The Pacific Ranges are the southernmost subdivision of the Coast Mountains portion of the Pacific Cordillera. Located within British Columbia, they run northwest from the lower stretches of the Fraser River to Bella Coola and Burke Channel, north of which are the Kitimat Ranges; the Coast Mountains lie between the Coast of British Columbia. The Pacific Ranges include four of the five major coastal icecaps in the southern Coast Mountains; these are the largest temperate-latitude icecaps in the world and fuel a number of major rivers. One of these contains Mount Waddington, the highest summit within British Columbia. Within this region is Hunlen Falls, among the highest in Canada, located in Tweedsmuir South Provincial Park. Other than logging and various hydroelectric developments, a large ski resort at Whistler, most of the land in the range is undeveloped. In the southern part of the range, mining was important at various times in the Lillooet, Bridge River and Squamish areas, large pulp and paper mills at Powell River, Port Mellon and Woodfibre.
The largest hydroelectric development in the Pacific Ranges is the Bridge River Power Project, though smaller hydro plants are on the Stave River-Alouette Lake system in Mission and Maple Ridge, the Daisy Lake-Squamish River division of the Cheakamus Powerhouse, another power dam and power plant at Clowhom. Although the range was extensively surveyed for possible rail routes, only that of the Pacific Great Eastern was built; the Pacific Ranges are part of the southern portion of the Coast Plutonic Complex and has been characterized by rapid rates of uplift over the past 4 million years, which has led to high rates of erosion. The Garibaldi Volcanic Belt is within the Pacific Ranges, a volcanic belt formed by the subduction of the Juan de Fuca Plate under the North American Plate along the Cascadia subduction zone; the belt is the northern extension of the Cascade Volcanic Arc in the United States and contains the most explosive young volcanoes in Canada. The eruption styles in the belt range from effusive to explosive, with compositions from basalt to rhyolite.
Morphologically, centers include calderas, cinder cones and small isolated lava masses. Due to repeated continental and alpine glaciations, many of the volcanic deposits in the belt reflect complex interactions between magma composition and changing ice configurations; the most recent major catastrophic eruption in the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt was from the Mount Meager massif 2,350 BP, Canada's most recent major catastrophic eruption. The Garibaldi Volcanic Belt contains 2 extra volcanic fields, the Franklin Glacier Complex and the Silverthrone Caldera, which lie 140 and 190 km northwest of the main volcanic belt; the Cascadia subduction zone is a 680 mi long fault, running 50 mi off the west-coast of the Pacific Northwest from northern California to Vancouver Island. The plates move at a relative rate of over 0.4 inches per year at a somewhat oblique angle to the subduction zone. Unlike most subduction zones worldwide, there is no oceanic trench present along the continental margin in Cascadia.
Instead and the accretionary wedge have been uplifted to form a series of coast ranges and exotic mountains. A high rate of sedimentation from the outflow of the three major rivers which cross the Cascade Range contributes to further obscuring the presence of a trench. However, in common with most other subduction zones, the outer margin is being compressed, similar to a giant spring; when the stored energy is released by slippage across the fault at irregular intervals, the Cascadia subduction zone can create large earthquakes, such as the 8.7–9.2 Mw Cascadia earthquake of 1700. Niut Range Pantheon Range Waddington Range Whitemantle Range Chilcotin Ranges Shulaps Range Dickson Range Camelsfoot Range Bendor Range Lillooet Ranges Cayoosh Range Cantilever Range Douglas Ranges Garibaldi Ranges North Shore Mountains Tantalus Range Clendinning Range the Camelsfoot Range running north along the west bank of the Fraser from Lillooet is sometimes considered to be part of the Chilcotin Ranges, but in other definitions is part of the Interior PlateauMany smaller ranges and subranges are not listed at present..
Monarch Icefield Ha-Iltzuk Icefield Waddington Range Homathko Icefield Lillooet Icecap Pemberton Icecap Mount Waddington Monarch Mountain Mount Tiedemann Mount Munday Mount Queen Bess Mount Good Hope Mount Raleigh Monmouth Mountain Mount Tatlow Taseko Mountain Mount Silverthrone Mount Meager massif Mount Cayley massif Mount Garibaldi Wedge Mountain Garibaldi Provincial Park Golden Ears Provincial Park Cypress Provincial Park Mount Seymour Provincial Park Sasquatch Provincial Park Stein Valley Nlaka'pamux Heritage Park Birkenhead Lake Provincial Park Big Creek Provincial Park Spruce Lake Protected Area Ts'il?os Provincial Park Tweedsmuir North Provincial Park and Protected Area Tweedsmuir South Provincial ParkList is incomplete Some Protected areas, recreation areas and other non-park preservation areas are not listed. Fraser River Chilcotin River Bridge River Lillooet River Squamish River Homathko River Klinaklini River Bella Coola RiverMany unknown river
Lillooet Lake is a lake in British Columbia, Canada about 25 km in length and about 33.5 square kilometres in area. It is about 95 km downstream from the source of the Lillooet River, which resumes its course after leaving Little Lillooet Lake, aka Tenas Lake. Adjacent to the mouth of the upper Lillooet River is the mouth of the Birkenhead River and just upstream along the Lillooet is the confluence of the Green River, which begins at Green Lake in the resort area of Whistler; the community of Pemberton is about 12 km upstream from the head of Lillooet Lake, while the eastern edge of the Mount Currie Indian Reserve of the Lil'wat branch of the St'at'imc people is the lakeshore itself. The eastern ramparts of the mountain ranges of Garibaldi Provincial Park overlook Lillooet Lake from the west, while to the east are the northern reaches of the Lillooet Ranges which lie between the Lillooet-Harrison drainage and the Fraser River. Lillooet Lake was part of the "Lakes Route" or Douglas Road, once if only the principal route between the Coast and the Interior during the days of the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush.
Several steamers and innumerable smaller watercraft served the busy freight and passenger traffic in those days. The best-known and largest of these was the SS Prince of Wales, whose wreckage was visible on the shores of the lake near Mount Currie for many years. Aerial view of Lillooet Lake SE from above Mount Currie "Lillooet Lake". BC Geographical Names
The Fraser Canyon is a major landform of the Fraser River where it descends through narrow rock gorges in the Coast Mountains en route from the Interior Plateau of British Columbia to the Fraser Valley. Colloquially, the term "Fraser Canyon" is used to include the Thompson Canyon from Lytton to Ashcroft, since they form the same highway route which most people are familiar with, although it is reckoned to begin above Williams Lake, British Columbia at Soda Creek Canyon near the town of the same name; the canyon was formed during the Miocene period by the river cutting into the uplifting Interior Plateau. From the northern Cariboo to Fountain, the river follows the line of the huge Fraser Fault, which runs on a north-south axis and meets the Yalakom Fault a few miles downstream from Lillooet. Exposures of lava flows are present in cliffs along the Fraser Canyon, they represent volcanic activity in the southern Chilcotin Group during the Pliocene period and the volcanic vents of their origins have not been discovered.
The canyon extends 270 kilometres north of Yale to the confluence of the Chilcotin River. Its southern stretch is a major transportation corridor to the Interior from "the Coast", with the Canadian National and Canadian Pacific Railways and the Trans-Canada Highway carved out of its rock faces, with many of the canyon's side-crevasses spanned by bridges and trestles. Prior to the double-tracking of those railways and major upgrades to Highway 1, travel through the canyon was more precarious than it is now. During the frontier era it was a major obstacle between the Lower Mainland and the Interior Plateau, the slender trails along its rocky walls - many of them little better than notches cut into granite, with a few handholds - were compared to goat-tracks. North of Lytton, it is followed by BC Highway 12 from Lillooet to Pavilion by BC Hwy 99; the British Columbia Railway line follows the same stretch of canyon from Lillooet to just beyond Pavilion. Between there and the mouth of the Chilcotin River there are only rough ranching roads, the terrain is a mix of canyon depths flanked by arid benchland and high plateau.
Between Pavilion and Lillooet, the river's gorge is at its maximum depth, with the river throttled through a series of narrow gorges flanked by high cliffs, though still flanked above those cliffs by wide benchlands which stand on the foreshoulder of the mountain ranges flanking the gorge. At Hells Gate, near Boston Bar, the canyon walls rise about 1,000 metres above the rapids. Fish ladders along the river's side permit migrating salmon to bypass a rockslide that diverted the river during the blasting of the Canadian Northern Railway line in 1913; the area around Hell's Gate carries the name Black Canyon, which may either be a reference to the colour of the rocks when it rains, or the name of a community built on the cliffsides here during the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush. At the site that once housed railway workers, a tourist attraction built in 1971 takes visitors across Hell's Gate via an aerial tramway. At Siska, a few minutes south of Lytton, there are the Cisco bridges—a pair of railway bridges at the throat of a rocky gorge.
From south to north, the Canadian Pacific has been on the west side of the canyon, while the Canadian National has been on the east side. At Siska, the two railways switch sides: the CP—520-foot-long truss bridge—crosses to the east, the CN—on a 810-foot steel-arched bridge over the CP—is now on the west; the two railways now have an agreement to allow directional running through the canyon as far as Basque. All eastbound trains—CN, CP, Via Rail's eastbound Canadian—run on the CP line. All westbound trains -- CN, CP, Via Rail's westbound Canadian -- use. Just north of Lillooet, narrow rock ledges choke the river just at the confluence of the lower canyon of the Bridge River, forming an obstacle to migrating fish that has made this spot the busiest aboriginal fishing site on the river, from ancient times to the present. Concentrations of First Nations people here, from all tribes of the Interior, were believed to have been in excess of 10,000. Many stretches of the Fraser are named in their own right, starting with the Little Canyon between Yale and Spuzzum, the lowest reach of the Fraser Canyon.
Between the Spuzzum and Boston Bar was known in the gold rush as the Big Black Canyon. Above the Big Canyon there are the Lillooet Canyon, Fountain Canyon, Glen Fraser Canyon, Moran Canyon, High Bar Canyon, French Bar Canyon and more all the way up to Soda Creek Canyon near Quesnel. Upstream from there the river flows in wider country, but in the Robson Valley between Prince George and Tête Jaune Cache, the river enters the Grand Canyon of the Fraser; the Black Canyon was the site of a shantytown of the same name, much of, on catwalks on the ramparts of its dark-rock cliffs. Nearly all tributaries of the Fraser have canyons of varying scale; the Thompson Canyon, from Lytton to Ashcroft, is a sequence of large canyons of its own, some of them named, although most British Columbians and travellers think of it as part of the Fraser Canyon. Other important can
British Columbia Highway 99
Highway 99 known as the Fraser Delta Thruway south of Vancouver, the Sea to Sky Highway, the Squamish Highway, or Whistler Highway north of Vancouver, is the major north–south artery running through the Greater Vancouver area of British Columbia from the U. S. border, up Howe Sound through the Sea to Sky Country to Lillooet, connecting to Highway 97 just north of Cache Creek. The number of this highway is derived from the old U. S. Route 99, with which the highway connected; the highway connects with Interstate 5 at the international border. The total length of Highway 99 from the U. S. border to the Highway 97 junction is 409 kilometres. In 2006 the UK's The Guardian newspaper listed the Sea to Sky as the fifth best road trip worldwide. In the south, Highway 99 begins at the British Columbia – Washington State border crossing at Douglas, on the Canadian side of Peace Arch Park, as a continuation of Interstate 5; the highway begins with a four-lane freeway configuration. Highway 99 travels through Surrey 12 kilometres due northwest from the border, through four interchanges, turns west for 4 kilometres before reaching the junction with Highway 91, marking the highway's entry into the City of Delta.
Four km west, Highway 99 reaches its junction with Ladner Trunk Road. Eight km north, Highway 99 reaches a junction with Highway 17A. Another 2 kilometres northwest, Highway 99 crosses into Richmond through the George Massey Tunnel known as the Deas Tunnel or Deas Island Tunnel. From Surrey to Delta, the speed limit is 100 kilometres per hour. Through Richmond, Highway 99 travels 7 kilometres north from the Steveston Highway interchange, at the north mouth of the tunnel, to a junction which connects to the Westminster Highway, Knight Street, western end of Highway 91. Another 4 kilometres northwest, the southern freeway section of Highway 99 ends as the highway crosses the North Arm of the Fraser River, over the Oak Street Bridge, into Vancouver; the 30-kilometre long route through Vancouver's city streets starts off going north on Oak Street to the intersection with West 70th Avenue. Highway 99 goes west on West 70th Avenue, north along Granville Street for 7 kilometres, 41st Avenue is used as an alternate signed connection between Granville and Oak Streets.
It crosses over False Creek into the downtown core. Highway 99 north goes through the downtown area by way of Seymour Street and Georgia Street, through Stanley Park, over the Lions Gate Bridge into West Vancouver at Marine Drive. In West Vancouver, Highway 99 goes west on Marine Drive and north on Taylor Way, to Highway 1. Highway 99 shares the Upper Levels Highway with Highway 1 for 12 kilometres west, diverging from Highway 1 near the BC Ferries terminal at Horseshoe Bay; the "Sea to Sky Highway" is the name given to the section of Highway 99 from Horseshoe Bay to Pemberton. From Horseshoe Bay, the highway travels along the coast of Howe Sound, it continues for 12 kilometres to Lions Bay, north for another 21 kilometres, crossing into the Squamish-Lillooet Regional District en route to Britannia Beach, north for 11 kilometres to Squamish, at the head of Howe Sound. From Squamish, it continues north for another 58 kilometres to Whistler, to Pemberton 32 kilometres where the Sea-to-Sky Highway ends and Duffey Lake Road begins.
After going for 100 winding kilometres in steep mountains where sometimes the speed limit is 30 km/h, Highway 99 reaches the junction with Highway 12 at Lillooet, goes northeast for another 75 kilometres to its northern terminus at its junction with Highway 97, just north of Cache Creek and just south of Clinton. The speed limit of the Sea-to-Sky Highway ranges from 80 to 100 kilometres per hour with 60 kilometres per hour sections in Lions Bay, Britannia Beach and parts of Squamish; this highway received the "99" designation, matching U. S. Route 99, in 1942 after completion of the King George VI Highway to the U. S. border. It shared an alignment with Highway 1 from Surrey to Vancouver via the Pattullo Bridge and Kingsway; the current freeway alignment of Highway 99 between 8th Avenue in South Surrey and the North Arm of the Fraser River opened in 1962 as Hwy. 99 and was called the Deas Throughway. Between 1964 and 1973, the freeway alignment of Highway 99 was designated Highway 499; the Oak Street Bridge was built in 1957 to cross the North Arm Fraser River, the Deas Island Tunnel was built 1957–59 to cross the Fraser River.
Tolls were collected at the crossings until April 1, 1963. A freeway between the tunnel and the American border was completed in the early 1960s. In 1957, the northern end of Highway 99 was moved from downtown Vancouver, across the Lions Gate Bridge and west to the village of Horseshoe Bay, following Marine Drive through West Vancouver. Highway 99 was re-aligned via Taylor Way, just east of the Park Royal Shopping Centre, to the Upper Levels Highway and extended to Britannia Beach one year extending to Squamish in 1959, to Pemberton in 1966. In 1992, the just-paved Duffey Lake Road between Pemberton and Lillooet was made part of Highway 99, the section of Highway 12 between Lillooet and Highway 97 was re-numbered 99; the portion of the highway between Lillooet and Pavilion was part of the route of the Old Cariboo Road. The Sea to Sky Highway section of Highway 99 has a checkered history. Built on a steep cliff overlooking Howe Sound, it was a two-lane undivided highway with no outside barrier.
The Bendor Range is a small but once-famous subrange of the Pacific Ranges of the Coast Mountains, about It is 7,000 square kilometres in area and about 40 km long and about 18 km at its widest. It lies between Anderson Lake on the southeast and the Carpenter Lake Reservoir or the Bridge River Power Project on the north, with the gold-rich valley of Cadwallader Creek on its southwest; the range's western flank is the site of a series of now-semi-abandoned mining towns. One of these, Bralorne, is among the deepest mines in Canada and in its heyday was the third-richest gold mine in the world, its shafts plunge a mile beneath sea level under the range. The name "Bendor" is believed by some locally to be a Gaelic-French hybrid - ben d'or - mountain of gold - and while it does mean that, more or less, the name was conferred in honour of Bend Or, a famous racehorse of the 1890s; the range has only a few small icefields, but a number of high and difficult peaks. The highest is Whitecap Mountain 2918 m, visible from the Lillooet end of Seton Lake but, as it is located near the heart of the range, invisible from the towns and lakes around its perimeter.
At the northwest of the range, but invisible from the towns below because of the terrain of its flanks, is Mount Truax 2870 m. East of it are Mount Williams 2775 m and Mount Bobb 2821 m. Note: some classification systems assign the Bendor to the Chilcotin Ranges subgrouping of the Pacific Ranges, but this is incorrect as it is on the south side of the Bridge River, the limit of the Chilcotin Ranges. "Bendor Range". BC Geographical Names. Bridge River-Lillooet Country Archive Bendor Range entry in the Canadian Mountain Encyclopedia
Pemberton, British Columbia
Pemberton is a village municipality north of Whistler in the Pemberton Valley of British Columbia in Canada, with a population of 2,574. Until the 1960s the village could be reached only by train, but that changed when Highway 99 was built through Whistler and Pemberton. Pemberton, British Columbia, Canada, is a small village located in the Coast Mountains, 100 miles north of Vancouver. Pemberton has a population of 2,574 people; until the early 1960s, when Highway 99 was built, Pemberton was accessible only by train and the population was under 200 people. The local economy is dependent on logging and tourism. Mt. Currie rises to the south, at 8,500 ft, can be seen throughout the Pemberton Valley; the climate of Pemberton is warm and dry in the summer and mild and wet in the winter. Pemberton is an ecologically complex and diverse zone, referred to as the Coast-Interior Transition zone. Moving from west to east in the direction of the prevailing winds and taking into consideration the elevation changes.
High summer temperatures and the pronounced water deficits during the growing season are the norm. In 1827, the Hudson's Bay Company's men first penetrated the valleys of the Birkenhead and Lillooet Rivers. Frances Ermantinger arrived by way of Seton Lake and Anderson Lake, James Murray Yale came three years having made the trip north from Fort Langley. In all likelihood both men were searching for a safe route for fur brigades from Kamloops and Fort Langley, for a route to bypass the lower Fraser River canyons. In 1846, Alexander Caulfield Anderson travelled through this country with the same purpose: to decide if company horses could make their way from the Fraser to present day Mount Currie and on, by way of Lillooet and Harrison Lakes, to Fort Langley. By as of the Oregon Treaty, the lower Columbia River, the main link with the Interior, was American, for that reason Governor Simpson considered a new route "most important." The men travelled on foot and by canoe from Kamloops to the south end of the lake named for the leader.
Seton Lake was named for an officer named Alexander Seton, a relative of A. C. Anderson. Seton served as lieutenant colonel on HMS Birkenhead; the exploration party continued by what Anderson described as a "very good trail," and camped overnight at the Birkenhead River. The next day, following the Birkenhead River, they reached Mount Currie area by late afternoon; the route was never used by the company, which chose to build the Brigade Trail from Hope via passes over the Coastal Range / Cascade Mountains to the east of the Fraser Canyon to reach Fort Kamloops. In 1858 the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush began and some 30,000 miners began the trek through traditional Lil'wat and upper St'at'imc territory to the goldfields at Lillooet known as Cayoosh Flat. Many miners who reached the goldfields in the summer of 1858 intended to stay the winter and this created an urgent problem for Governor Douglas of Vancouver Island; the miners needed food and that food had to be transported to regions above the lower canyons of the Fraser, where there were no roads.
Because he knew that twelve years earlier A. C. Anderson had traveled from Lillooet by a chain of lakes to Fort Langley, Governor James Douglas asked for a survey a route linking all lakes between the north end of Harrison Lake and the Fraser River; the total length of trail would be just over sixty-eight miles, the total length of all lakes nearly fifty-six miles. Five hundred miners eager to reach the gold-bearing Fraser River bars volunteered to build the trail, were charged $5 each for the privilege of doing so, in the form of a deposit to be refunded in exchange for goods upon completion, they established Port Douglas and constructed a trail called Douglas Portage to the north end of Lillooet Lake and called it Port Pemberton. This was the first public works project in the newly formed Crown Colony of British Columbia and is known as the Harrison-Lillooet Trail, the Lillooet Trail, the Lakes Route, or the Douglas Trail; the Pemberton Valley lies in the traditional territory of Lil'wat Nation who have lived on these lands for thousands of years.
Potatoes have been grown in the Pemberton Valley since the earliest days. Joe Joseph says that the land he inherited from his grandmother grew the first potatoes in the valley and that before the Gold Rush, when she was six, his grandmother had traveled to the coast with relatives and there visited a Mount Currie woman who had moved away from the valley and was living somewhere in the Lower Mainland around Fort Langley; when Joe’s grandmother and her relatives were leaving to return to the Mt. Currie homes, the woman they had visited gave them a pail of “skinny, lady finger” potatoes, said to plant them all that year, but to save the whole crop the first year and plant that crop with coming of the second spring, she said, the Mount Currie people could eat some of the potatoes they would dig the next fall. The returning visitors followed directions because the cultivation of domestic potatoes fitted well into the gardening practices of native women who dug them with forked sticks, early miners making their way north to the Fraser River gold fields starred in astonishment at the potato fields of Joe’s ancestors.
Pemberton was named for Joseph Despard Pemberton, a surveyor for the Hudson's Bay Company and Surveyor-General for the Colony of Vancouver Island in the 1850s. Joseph Pemberton had laid out Victoria's town
Lytton, British Columbia
Lytton in British Columbia, sits at the confluence of the Thompson River and Fraser River on the east side of the Fraser. The location has been inhabited by the Nlaka'pamux people for over 10,000 years, it is one of the earliest locations settled by non-natives in the Southern Interior of British Columbia. It was founded during the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush of 1858–59, when it was known as "The Forks"; the community includes the Village of Lytton and the surrounding community of the Lytton First Nation, whose name for the place is Camchin spelled Kumsheen. Lytton was on the route of the Gold Rush in 1858; the same year, Lytton was named for Edward Bulwer-Lytton, the British Colonial Secretary and a novelist. For many years Lytton was a stop on major transportation routes, the River Trail from 1858, Cariboo Wagon Road in 1862, the Canadian Pacific Railway in the 1880s, the Cariboo Highway in the 1920s, the Trans Canada Highway in the 1950s. However, it has become much less important since the construction of the Coquihalla Highway in 1987 which uses a more direct route to the BC Interior.
Novelist Bulwer-Lytton was a friend and contemporary of Charles Dickens and was one of the pioneers of the historical novel, exemplified by his most popular work, The Last Days of Pompeii. He is best remembered today for the opening line to the novel Paul Clifford, which begins "It was a dark and stormy night..." and is considered by some to be the worst opening sentence in the English language. However, Bulwer-Lytton is responsible for well-known sayings such as "The pen is mightier than the sword" from his play Richelieu. Despite being a popular author for 19th-century readers, few people today are aware of his prodigious body of literature spanning many genres. In the 21st century he is known best as the namesake for the Bulwer-Lytton Fiction Contest, sponsored annually by the English Department at San Jose State University, which challenges entrants "to compose the opening sentence to the worst of all possible novels". On August 30, 2008, the Village of Lytton invited Henry Lytton-Cobbold, the great-great-great grandson of Edward Bulwer-Lytton, to defend the great man's honour by debating Professor Scott Rice, the sponsor of the BLFC, on the literary and political legacies of his great ancestor.
The debate received wide media coverage including The Globe and Mail, The New York Times, The Guardian, CBC's As It Happens and many local and regional newspapers and radio and TV stations. The debate was moderated by Mike McArdell of Global TV. Lytton-Cobbold provided a spirited and crowd-inspiring defense of his ancestor, despite a factual and well-researched presentation by Rice, Lytton-Cobbold emerged as the crowd favorite by a wide margin. In the end, Rice begrudgingly admitted to an admiration of Bulwer-Lytton; this event was held as part of the Village of Lytton's 150BC celebrations, as it was the 150th anniversary of the community receiving its name. The population of the village municipality as of the 2016 census was 249, with another 1,700 in the immediate area living in rural areas and on reserves of the neighbouring six Nlaka'pamux communities.802 members out of 1,970 registered members of the Lytton First Nation live on reserves adjacent to the municipality. Lytton experiences a Cold semi-arid climate.
During summer heat waves, Lytton is the hottest spot in Canada, despite being north of 50° in latitude. Due to the dry summer air and a low elevation of 230 m, summer afternoon shade temperatures sometimes reach 35 °C and up and top 40 °C. Lytton, along with the nearby community of Lillooet, share the second-highest temperature recorded in Canada. On July 16 and 17, 1941, the temperature reached a record 44.4 °C on both days in both communities. Lytton holds the record for the hottest temperature recorded in the province during August after the temperature reached 41.8 °C on August 14, 2004. The coldest temperature recorded in Lytton was -31.7 °C on 18 January 1950. Hot summer temperatures are made more tolerable by low humidity. However, the heat can be intense with clear blue skies and blazing sunlight – heat radiates from the valley's slopes, forest fires are not uncommon during the summer. Lytton's climate is characterized by short and mild winters, with Pacific maritime influence during the winter ensuring thick cloud cover much of the time.
Cold snaps originating from arctic outflow occur from time to time, but tend to be short-lived, mountains to the north block extreme cold from penetrating the Fraser Canyon. Lytton receives 430.6 mm of annual precipitation on average, making Lytton much drier than communities to the south, but wetter than some of the driest spots in the BC interior such as Spences Bridge and Osoyoos. However, Lytton has the driest summers in the interior of British Columbia, indeed, one of the driest summers of all places in Canada. Maximum precipitation occurs in the cooler months, with the late autumn and early winter constituting the wettest time of the year. Open coniferous forests of ponderosa pine dominate the slopes around Lytton; some black cottonwood is scattered among the conifers. Bunchgrass dominates the forest floor. Non-native trees cultivated in Lytton include Manitoba Maple. Lytton lies on the Trans Canada Highway as well as both the Canadian Pacific and Canadian National Railways; the Canadian National Railway Crosses both the Fraser and Thompson Rivers on two large steel bridges at Lytton.
Via the Trans-Canada, Lytton is 265 km from t