José Hipólito Unanue y Pavón was a physician, meteorologist, First Minister of Finance of Peru, Minister of Foreign affairs, Protomédico, university professor, founder of the San Fernando Medical School, representative of Arequipa in the Cádiz Cortes, President of the Junta de Gobierno, President of the first Peruvian congress, Protector of the province of Arequipa, independence precursor and a Peruvian politician, active in politics in the early years after independence. Hipólito Unanue was born in Arica on August 13, 1755 as the son of Antonio Unánue de Montalivert and Manuela Pavón y Salgado, both from creole families, he studied law in a seminary in Arequipa. In 1777, Unanue moved to Lima to study natural sciences, he studied in Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos where he received his bachelor's degree in 1783, graduated in 1786 and became a professor at the same university, establishing his name as an eminent physician. He was one of the founders of Sociedad Académica de Amantes del País in 1790.
In 1824 he was a government functionary as Finance minister for a short period of time. His contributions to Peruvian science were "largely forgotten," during the turbulent period of Peruvian independence. Spanish American Enlightenment
Lima is the capital and the largest city of Peru. It is located in the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín rivers, in the central coastal part of the country, overlooking the Pacific Ocean. Together with the seaport of Callao, it forms a contiguous urban area known as the Lima Metropolitan Area. With a population of more than 9 million, Lima is the most populous metropolitan area of Peru and the third-largest city in the Americas, behind São Paulo and Mexico City. Lima was founded by Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro on 18 January 1535, as Ciudad de los Reyes in the agricultural region known by the Indians as Limaq, name that acquired over time, it became most important city in the Viceroyalty of Peru. Following the Peruvian War of Independence, it became the capital of the Republic of Peru. Around one-third of the national population lives in the metropolitan area. Lima is home to one of the oldest institutions of higher learning in the New World; the National University of San Marcos, founded on 12 May 1551, during the Spanish colonial regime, is the oldest continuously functioning university in the Americas.
Nowadays the city is considered as the political, cultural and commercial center of the country. Internationally, it is one of the thirty most populated urban agglomerations in the world. Due to its geostrategic importance, it has been defined as a "beta" city. Jurisdictionally, the metropolis extends within the province of Lima and in a smaller portion, to the west, within the constitutional province of Callao, where the seaport and the Jorge Chávez airport are located. Both provinces have regional autonomy since 2002. In October 2013, Lima was chosen to host the 2019 Pan American Games, it hosted the United Nations Climate Change Conference in December 2014 and the Miss Universe 1982 contest. According to early Spanish articles the Lima area was once called Itchyma, after its original inhabitants; however before the Inca occupation of the area in the 15th century, a famous oracle in the Rímac valley had come to be known by visitors as Limaq. This oracle was destroyed by the Spanish and replaced with a church, but the name persisted: the chronicles show "Límac" replacing "Ychma" as the common name for the area.
Modern scholars speculate that the word "Lima" originated as the Spanish pronunciation of the native name Limaq. Linguistic evidence seems to support this theory as spoken Spanish rejects stop consonants in word-final position. Non-Peruvian Spanish speakers may mistakenly define the city name as the direct Spanish translation of "lime", the citrus fruit; the city was founded in 1535 under the name City of the Kings because its foundation was decided on 6 January, date of the feast of the Epiphany. This name fell into disuse and Lima became the city's name of choice; the river that feeds Lima is called Rímac and many people erroneously assume that this is because its original Inca name is "Talking River". However, the original inhabitants of the valley were not Incas; this name is an innovation arising from an effort by the Cuzco nobility in colonial times to standardize the toponym so that it would conform to the phonology of Cuzco Quechua. As the original inhabitants died out and the local Quechua became extinct, the Cuzco pronunciation prevailed.
Nowadays, Spanish-speaking locals do not see the connection between the name of their city and the name of the river that runs through it. They assume that the valley is named after the river; the Flag of Lima has been known as the "Banner of Peru's Kings' City". It is embroidered in the center is its coat of arms. Lima's anthem was heard for the first time on 18 January 2008, in a formal meeting with important politicians, including Peruvian President Alan García, other authorities; the anthem was created by Euding Maeshiro and record producer Ricardo Núñez. In the pre-Columbian era, what is now Lima was inhabited by indigenous groups under the Ychsma policy, incorporated into the Inca Empire in the 15th century. In 1532 a group of Spanish conquistadors, led by Francisco Pizarro, defeated the Inca ruler Atahualpa and took over his empire; as the Spanish Crown had named Pizarro governor of the lands he conquered, he chose the Rímac Valley to found his capital on 18 January 1535, as Ciudad de los Reyes.
In August 1536, rebel Inca troops led by Manco Inca Yupanqui besieged the city but were defeated by the Spaniards and their native allies. Lima gained prestige after being designated capital of the Viceroyalty of Peru and site of a Real Audiencia in 1543. During the next century it flourished as the centre of an extensive trade network that integrated the Viceroyalty with the rest of the Americas and the Far East. However, the city was not free from dangers; the 1687 Peru earthquake destroyed most of the city buildings. In 1746, another p
Cayetano Heredia University
Cayetano Heredia University is a Private nonprofit university located in Lima, Peru. It was named in honor of Cayetano Heredia, one of the eminent Peruvian physicians of the 19th century; the university is overseen by a Board of Trustees and is not property of any private or state entity. It is considered one of the top medical schools in Perú, along the Faculty of Medicine "San Fernando" of National University of San Marcos), is one of the majors producers and publishers of scientific research in the country; the university was founded in 1961 by a group of professors and students from the school of medicine of the four-century-old National University of San Marcos in Lima. This group of students and professors expressed their strong disagreement with legislation, inspired by the APRA, a political party interested in the absolute control of the university system in the country; the legislation advocated the "co-government" of all the state universities by the so-called "student one-third" which would politicize the academic enterprise.
The dissenting group was led by Drs. Honorio Delgado and Alberto Hurtado, dean of the medical school at San Marcos; as their campaign to preserve academics failed, the 400 plus faculty members had no other option but to resign en masse, found the new medical school as a private non-profit academic institution. This occurred, in 1961 and the first classes commenced in April 1962; some have suggested that these events were the subject of "prior arrangements/agreements" which, in the political context of the time, would have been impossible. 47 years Cayetano Heredia and San Marcos are the most prestigious medical schools in Peru. The rectors of the university, since its foundation, are: Dr. Honorio Delgado Dr. Alberto Hurtado Dr. Carlos Monge Dr. Enrique Fernandez Dr. Alberto Cazorla Dr. Homero Silva Dr. Roger Guerra Garcia Dr. Carlos Vidal Layseca Dr. Ozwaldo Zegarra Dra. Fabiola Leon Velarde Dr. Luis Varela Pinedo Faculty of Medicine Faculty of Science and Philosophy Faculty of Stomatology Faculty of Psychology Faculty of Nursing Faculty of Public Health and Health Administration Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Breeding Faculty of Education Soon after its founding and during the following forty plus years Cayetano Heredia University became a significant center of higher learning and scientific research in Peru.
UPCH is credited to be responsible of world-quality research production in the area of health sciences in Peru. It is a rather small school that focuses on the disciplines of medicine, natural sciences, public health, veterinary medicine, nursing and education, it grants baccalaureate degrees as well as advanced. Master and doctoral degrees in biochemistry, medicine, a Master of Health Administration. Cayetano Heredia University has established numerous agreements and collaborative arrangements with leading institutions from all over the world, including the Johns Hopkins University, University of Washington, University of California San Diego, University of California Berkeley, University of Alabama at Birmingham, London School of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, the Prince Leopold Institute of Tropical Medicine in Belgium, the University of Pennsylvania; the Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt is among the top research institutions in tropical medicine in Latin America, with ongoing investigations in tuberculosis, malaria and HIV, both in its site in Lima and in several field sites such as Iquitos, Cuzco and La Merced.
The institute is internationally recognized for the Gorgas Course in Clinical Tropical Medicine, given jointly with UAB. The Instituto de Investigaciones de la Altura is known for its contribution to the understanding of high altitude physiology and the pathophysiology of acute and chronic high altitude sickness; the logo of Cayetano Heredia is a yellow shield with the words "Spiritus ubi vult spirat" on the sides. In the center is the Rod of Asclepius, representative of medicine and healing. Enrique Fernández José Luis Calderón Javier Mariátegui Uriel García Cáceres Carlos Bustamante Ramiro Castro de la Mata Maria C. Freire Humberto Guerra Allison Tomas Kirchhausen Juan Mezzich Renato Alarcón Abraham Vaisberg Wolach "Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia". Official university site. Archived from the original on December 18, 2005. Retrieved December 18, 2005. Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia official website Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia alumni website
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
National University of San Marcos
The National University of San Marcos is a public research university in Lima, capital of Peru. Known as the "Dean university of the Americas", it is the first established and the longest continuously operating university in the Americas, it is regarded as an influential institution of higher-education in the country. It ranks among the top two universities in the country, its main campus, the University City, is located in Lima. It was chartered on May 12, 1551, by a royal decree signed by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, which makes it the oldest established university in the Americas. San Marcos has 60 academic-professional schools, organized into 20 faculties, 6 academic areas. All of the faculties offer graduate degrees; the student body consists of over 30,000 undergraduate and 4,000 graduate students from all the country, as well as some international students. The university has a number of public institutions under its government such as the San Marcos Cultural Center and the Museum of Natural History of Lima.
It is the only university in Peru with a Nobel Prize laureate among its alumni: Mario Vargas Llosa. San Marcos is recognized for the quality of its curricular contents, a competitive admissions process, as well as for being a center of scientific research. Several Peruvian and Latin American influential thinkers, scientists and writers have studied there, which underscores San Marcos' leading role as an educational institution in the history of Peru and the world. San Marcos is considered the oldest university in the Americas, it was established by a royal decree on May 12, 1551, since it has operated without interruption. Hence, it is locally known as the Dean of the Americas. San Marcos claims that according to the Archivo General de Indias, a Spanish repository of documents on the former colonies in the sixteenth to eighteenth centuries, there were no official Spanish records of any other university or higher-education institution before 1551. However, the Autonomous University of Santo Domingo was founded in 1538.
It was not recognized by Royal Decree until 1558, and, as many other universities in the Americas closed during independence wars and other political conflicts, it was closed due to the occupations of the Dominican Republic by Haiti and the United States. The university was headed by members of the clergy. During the Enlightenment, Bourbon reforms transformed it into a secular institution. Nowadays, the university is governed by: The University Council The University Assembly The Rector Two Vice-Rectors: Academic Vice-Rector Vice-Rector of investigation The original faculties at San Marcos were Theology and Law; the Faculty of Natural Sciences and the Faculty of Economics and Commerce were created in the mid-19th century. The Faculty of Science was subdivided by specialities in the 20th century; the Faculty of Theology was closed in 1935. In the mid-1990s San Marcos' departments were grouped into four academic blocks. Nowadays, San Marcos' faculties are grouped into 6 academic areas. See Category:National University of San Marcos alumni and Category:National University of San Marcos faculty Carlos Monge Medrano, physician Laura Esther Rodriguez Dulanto, first female physician in Peru Santiago Antúnez de Mayolo and scientist José María Arguedas and anthropologist Jorge Basadre, historian Luis Bedoya Reyes, congressman, Mayor of Lima and founder of the Christian People's Party G. E. Berrios, professor of psychiatry at the University of Cambridge Bertha Bouroncle, physician Alfredo Bryce Echenique, novelist Carlos Bustamante, biophysicist Daniel Alcides Carrión, medical student and pioneer in medical research Ramiro Castro de la Mata Caamaño, scientist Carlos Manuel Chavez, heart surgeon José Santos Chocano, poet Antonio Cornejo-Polar, literary critic Luis A. Eguiguren,educator, magistrate and Peruvian politician Víctor Raúl Haya de la Torre, revolutionary thinker, founder of the American Popular Revolutionary Alliance Cayetano Heredia, physician Mariano Iberico Rodríguez, philosopher Francisco Miró Quesada Cantuarias and logician Bernardo O'Higgins, military officer and first President of Chile Valentín Paniagua Corazao, former President of Peru Hugo Pesce and leprosy specialist Luis Alberto Sánchez and statesman Manuel Scorza, novelist Julio C.
Tello, archaeologist Abraham Valdelomar and short-story writer Mario Vargas Llosa, Nobel Prize in Literature Federico Villarreal and mathematician Casona de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos List of colonial universities in Latin America History of the National University of San Marcos seal Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos website Faculty of Medicine website
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
Piura is a city in northwestern Peru located in the Sechura Desert on the Piura River. It is the capital of the Piura Province, its population is 484,475 as of 2017. It was here that Spanish Conqueror Francisco Pizarro founded the third Spanish city in South America and first in Peru, San Miguel de Piura, in July 1532. Piura declared its independence from Spain on 4 January 1821. Like most of northern Peru, the territory of Piura has been inhabited by their autochthonous group of natives called tallanes and yungas; these groups lived without an organization or single leader to rule until the Muchik culture took control, the mixture of these evolved into the Vicús culture. Centuries Piura came under the rule of Tupac Inca Yupanqui for at least 40 years before the Spanish arrived. With the arrival of the Spanish in 1532, the current mestizo and creole cultures of Piura were born; this mestizo culture includes influences from Spanish Andalucia. The Spanish named the city from the Quechuan word pirhua, meaning "abundance".
Nowadays, Piura is known as the "Ciudad del eterno calor" meaning "The city of eternal heat" because it is hot all year round. Piura Department has a desert and semi-desert climate on the coast and the western slopes of the Andes, whereas on the eastern slopes the climate is subtropical. Precipitation is sparse except during El Niño events, when rainfall is abundant and water flows through dry watercourses, causing flooding and large-scale land movements; the hydrography of Piura Department is determined by the amount of rainfall originating in the Pacific Ocean. This rainfall is itself determined by the meeting of two ocean currents on the southern coast of the department, around the bay of Sechura: the cold Humboldt current at 13-19 °C, the warm El Niño at 21-27 °C; these conditions lead to fluctuations in offshore sea temperatures, which are 18-23 °C in winter and spring, 23-27 °C in summer and sometimes in autumn. The mean annual humidity is 66%; the mean atmospheric pressure is 1008.5 hPa, while winds are from the north at an average speed of 3 m/s.
Annual rainfall varies between 200 mm at altitudes of 100-500 m. Most of the region is arid, with rainfall concentrated in the high Andean areas, while on the wide plains the main water sources are seasonal rivers flowing from the north: the Chira and the Piura; the southern half of the plain consists of the Sechura Desert. The main rivers are the Huancabamba and the Chira; the reservoir of Poechos has been created within the course of the Chira. It irrigates large portions of the coastal region; the river Quiroz, a tributary of the Piura, supplies the huge artificial lake of San Lorenzo. On the Huancabamba, in the mountains, there is a hydroelectric power station supplying energy to the region. One of the best-known tourist attractions in Piura is La Esmeralda beach, known as Colan beach for it is located near the town of Colan, it is a long beach with warm waters. Local people like to go there during holidays. There are great spots for surfers, like Playa Cangrejos, Mancora Beach and Cabo Blanco.
Cabo Blanco made be famous by visitor Ernest Hemingway in 1956, where he supervised the filming of "The Old Man and the Sea". Piura is served by the Cap. FAP Guillermo Concha Iberico International Airport. Piura is host to a stunning mestizo culture most famous for gastronomical dishes like Seco de chabelo, algarrobina-based drinks, many types of seafood and fish, like ceviche and Natilla Sweets. Popular crafts are the Chulucana Pottery and Catacaos is famous for its "Hats" and "Silversmith" arts; the small town of Simbila, is popular for its handcrafts and pottery. The tondero and cumanana are the traditional music of mestizo Piura and northern parts of Lambayeque. There are several famous Peruvian Waltz that came from these regions. Piura will be one of the five host cities of the 2019 FIFA U-17 World Cup. University of Piura National University of Piura Branches of: Peruvian Wings University César Vallejo University The Angels of Chimbote University Antenor Orrego Private University Saint Peter University Iglesia Catedral de Piura was founded in 1588, located in the Plena Plaza de Armas, is an icon of the city Iglesia San Francisco was founded by the Franciscan Order Iglesia San Sebastian was founded in 1911 Iglesia Alianza Cristiana and Missionary of Piura Iglesia Maria auxiliadora Powerhouse Peru Powerhouse Peru Bahía Blanca, Argentina.
Trujillo, Spain. Empalme, Mexico. Salt Lake City, United States. Loja, Ecuador. Piura travel guide from Wikivoyage "Piura". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911. "Piura". The American Cyclopædia. 1879