The scroll in art is an element of ornament and graphic design featuring spirals and rolling incomplete circle motifs, some of which resemble the edge-on view of a book or document in scroll form, though many types are plant-scrolls, which loosely represent plant forms such as vines, with leaves or flowers attached. Scrollwork is a term for some forms of decoration dominated by spiralling scrolls, today used in popular language for two-dimensional decorative flourishes and arabesques of all kinds those with circular or spiralling shapes. Scroll decoration has been used for the decoration of a vast range of objects, in all Eurasian cultures, most beyond. A lengthy evolution over the last two millennia has taken forms of plant-based scroll decoration from Greco-Roman architecture to Chinese pottery, back across Eurasia to Europe, they are widespread in architectural decoration, painted ceramics and illuminated manuscripts. In the usual artistic convention, scrolls "apparently do not succumb to gravitational forces, as garlands and festoons do, or oppose them, in the manner of vertically growing trees.
This gives scrolls a relentless power. If attached to walls, they are more embedded in the architectural order, which are fictitiously hanging on them." In true scrolls the main "stem" lines do not cross over each other, or not significantly. When crossing stems become a dominant feature in the design, terms such as interlace or arabesque are used instead. Many scrolls run along a narrow band, such as a frieze panel or the border of a carpet or piece of textile or ceramics, so are called "running scrolls", while others spread to cover wide areas, are infinitely expandible. Similar motifs made up of straight lines and right angles, such as the "Greek key", are more called meanders. In art history, a "floriated" or "flower scroll" has flowers in the centre of the volutes, a "foliated" or "leaf scroll" shows leaves in varying degrees of profusion along the stems; the Ara Pacis scrolls are foliated and sparingly floriated, whilst those in the Dome of the Rock mosaics are profusely foliated with thick leaves forming segments of the stems.
As in arabesques, the "leaf" forms spring directly from the stem without a leaf stalk in ways that few if any real plants do. Although forms are based on real plants the acanthus, vine and paeony, faithful representation is the point of the design, as of these four only the vine is the sort of climbing plant with many stems and tendrils that scrolls represent. Islamic and Chinese scroll decoration included more flowers than European designs, whether classical or medieval. Scroll-forms containing animals or human figures are said to be "inhabited". In speading designs, an upright element imitating the main stem or flower-stalk of the plant appears as a central element protruding vertically from the base, again as in the Ara Pacis panel; this is not a necessary element. The standard was depicted as a fanciful candelabra in grotesque designs, in which it is an important element, central to the composition. Scrollwork in its strict meaning is rather different, it develops from strapwork, as the ends of otherwise flat elements, loosely imitating leather, metal sheets, or broad leaves rather than plant tendrils.
Rather than the "profile" view displaying the spiral, the forms are shown front on with the width of the strip seen. It begins in the Renaissance, becomes popular in Mannerist and Baroque ornament. Continuous scroll decoration has a long history, such patterns were an essential element of classical and medieval decoration; the use of scrolls in ornament goes back to at least the Bronze Age. Geometrical scroll patterns like the Vitruvian scroll are found widely in many cultures, often developed independently. Plant-based scrolls were widely used in Greek and Roman architectural decoration, spreading from them to other types of objects, they may have first evolved in Greek painted pottery, where their development can traced in the large surviving corpus. In Europe Greco-Roman decoration especially as seen in jewellery and floor mosaics, was adapted by the "barbarian" peoples of the Migration Period into interlace styles replacing the plant forms of the main scrolling stem with stretched and stylized animal forms.
In Anglo-Saxon art the interlace designs of the early pagan Anglo-Saxons were replaced by vine scrolls after Christianization, medieval European decoration in general evolved styles that combined the two. Another expansion was to the East: "The practice of decorating facades in Chinese Buddhist caves with figures combined with leaf scrolls was derived in its entirety from provincial forms of Hellenistic architecture employed in Central Asia"; the lotus flower was a symbol of Buddhism, so often included in these r
Giovanni Battista Piranesi
Giovanni Battista Piranesi was an Italian artist famous for his etchings of Rome and of fictitious and atmospheric "prisons". Piranesi was born in Mogliano Veneto, near Treviso part of the Republic of Venice, his father was a stonemason. His brother Andrea introduced him to Latin language and the ancient civilization, he was apprenticed under his uncle, Matteo Lucchesi, a leading architect in Magistrato delle Acque, the state organization responsible for engineering and restoring historical buildings. From 1740, he had an opportunity to work in Rome as a draughtsman for Marco Foscarini, the Venetian ambassador of the new Pope Benedict XIV, he resided in the Palazzo Venezia and studied under Giuseppe Vasi, who introduced him to the art of etching and engraving of the city and its monuments. Giuseppe Vasi found. According to Legrand, Vasi told Piranesi that "you are too much of a painter, my friend, to be an engraver." After his studies with Vasi, he collaborated with pupils of the French Academy in Rome to produce a series of vedute of the city.
From 1743 to 1747 he sojourned in Venice where, according to some sources, he visited Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, a leading artist in Venice. It was Tiepolo who expanded the restrictive conventions of reproductive and antiquarian engravings, he returned to Rome, where he opened a workshop in Via del Corso. In 1748 -- 1774 he created a long series of vedute of the city. In the meantime Piranesi devoted himself to the measurement of many of the ancient edifices: this led to the publication of Le Antichità Romane de' tempo della prima Repubblica e dei primi imperatori. In 1761 he opened a printing facility of his own. In 1762 the Campo Marzio dell'antica Roma collection of engravings was printed; the following year he was commissioned by Pope Clement XIII to restore the choir of San Giovanni in Laterano, but the work did not materialize. In 1764, one of Pope's nephews, Cardinal Rezzonico, appointed him to start his sole architectural works of importance, the restoration of the church of Santa Maria del Priorato in the Villa of the Knights of Malta, on Rome's Aventine Hill.
He combined certain ancient architectural elements and escutcheons, with a venetian whimsicality for the facade of the church and the walls of the Piazza dei Cavalieri di Malta. This was the only time he expressed himself in actual stone. In 1767 he was made a knight of the Golden Spur, which enabled him henceforth to sign himself "Cav Piranesi". In 1769 his publication of a series of ingenious and sometimes bizarre designs for chimneypieces, as well as an original range of furniture pieces, established his place as a versatile and resourceful designer. In 1776 he created his best known work as a'restorer' of ancient sculpture, the Piranesi Vase, in 1777–78 he published Avanzi degli Edifici di Pesto, he died in Rome in 1778 after a long illness, was buried in the church he had helped restore, Santa Maria del Priorato. His tomb was designed by Giuseppi Angelini. Though the social structure by an aristocracy remained rigid and oppressive, Venice revived through the Grand Tour as the center of intellectual and international exchange in the eighteenth century.
The ideas of the Enlightenment stimulated theorists and artists all over Europe including Paris and London. New forms of artistic expression emerged: veduta and veduta ideata, topographical view, architectural fantasy, accurate renderings of ancient monuments assembled with imaginary compositions in response to the demand of increased visitors; the developing center of the Grand Tour was Rome. Rome became a new meeting place and intellectual capital of Europe for the leaders of a new movement in the arts; the city was attracting artists and architects from all over Europe beside the Grand Tourists and antiquarians. While many came through official institutions such as the French Academy, others came to see the new discoveries at Herculaneum and Pompeii. Coffee shops were frequent gathering places, most famously the Antico Caffè Greco, established 1760; the Caffe degli Inglesi opened several years at the foot of the Spanish Steps in Piazza di Spagna, with wall paintings by Piranesi. With his own print workshop and museo of antiquities nearby, Piranesi was able to cultivate relationships in both places with wealthy buyers on the tour English.
The remains of Rome kindled Piranesi's enthusiasm. Informed by his experience in Venice and his study of the works of Marco Ricci and Giovanni Paolo Panini, he appreciated not only the engineering of the ancient buildings but the poetic aspects of the ruins, he was able to faithfully imitate the actual remains. His masterful skill at engraving introduced groups of vases, tombs that were absent in reality. A number of the Views are notable for depicting human figures whose poverty, apparent drunkenness, other visible flaws appear to echo the decay of the ruins; this is consistent with a familiar trope of Renaissance literature, in w
Classical architecture denotes architecture, more or less consciously derived from the principles of Greek and Roman architecture of classical antiquity, or sometimes more from the works of Vitruvius. Different styles of classical architecture have arguably existed since the Carolingian Renaissance, prominently since the Italian Renaissance. Although classical styles of architecture can vary they can in general all be said to draw on a common "vocabulary" of decorative and constructive elements. In much of the Western world, different classical architectural styles have dominated the history of architecture from the Renaissance until the second world war, though it continues to inform many architects to this day; the term "classical architecture" applies to any mode of architecture that has evolved to a refined state, such as classical Chinese architecture, or classical Mayan architecture. It can refer to any architecture that employs classical aesthetic philosophy; the term might be used differently from "traditional" or "vernacular architecture", although it can share underlying axioms with it.
For contemporary buildings following authentic classical principles, the term New Classical Architecture may be used. Classical architecture is derived from the architecture of ancient ancient Rome. With a collapse of the western part of the Roman empire, the architectural traditions of the Roman empire ceased to be practised in large parts of western Europe. In the Byzantine Empire, the ancient ways of building lived on but soon developed into a distinct Byzantine style; the first conscious efforts to bring back the disused language of form of classical antiquity into Western architecture can be traced to the Carolingian Renaissance of the late 8th and 9th centuries. The gatehouse of Lorsch Abbey, in present-day Germany thus displays a system of alternating attached columns and arches which could be an direct paraphrase of e.g. that of the Colosseum in Rome. Byzantine architecture, just as Romanesque and to some extent Gothic architecture, can incorporate classical elements and details but do not to the same degree reflect a conscious effort to draw upon the architectural traditions of antiquity.
In general, they are not considered classical archerchitectural styles in a strict sense. During the Italian renaissance and with the demise of Gothic style, major efforts were made by architects such as Leon Battista Alberti, Sebastiano Serlio and Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola to revive the language of architecture of first and foremost ancient Rome; this was done in part through the study of the ancient Roman architectural treatise De architectura by Vitruvius, to some extent by studying the actual remains of ancient Roman buildings in Italy. Nonetheless, the classical architecture of the Renaissance from the outset represents a specific interpretation of the classical ideas. In a building like the Ospedale degli Innocenti in Florence by Filippo Brunelleschi, one of the earliest Renaissance buildings, the treatment of the columns for example has no direct antecedent in ancient Roman architecture. During this time period, the study of ancient architecture developed into the architectural theory of classical architecture.
Most of the styles originating in post-renaissance Europe can be described as classical architecture. This broad use of the term is employed by Sir John Summerson in The Classical Language of Architecture; the elements of classical architecture have been applied in radically different architectural contexts than those for which they were developed, however. For example, Baroque or Rococo architecture are styles which, although classical at root, display an architectural language much in their own right. During these periods, architectural theory still referred to classical ideas but rather less sincerely than during the Renaissance; as a reaction to late baroque and rococo forms, architectural theorists from circa 1750 through what became known as Neoclassicism again consciously and earnestly attempted to emulate antiquity, supported by recent developments in Classical archaeology and a desire for an architecture based on clear rules and rationality. Claude Perrault, Marc-Antoine Laugier and Carlo Lodoli were among the first theorists of neoclassicism, while Étienne-Louis Boullée, Claude Nicolas Ledoux, Friedrich Gilly and John Soane were among the more radical and influential.
Neoclassical architecture held a strong position on the architectural scene c. 1750–1850. The competing neo-Gothic style however rose to popularity during the early 1800s, the part the 19th century was characterised by a variety of styles, some of them only or not at all related to classicism, eclecticism. Although classical architecture continued to play an important role and for periods of time at least locally dominated the architectural scene, as exemplified by the "Nordic Classicism" during the 1920s, classical architecture in its stricter form never regained its former dominance. With the advent of Modernism during the early 20th century, classical architecture arguably completely ceased to be practised; as noted above, classical styles of architecture dominated Western architecture for a long time from the Renaissance until the advent of Modernism. That is to say, that classical antiquity at least in theory was considered the prime s
A cave or cavern is a natural void in the ground a space large enough for a human to enter. Caves form by the weathering of rock and extend deep underground; the word cave can refer to much smaller openings such as sea caves, rock shelters, grottos, though speaking a cave is exogene, meaning it is deeper than its opening is wide, a rock shelter is endogene. Speleology is the science of study of all aspects of caves and the cave environment. Visiting or exploring caves for recreation may be called caving, potholing, or spelunking; the formation and development of caves is known as speleogenesis. Caves can range in size, are formed by various geological processes; these may involve a combination of chemical processes, erosion by water, tectonic forces, microorganisms and atmospheric influences. Isotopic dating techniques can be applied to cave sediments, to determine the timescale of the geological events which formed and shaped present-day caves, it is estimated that a cave cannot exceed 3,000 metres in depth due to the pressure of overlying rocks.
For karst caves the maximum depth is determined on the basis of the lower limit of karst forming processes, coinciding with the base of the soluble carbonate rocks. Most caves are formed in limestone by dissolution. Caves can be classified in various other ways as well, including a contrast between active and relict: active caves have water flowing through them. Types of active caves include inflow caves, outflow caves, through caves. Solutional caves or karst caves are the most occurring caves; such caves form in rock, soluble. Rock is dissolved by natural acid in groundwater that seeps through bedding planes, faults and comparable features. Over time cracks enlarge to become caves and cave systems; the largest and most abundant solutional caves are located in limestone. Limestone dissolves under the action of rainwater and groundwater charged with H2CO3 and occurring organic acids; the dissolution process produces a distinctive landform known as karst, characterized by sinkholes and underground drainage.
Limestone caves are adorned with calcium carbonate formations produced through slow precipitation. These include flowstones, stalagmites, soda straws and columns; these secondary mineral deposits in caves are called speleothems. The portions of a solutional cave that are below the water table or the local level of the groundwater will be flooded. Lechuguilla Cave in New Mexico and nearby Carlsbad Cavern are now believed to be examples of another type of solutional cave, they were formed by H2S gas rising from below. This gas mixes with groundwater and forms H2SO4; the acid dissolves the limestone from below, rather than from above, by acidic water percolating from the surface. Caves formed at the same time. Lava tubes are the most common primary caves; as lava flows downhill, its surface solidifies. Hot liquid lava continues to flow under that crust, if most of it flows out, a hollow tube remains; such caves can be found in the Canary Islands, Jeju-do, the basaltic plains of Eastern Idaho, in other places.
Kazumura Cave near Hilo, Hawaii is a remarkably deep lava tube. Lava caves are not limited to lava tubes. Other caves formed through volcanic activity include rifts, lava molds, open vertical conduits, blisters, among others. Sea caves are found along coasts around the world. A special case is littoral caves, which are formed by wave action in zones of weakness in sea cliffs; these weaknesses are faults, but they may be dykes or bedding-plane contacts. Some wave-cut caves are now above sea level because of uplift. Elsewhere, in places such as Thailand's Phang Nga Bay, solutional caves have been flooded by the sea and are now subject to littoral erosion. Sea caves are around 5 to 50 metres in length, but may exceed 300 metres. Corrasional or erosional caves are those that form by erosion by flowing streams carrying rocks and other sediments; these can form in any type including hard rocks such as granite. There must be some zone of weakness to guide the water, such as a fault or joint. A subtype of the erosional cave is the aeolian cave, carved by wind-born sediments.
Many caves formed by solutional processes undergo a subsequent phase of erosional or vadose enlargement where active streams or rivers pass through them. Glacier caves are formed by flowing water within and under glaciers; the cavities are influenced by the slow flow of the ice, which tends to collapse the caves again. Glacier caves are sometimes misidentified as "ice caves", though this latter term is properly reserved for bedrock caves that contain year-round ice formations. Fracture caves are formed when layers of more soluble minerals, such as gypsum, dissolve out from between layers of less soluble rock; these rocks fracture and collapse in blocks of stone. Talus caves are formed by the openings among large boulders that have fallen down into a random heap at the bases of cliffs; these unstable deposits are called talus or scree, may be subject to frequent rockfalls and landslides. Anchialine ca
Moulding known as coving, is a strip of material with various profiles used to cover transitions between surfaces or for decoration. It may be of plastic or reformed wood. In classical architecture and sculpture, the molding is carved in marble or other stones. A "plain" molding has right-angled upper and lower edges. A "sprung" molding has upper and lower edges that bevel towards its rear, allowing mounting between two non-parallel planes, with an open space behind. Decorative moldings have been made of wood and cement. Moldings have been made of extruded PVC and Expanded Polystyrene as a core with a cement-based protective coating. Synthetic moldings have environmental and safety concerns that were investigated by Doroudiani et al. Common moldings include: Astragal — Semi-circular molding attached to one of a pair of doors to cover the gap where they meet. Baguette — Thin, half-round molding, smaller than an astragal, sometimes carved, enriched with foliages, ribbands, etc; when enriched with ornaments, it was called chapelet.
Bandelet — Any little band or flat molding, which crowns a Doric architrave. It is called a tenia (from Greek ταινία an article of clothing in the form of a ribbon. Baseboard, "base molding" or "skirting board" — Used to conceal the junction of an interior wall and floor, to protect the wall from impacts and to add decorative features. A "speed base" makes use of a base "cap molding" set on top of a plain 1" thick board, however there are hundreds of baseboard profiles. Baton — See Torus Batten or board and batten — Symmetrical molding, placed across a joint where two parallel panels or boards meet Bead molding — Narrow, half-round convex molding, when repeated forms reeding Beading or bead — Molding in the form of a row of half spherical beads, larger than pearling Other forms: Bead and leaf and reel, bead and spindle Beak — Small fillet molding left on the edge of a larmier, which forms a canal, makes a kind of pendant. See also: chin-beak Bed molding — Narrow molding used at the junction of a wall and ceiling.
Bed moldings can be either plain. Bolection — Raised molding projecting proud of a face frame at the intersection of the different levels between the frame and an inset panel on a door or wood panel, it will sometimes have a rabbet on its underside the depth of the lower level so it can lay flat over both. It can leave an inset panel free to contract with temperature and humidity. Cable molding or ropework — Convex molding carved in imitation of a twisted rope or cord, used for decorative moldings of the Romanesque style in England and Spain and adapted for 18th-century silver and furniture design Cabled fluting or cable — Convex circular molding sunk in the concave fluting of a classic column, rising about one-third of the height of the shaft Casing — Finish trim around the sides of a door or window opening covering the gap between finished wall and the jam or frame it is attached to. Cartouche escutcheon — Framed panel in the form of a scroll with an inscribed centre, or surrounded by compound moldings decorated with floral motifs Cavetto — cavare: Concave, quarter-round molding sometimes employed in the place of the cymatium of a cornice, as in the Doric order of the Theatre of Marcellus.
It forms the crowning feature of the Egyptian temples, took the place of the cymatium in many of the Etruscan temples. Chair rail or dado rail — Horizontal molding placed part way up a wall to protect the surface from chair-backs, used as decoration Chamfer — Beveled edge connecting two adjacent surfaces Chin-beak — Concave quarter-round molding, rare in ancient buildings, more common today. Corner guard — Used to protect the edge of the wall at an outside corner, or to cover a joint on an inside corner. Cove molding or coving — Concave-profile molding, used at the junction of an interior wall and ceiling Crown molding — Wide, sprung molding, used at the junction of an interior wall and ceiling. General term for any molding at the top or "crowning" an architectural element. Cyma — Molding of double curvature, combining the convex ovolo and concave cavetto; when the concave part is uppermost, it is called a cyma recta but if the convex portion is at the top, it is called a Cyma reversa — Crowning molding at the entablature is of the cyma form, it is called a cymatium.
Dentils — Small blocks spaced evenly along the bottom edge of the cornice Drip cap — Molding placed over a door or window opening to prevent water from flowing under the siding or across the glass Echinus — Similar to the ovolo molding and found beneath the abacus of the Doric capital or decorated with the egg-and-dart pattern below the Ionic capital Egg-and-dart — egg shapes alternating with V-shapes. Also: Egg and tongue and anchor, egg and star Fillet — Small, flat band separating two surfaces, or between the flutes of a column. Fillet is used on handrail applications when the handrail is "plowed" to accept square shaped balusters; the fillet is used on the bottom side of the handrail between each of the balusters. Fluting — Vertical, half-round grooves cut into the surface of a column in regular intervals, each separated by a flat astragal; this ornament was used for all but the Tuscan order Godroon or Gadroon — Ornamental band with the appearance of beading or reeding frequent in silverwork and molding.
It comes from the Latin word Guttus. It is said to be derived from raised work on linen, applied in Fran
The Tachara, or the Tachar Château referred to as the Palace of Darius the Great, was the exclusive building of Darius I at Persepolis, Iran. It is located 70 km northeast of the modern city of Shiraz in Fars Province; the construction dates back to the time of the Achaemenid Empire. The building has been attributed to Darius I, but only a small portion of it was finished under his rule, it was completed after the death of Darius I in 486, by his son and successor, Xerxes I, who called it a taçara in Old Persian, translated to "winter palace". It was used by Artaxerxes I, its ruins are south of the Apadana. In the 4th century BC, following his invasion of Achaemenid Persia in 330 BC, Alexander the Great allowed his troops to loot Persepolis; this palace was one of the few structures that escaped destruction in the burning of the complex by Alexander the Great's army. The Tachara stands back to back to the Apadana, is oriented southward. Measuring 1,160 square meters, it is the smallest of the palace buildings on the Terrace at Persepolis.
As the oldest of the palace structures on the Terrace, it was constructed of the finest quality gray stone. The surface was completely black and polished to a glossy brilliance; this surface treatment combined with the high quality stone is the reason for it being the most intact of all ruins at Persepolis today. Although its mud block walls have disintegrated, the enormous stone blocks of the door and window frames have survived, its main room is a mere 15.15 m × 15.42 m with three rows of four columns. A complete window measuring 2.65 m × 2.65 m × 1.70 m was carved from a single block of stone and weighed 18 tons. The door frame weighed 75 tons. Like many other parts of Persepolis, the Tachara has reliefs of tribute-bearing dignitaries. There are sculptured figures of lance-bearers carrying large rectangular wicker shields, attendants or servants with towel and perfume bottles, a royal hero killing lions and monsters. There is a bas-relief at the main doorway depicting Darius I wearing a crenellated crown covered with sheets of gold.
The Tachara is connected to the south court by a double reversed stairway. Under the reign of Artaxerxes III, a new stairway was added to the northwest of the Tachara, connected to the main hall through a new doorway. On walls of these stairways, there are sculptured representations of figures such as servants and soldiers dressed in Median and Persian costumes, as well as gift-bearing delegations flanking carved inscriptions. Darius the Great's pride at the superb craftsmanship is evident by his ordering the following inscription on all 18 niches and window frames: Frames of stone, made for the Palace of King Darius; the function of the building, was more ceremonial than residential. Upon completion, it served in conjunction with the earlier south oriented entrance stairs as the Nowruz venue until the other buildings that would comprise Persepolis could be finished, which included a provisional union of the Apadana, the Throne Hall and a Banquet Hall. Apadana Persepolis Achaemenid architecture The Achaemenians continued
Darius the Great
Darius the Great or Darius I was the fourth Persian king of the Achaemenid Empire. He ruled the empire at its peak, when it included much of West Asia, the Caucasus, parts of the Balkans, most of the Black Sea coastal regions, parts of the North Caucasus, Central Asia, as far as the Indus Valley in the far east and portions of north and northeast Africa including Egypt, eastern Libya and coastal Sudan. Darius ascended the throne by a claimed usurper; the new king quelled them each time. A major event in Darius's life was his expedition to punish Athens and Eretria for their aid in the Ionian Revolt and subjugate Greece. Although ending in failure at the Battle of Marathon, Darius succeeded in the re-subjugation of Thrace, expansion of the empire through the conquest of Macedon, the Cyclades and the island of Naxos and the sacking of the city of Eretria. Darius organized the empire by placing satraps to govern it, he organized Achaemenid coinage as a new uniform monetary system, along with making Aramaic the official language of the empire.
He put the empire in better standing by building roads and introducing standard weights and measures. Through these changes, the empire was centralized and unified. Darius worked on construction projects throughout the empire, focusing on Susa, Persepolis and Egypt, he had the cliff-face Behistun Inscription carved to record his conquests, an important testimony of the Old Persian language. Darius is mentioned in the biblical books of Haggai and Ezra–Nehemiah. Dārīus and Dārēus are the Latin forms of the Greek Dareîos, itself from Old Persian Dārayauš, a shortened form of Dārayavaʰuš; the longer form is seen to have been reflected in the Elamite Da-ri-a-ma-u-iš, Babylonian Da-ri-ia-muš, Aramaic drywhwš, the longer Greek form Dareiaîos. The name is a nominative form meaning "he who holds firm the good", which can be seen by the first part dāraya, meaning "holder", the adverb vau, meaning "goodness". At some time between his coronation and his death, Darius left a tri-lingual monumental relief on Mount Behistun, written in Elamite, Old Persian and Babylonian.
The inscription begins with a brief autobiography including his lineage. To aid the presentation of his ancestry, Darius wrote down the sequence of events that occurred after the death of Cyrus the Great. Darius mentions several times that he is the rightful king by the grace of Ahura Mazda, the Zoroastrian god. In addition, further texts and monuments from Persepolis have been found, as well as a clay tablet containing an Old Persian cuneiform of Darius from Gherla, Romania and a letter from Darius to Gadates, preserved in a Greek text of the Roman period. In the foundation tablets of Apadana Palace, Darius described in Old Persian cuneiform the extent of his Empire in broad geographical terms: Darius the great king, king of kings, king of countries, son of Hystaspes, an Achaemenid. King Darius says: This is the kingdom which I hold, from the Sacae who are beyond Sogdia to Kush, from Sind to Lydia - what Ahuramazda, the greatest of gods, bestowed upon me. May Ahuramazda protect me and my royal house!
Herodotus, a Greek historian and author of The Histories, provided an account of many Persian kings and the Greco-Persian Wars. He wrote extensively on Darius, spanning half of Book 3 along with Books 4, 5 and 6, it begins with the removal of the alleged usurper Gaumata and continues to the end of Darius's reign. Darius was the eldest of five sons to Hystaspes and Rhodugune in 550 BCE. Hystaspes was a leading figure of authority in Persia, the homeland of the Persians; the Behistun Inscription of Darius states that his father was satrap of Bactria in 522 BCE. According to Herodotus, Hystaspes was the satrap of Persis, although most historians state that this is an error. According to Herodotus, prior to seizing power and "of no consequence at the time", had served as a spearman in the Egyptian campaign of Cambyses II the Persian Great King. Hystaspes was a noble of his court. Before Cyrus and his army crossed the Aras River to battle with the Armenians, he installed his son Cambyses II as king in case he should not return from battle.
However, once Cyrus had crossed the Aras River, he had a vision in which Darius had wings atop his shoulders and stood upon the confines of Europe and Asia. When Cyrus awoke from the dream, he inferred it as a great danger to the future security of the empire, as it meant that Darius would one day rule the whole world. However, his son Cambyses was the heir to the throne, not Darius, causing Cyrus to wonder if Darius was forming treasonable and ambitious designs; this led Cyrus to order Hystaspes to go back to Persis and watch over his son until Cyrus himself returned. Darius did not seem to have any treasonous thoughts. There are different accounts of the rise of Darius to the throne from both Darius himself and Greek historians; the oldest records report a convoluted sequence of events in which Cambyses II lost his