation where the bones are joined by fibrocartilage, the body of the mandible is curved somewhat like a horseshoe and has two surfaces and two borders. From the outside, the mandible is marked in the midline by a faint ridge and this ridge divides below and encloses a triangular eminence, the mental protuberance, the base of which is depressed in the center but raised on either side to form the mental tubercle. On either side of the symphysis, just below the teeth, is a depression, the incisive fossa, which gives origin to the mentalis. Below the second premolar tooth, on side, midway between the upper and lower borders of the body, is the mental foramen, for the passage of the mental vessels.
From the inside, the mandible appears concave, near the lower part of the symphysis is a pair of laterally placed spines, termed the mental spines, which give origin to the genioglossus. Immediately below these is a pair of spines, or more frequently a median ridge or impression. In some cases the mental spines are fused to form a single eminence, in others they are absent, above the mental spines a median foramen and furrow are sometimes seen, they mark the line of union of the halves of the bone. Below the mental spines, on side of the middle line, is an oval depression for the attachment of the anterior belly of the digastric. Above the anterior part of line is a smooth triangular area against which the sublingual gland rests, and below the hinder part. To the outer lip of the border, on either side. The ramus of the mandible has four sides, two surfaces, four borders, and two processes. On the outside, the ramus is flat and marked by oblique ridges at its lower part, on the inside, the mandible presents about its center the oblique mandibular foramen, for the entrance of the inferior alveolar vessels and nerve.
Behind this groove is a surface, for the insertion of the internal pterygoid muscle. The mandibular canal runs obliquely downward and forward in the ramus, and horizontally forward in the body, on arriving at the incisor teeth, it turns back to communicate with the mental foramen, giving off two small canals which run to the cavities containing the incisor teeth. In the posterior two-thirds of the bone the canal is situated nearer the surface of the mandible