Cayce, South Carolina train collision
On February 4, 2018, the southbound Amtrak Silver Star No. 91 passenger train from New York City to Miami collided with a stationary CSX Transportation freight train in Cayce, South Carolina, just south of the state's capital of Columbia on CSX's Columbia Subdivision. Two Amtrak crew members were killed and 116 other crew and passengers were injured; the collision happened at around 2:35 a.m. about 4 miles southwest of Columbia. An Amtrak Silver Star passenger train with 139 passengers and 8 crew on board was traveling south from New York to Miami when it collided with CSX Q210 A Empty Autoracks Train CSX Q210-18; the Silver Star was hauled by GE P42DC locomotive № 47, while Q210 was headed by two GE AC4400CWs, Nos. 130 and 36 Both YN2. As a result of the collision, the lead engine and "several cars" of the Amtrak train derailed, killing 2 crew members and injuring 116 of the 147 people on board; the lead locomotive of the CSX train was damaged, has since been scrapped. Injured passengers were taken to several local hospitals, but none had life-threatening injuries, according to a Lexington County spokesman.
There were at least two fuel leaks from the trains, with an estimated 5,000 gallons of fuel being spilled before a hazardous materials team was able to contain the area. The National Transportation Safety Board, the Federal Railroad Administration, CSX Transportation began investigations shortly after the accident. Amtrak locomotive No. 47 was damaged and is presumed scrapped, CSX locomotive No. 130's cab and front area was destroyed. No. 36 is expected to be put back into service. Both No. 130 and No. 36 were towed to the nearest CSX shop, where No. 130 was cut up and scrapped and No. 36 is undergoing repairs. U. S. President Donald Trump tweeted that his thoughts and condolences were with the victims of the accident, he thanked those involved in the rescue effort. According to South Carolina Governor Henry McMaster, it appeared that the CSX train was stationary and on the correct track, while the Amtrak train was on the wrong track. ABC News reported that a switch was incorrectly lined and locked for a siding track instead of the main track for which Amtrak had the authority to occupy.
Amtrak chairman Richard Anderson said that the signaling system in the area was not working due to a signal suspension and that trains were being dispatched manually by CSX dispatchers. He told press that CSX was responsible for the wreck because a switch was lined and locked off the mainline towards the siding. Collision of an Amtrak train and CSX freight train | NTSB
John Lawson (explorer)
John Lawson was an English explorer and writer. He played an important role in exploring the interior of colonial North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia, publicizing his expeditions in a book, he founded two settlements in North Carolina: Bath and New Bern, both located on rivers in the coastal plain. He was killed by Tuscarora people. John Lawson was born in England. Little is known definitively about his early life, his education seems evidenced by his book. His freedom to explore and take charge suggest. After an acquaintance in London assured him that "Carolina was the best country", Lawson as a young man sailed for the North American colonies, arriving in Charleston, South Carolina on August 15, 1700. Beginning December 28, 1700, Lawson participated in a small expedition out of Charleston in the Carolina Colony to the interior, they traveled up the Santee River by canoe, on foot, to explore the Carolina backcountry. Along the way he was guided by American Indians, he traveled nearly 600 miles through the wilderness, ending his journey near the mouth of the Pamlico River in what was designated as North Carolina.
After his expedition, Lawson settled near the Pamlico River, where he earned a living as a private land surveyor. In 1705, he was appointed deputy surveyor for the Lords Proprietor of Carolina. In 1708, he succeeded Edward Moseley to become surveyor-general of a lucrative position. Lawson played a major role in the founding of two of North Carolina's earliest permanent European settlements: Bath and New Bern. On March 8, 1705, Bath was the first town incorporated in. Part of the incorporated land was owned by Lawson, he became one of the first town commissioners. He became clerk of the court and public register for Bath County. In 1709, Lawson returned to London to oversee the publication of his book, A New Voyage to Carolina, in which he described the native inhabitants and the natural environment of the region; the book was an instant success. Several editions were published, including translations into French; the resulting publicity attracted many immigrant settlers to the colony of North Carolina.
While in London, Lawson represented the colony before the government in a boundary dispute with Virginia. He organized a group of Germans from the Electorate of the Palatinate to settle in Carolina, returning with them in 1710 to found New Bern on the Neuse River; the government of Queen Anne had invited the Protestant refugees to England for passage to the colonies. They were fleeing extended hardship in their homeland, due to a record cold, French invasions. Nearly 3000 Palatine Germans were settled in the New York Colony in 1710 as well, worked in naval stores camps on the Hudson River to pay off their transportation. In September 1711, Lawson and his associate Christopher von Graffenried were captured by Tuscarora Indians while ascending the Neuse River; the Tuscarora released von Graffenried, but they subjected Lawson to ritual torture, typical of warriors, killed him. Shortly thereafter, tensions between the Tuscarora and their allies and settlers erupted into a bloody conflict known as the Tuscarora War, lasting until the defeat of the Tuscarora in 1715.
The colonists gathered their own American Indian allies from among the Yamasee and Cherokee, traditional enemies and competitors of the Tuscarora. A New Voyage to Carolina. Other editions of this work appeared under the titles, The History of Carolina or Lawson's History of Carolina. Online versions of this work: John Lawson, A New Voyage to Carolina, at Project Gutenberg John Lawson, A New Voyage to Carolina, at Documenting the South, University of North Carolina "John Lawson Digital Exhibit". Joyner Library, East Carolina University. Retrieved 2006-11-11. "John Lawson". American Philosophical Society. Retrieved 2006-11-11. "John Lawson: Explorer, Co-Founder of Bath". North Carolina Office of Archives & History. Archived from the original on 2006-11-02. Retrieved 2006-11-11. Savage, Henry. Discovering America 1700-1875, Harper & Row, 20-25. ISBN 0-06-090740-1. Seaman, Rebecca M. "John Lawson, the Outbreak of the Tuscarora Wars, "Middle Ground" Theory", Journal of the North Carolina Association of Historians.
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
A kiln is a thermally insulated chamber, a type of oven, that produces temperatures sufficient to complete some process, such as hardening, drying, or chemical changes. Kilns have been used for millennia to turn objects made from clay into pottery and bricks. Various industries use rotary kilns for pyroprocessing—to calcinate ores, to calcinate limestone to lime for cement, to transform many other materials; the word kiln descends from the Old English cylene (/ˈkylene/, adapted from the Latin culīna "kitchen, cooking-stove, burning-place". During the Middle English Period, the "n" was not pronounced, as evidenced by kiln having been spelled without the "n", Another word, "miln", a place where wheat is ground had a silent "n". Whereas the spelling of "miln" was changed to "mill" to match its pronunciation, "kiln" maintained its spelling, which most led to a common mispronunciation, which has now become used. However, there are small bastions. Kiln, Mississippi, a small town known for its wood drying kilns that once served the timber industry, is still referred to as "the Kill" by locals.
Unwittingly adding the "n" sound at the end of "kiln" is due to people being introduced to the word through the written language before hearing the actual pronunciation. Linguists call this phenomenon "reading pronunciation" where an incorrect pronunciation is read aloud, becomes widespread reported by dictionaries, the "original pronunciation, passed from parent to child, mouth to ear, for many generations is lost."Phonetically, the "ln" in "kiln" is categorized as a digraph: a combination of two letters that make only one sound, such as the "mn" in "hymn". From English Words as Spoken and Written for Upper Grades by James A. Bowen 1900: "The digraph ln, n silent, occurs in kiln. A fall down the kiln can kill you." Bowen was pointing out the humorous fact. Pit fired pottery was produced for thousands of years before the earliest known kiln, which dates to around 6000 BC, was found at the Yarim Tepe site in modern Iraq. Neolithic kilns were able to produce temperatures greater than 900 °C. Uses include: Annealing and deforming glass, or fusing metallic oxide paints to the surface of glass Heat treatment for metallic workpieces Ceramics Brickworks Melting metal for casting Smelting ore to extract metal Pyrolysis of chemical materials Heating limestone with clay in the manufacture of Portland cement, the Cement kiln Heating limestone to make quicklime or calcium oxide, the Lime kiln Heating gypsum to make plaster of Paris For cremation Drying of tobacco leaves Drying malted barley for brewing and other fermentations Drying hops for brewing Drying corn before grinding or storage, sometimes called a corn kiln, corn drying kiln.
Drying green lumber so it can be used Drying wood for use as firewood Heating wood to the point of pyrolysis to produce charcoal Kilns are an essential part of the manufacture of all ceramics. Ceramics require high temperatures so chemical and physical reactions will occur to permanently alter the unfired body. In the case of pottery, clay materials are shaped and fired in a kiln; the final characteristics are determined by the composition and preparation of the clay body and the temperature at which it is fired. After a first firing, glazes may be used and the ware is fired a second time to fuse the glaze into the body. A third firing at a lower temperature may be required to fix overglaze decoration. Modern kilns have sophisticated electrical control systems to firing regime, although pyrometric devices are also used. Clay consists of fine-grained particles, that are weak and porous. Clay is combined with other minerals to create a workable clay body. Part of the firing process includes sintering.
This heats the clay until the particles melt and flow together, creating a strong, single mass, composed of a glassy phase interspersed with pores and crystalline material. Through firing, the pores are reduced in size; this crystalline material predominantly consists of aluminium oxides. In the broadest terms, there are two types of kiln: intermittent and continuous, both sharing the same basic characteristics of being an insulated box with a controlled inner temperature and atmosphere. A continuous kiln, sometimes called a tunnel kiln, is a long structure in which only the central portion is directly heated. From the cool entrance, ware is transported through the kiln, its temperature is increased as it approaches the central, hottest part of the kiln. From there, it continues through the kiln, the surrounding temperature is reduced until it exits the kiln nearly at room temperature. A continuous kiln is energy-efficient, because heat given off during cooling is recycled to pre-heat the incoming ware.
In some designs, the ware is left in one place. Kilns in this type include: Hoffmann kiln Bull’s Trench kiln Habla kiln Roller kiln: A special type of kiln, common in tableware and tile manufacture, is the roller-hearth kiln, in which wares placed on bats are carried through the kiln on rollers. In the intermittent kiln. the ware to be fired is placed into the kiln. The kiln is closed, the internal temperature increased according to a schedule. After the firing is completed, both the kiln and the ware are cooled; the ware is removed, the kiln is cleaned and the next cycle begins. Kilns in this type include: Clamp kiln Skove kiln Scotch kiln Down-Draft kiln Shuttle Kilns: this is a car-bottom kiln with a door
Guignard Brick Works
Guignard Brick Works is a historic industrial site and national historic district located in Cayce, Lexington County, South Carolina. The brick works was established by the Guignard family in 1801 and over the years produced brick for many buildings in Columbia, South Carolina and throughout the South; the complex includes four brick beehive kilns, a historic brick office, remnants of other industrial features of the brick works. Three of the four remaining kilns were built around 1920, the other was built in 1932. Clay for brickmaking was obtained from banks of the nearby Congaree River; the site was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1995. National Register of Historic Places listings in Lexington County, South Carolina NRHP Nomination Form
Colonial period of South Carolina
The history of the colonial period of South Carolina focuses on the English colonization that created one of the original Thirteen Colonies. Major settlement began after 1651 as the northern half of the British colony of Carolina attracted frontiersmen from Pennsylvania and Virginia, while the southern parts were populated by wealthy English people who set up large plantations dependent on slave labor, for the cultivation of cotton and indigo; the colony was separated into the Province of South Carolina and the Province of North Carolina in 1712. South Carolina's capital city of Charleston became a major port for traffic on the Atlantic Ocean, South Carolina developed indigo and Sea Island cotton as commodity crop exports, making it one of the most prosperous of the colonies. A strong colonial government fought wars with the local Indians, with Spanish imperial outposts in Florida, while fending off the threat of pirates. Birth rates were high, food was abundant, these offset the disease environment of malaria to produce rapid population growth among whites.
With the expansion of plantation agriculture, the colony imported numerous African slaves, who comprised a majority of the population by 1708. They were integral to its development; the colony developed a system of laws and self-government and a growing commitment to Republicanism, which patriots feared was threatened by the British Empire after 1765. At the same time, men with close commercial and political ties to Great Britain tended to be Loyalists when the revolution broke out. South Carolina joined the American Revolution in 1775, but was bitterly divided between Patriots and Loyalists; the British invaded in 1780 and captured most of the state, but were driven out. After several expeditions a settlement attempted in the 1st century and Italy had abandoned the area of present-day South Carolina In 1629, Charles I granted his attorney general a charter to everything between latitudes 36 and 31. In 1663, Charles II granted the land to eight Lords Proprietors in return for their financial and political assistance in restoring him to the throne in 1660.
Anthony Ashley Cooper the 1st Earl of Shaftesbury emerged as the leader of the Lords Proprietors, John Locke became his assistant and chief planner. The two men were chiefly responsible for developing the Grand Model for the Province of Carolina, which included the Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina; the newly created province was intended in part to serve as an English bulwark to contest lands claimed by Spanish Florida. There was a single government of the Carolinas based in Charleston until 1712, when a separate government was set up for North Carolina. In 1719, the Crown purchased the South Carolina colony from the absentee Lords Proprietors and appointed Royal Governors. By 1729, seven of the eight Lords Proprietors had sold their interests back to the Crown. Throughout the Colonial Period, the Carolinas participated in numerous wars with the Spanish and the Native Americans the Yamasee and Cherokee. During the Yamasee War of 1715-1717, South Carolina faced near annihilation due to Native American attacks.
An indigenous alliance had formed to try to push the colonists out, in part as a reaction to their trade in Native American slaves for the nearly 50 years since 1670. The effects of the slave trade affected tribes throughout the Southeast. Estimates are that Carolinians exported 24,000-51,000 Native American slaves to markets from Boston to Barbados; the emerging planter class used the revenues to finance the purchase of enslaved Africans and financing of indentured servants. So many Africans were imported that they comprised a majority of the population in the colony from 1708 through the American Revolution. Living and working together on large plantations, they developed what is known as the Gullah culture and creole language, maintaining many west African traditions of various cultures, while adapting to the new environment; the white population of the Lowcountry was dominated by wealthy planters of English descent and indentured servants from southern and western England. The interior Carolina upcountry was settled largely in the 18th century by Ulster Scots immigrants arriving via Pennsylvania and Virginia, German Calvinists, French Huguenot refugees in the Piedmont and foothills as well as by working class English indentured servants who moved inland after completing their terms of service working on coastal plantations.
Toward the end of the Colonial Period, the upcountry people were underrepresented politically and felt they were mistreated by the planter elite. In reaction, many took a Loyalist position when the Lowcountry planters complained of the new taxes, an issue that contributed to the colony's support of the American Revolution. In North Carolina a short-lived colony was established near the mouth of the Cape Fear River. A ship was sent southward to explore the Port Royal, South Carolina area, where the French had established the short-lived Charlesfort post and the Spanish had built Santa Elena, the capital of Spanish Florida from 1566 to 1587, until it was abandoned. Captain Robert Sanford made a visit with the friendly Edisto Indians; when the ship departed to return to Cape Fear, Dr. Henry Woodward stayed behind to study the interior and native Indians. In Bermuda, Colonel William Sayle, an 80-year-old Puritan Bermudian colonist, was named governor of Carolina. On March 15, 1670, under Sayle, they reached Port Royal.
According to the account of one passenger, the Indians were friendly, made signs toward where they should land, spoke broken Spanish. Spain still co
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government