History of Senegal
The history of Senegal is divided into a number of periods, encompassing the prehistoric era, the precolonial period and the contemporary era. The earliest evidence of human life is found in the valley of the Falémé in the south-east; the presence of man in the Lower Paleolithic is attested by the discovery of stone tools characteristic of Acheulean such as hand axes reported by Théodore Monod at the tip of Fann in the peninsula of Cap-Vert in 1938, or cleavers found in the south-east. There were found stones shaped by the Levallois technique, characteristic of the Middle Paleolithic. Mousterian Industry is represented by scrapers found in the peninsula of Cap-Vert, as well in the low and middle valleys of the Senegal and the Falémé; some pieces are explicitly linked to hunting, like those found in Tiémassass, near M'Bour, a controversial site that some claim belongs to the Upper Paleolithic, while other argue in favor of the Neolithic. In the Senegambia, the period when humans became hunters and producers are all well represented and studied.
This is when ceramics emerged. But gray areas remain. Although the characteristics and manifestations of civilization from the Neolithic have been identified their origins and relationship have not yet defined. What can be distinguished is: The dig of Cape Manuel: the Neolithic deposit Manueline Dakar was discovered in 1940. Basalt rocks including ankaramite were used for making microlithic tools such as planes; such tools have been found at Gorée and the Magdalen Islands, indicating the activity of shipbuilding by nearby fishermen. The dig of Bel-Air: Neolithic Bélarien tools made out of flint, are present in the dunes of the west, near the current capital. In addition to axes and pottery, there is a statuette, the Venus Thiaroye The dig of Khant: the Khanty creek, located in the north near Kayar in the lower valley of the Senegal River, gave its name to a Neolithic industry which uses bone and wood; this deposit is on the list of closed monuments of Senegal. The dig the Falémé located in the south-east of Senegal, has uncovered a Neolithic Falemian tools industry that produced polished materials as diverse as sandstone, shale and flint.
Grinding equipment and pottery from the period are well represented at the site. The Neolithic civilization of the Senegal River valley and the Ferlo are the least well known due to not always being separated. In the case of Senegal, the periodization of prehistory remains controversial, it is described as beginning with the age of metallurgy, thus placing it between the first metalworking and the appearance of writing. Other approaches exist such as that of Guy Thilmans and his team in 1980, who felt that any archeology from pre-colonial could be attached to that designation or that of Hamady Bocoum, who speaks of "Historical Archaeology" from the 4th century, at least for the former Tekrur. A variety of archaeological remains have been found: On the coast and in river estuaries of the Senegal, Saloum and Casamance rivers, burial mounds with clusters of shells referred to as middens. 217 of these clusters have been identified in the Saloum Delta alone, for example in Joal-Fadiouth, Mounds in the Saloum Delta have been dated back as far as 400 BCE, part of the Saloum Delta is now a World Heritage Site.
Funerary sites or tumuli were built there during the 8th to 16th centuries. They are found in the north near Saint-Louis, in the estuary of the Casamance; the West is rich in burial mounds of sand that the Wolof refer to as mbanaar, which translates to "graves", A solid gold pectoral of mass 191 g has been discovered near Saint-Louis. In a huge area of nearly 33,000km² located in the center-south around the Gambia there have been found alignments of boulders known as the Stone Circles of Senegambia which were placed on the list of UNESCO World Heritage sites in 2006. Two of these sites are located within the territory of Senegal: Sine Ngayène and Sine Wanar, both located in the Department of Nioro Rip. Sine Ngayène has 52 stone circles including a double circle. At Wanar, they number the stones are smaller. There are stone-carved lyre in Y - or A-shaped; the existence of proto-historic ruins in the middle Senegal River valley was confirmed in the late 1970s. Pottery, perforated ceramic discs or ornaments have been unearthed.
Excavations at thé site of Sinthiou Bara, near Matam, have proved fruitful. They have revealed, for example, the flow of trans-Saharan trade from distant parts of North Africa; the region of modern Senegal was a part of the larger region called Upper Guinea by European traders. In the absence of written sources and monumental ruins in this region, the history of the early centuries of the modern era must be based on archaeological excavations, the writing of early geographers and travelers, written in Arabic and data derived from oral tradition. Combining these data suggests that Senegal was first populated from the north and east in several waves of migration, the last being that of the Wolof, the Fulani and the Serer. Africanist historian Donald R. Wright suggests that Senegambian place-names indicate "that the earliest inhabitants might be identified most with one of several related groups—Bainunk, Beafada... To these were added Serer, who moved southward during the first millennium A. D. from the Senegal River valley, Mande-speaking peoples, who arrived still from the east."
Probable descendants of Bafours were pushed southward by the Berber dynasty of Almoravids. Before the arrival of European settlers, the history of the Saharan region is characterized by the consolidation of settlements in large state entities
Dakar is the capital and largest city of Senegal. It is located on the Cap-Vert peninsula on the Atlantic coast and is the westernmost city on the African mainland; the city of Dakar proper has a population of 1,030,594, whereas the population of the Dakar metropolitan area is estimated at 2.45 million. The area around Dakar was settled in the 15th century; the Portuguese established a presence on the island of Gorée off the coast of Cap-Vert and used it as a base for the Atlantic slave trade. France took over the island in 1677. Following the abolition of the slave trade and French annexation of the mainland area in the 19th century, Dakar grew into a major regional port and a major city of the French colonial empire. In 1902, Dakar replaced Saint-Louis as the capital of French West Africa. From 1959 to 1960, Dakar was the capital of the short-lived Mali Federation. In 1960, it became the capital of the independent Republic of Senegal. Dakar is home to multiple national and regional banks as well as numerous international organizations.
From 1978 to 2007, it was the traditional finishing point of the Dakar Rally. Dakar will host the 2022 Summer Youth Olympics, making it the first African city to host the Olympics; the Cap-Vert peninsula was settled no than the 15th century, by the Lebou people, an aquacultural ethnic group related to the neighboring Wolof and Serer. The original villages: Ouakam, Ngor and Hann, still constitute distinctively Lebou neighborhoods of the city today. In 1444, the Portuguese reached the Bay of Dakar as slave-raiders. Peaceful contact was opened in 1456 by Diogo Gomes, the bay was subsequently referred to as the "Angra de Bezeguiche"; the bay of "Bezeguiche" would go on to serve as a critical stop for the Portuguese India Armadas of the early 16th century, where large fleets would stop, both on their outward and return journeys from India, to repair, collect fresh water from the rivulets and wells along the Cap-Vert shore and trade for provisions with the local people for their remaining voyage. The Portuguese founded a settlement on the island of Gorée, which by 1536 they began to use as a base for slave exportation.
The mainland of Cap-Vert, was under control of the Jolof Empire, as part of the western province of Cayor which seceded from Jolof in its own right in 1549. A new Lebou village, called Ndakaaru, was established directly across from Gorée in the 17th century to service the European trading factory with food and drinking water. Gorée was captured by the United Netherlands in 1588; the island was to switch hands between the Portuguese and Dutch several more times before falling to the English under Admiral Robert Holmes on January 23, 1664, to the French in 1677. Though under continuous French administration since, métis families, descended from Dutch and French traders and African wives, dominated the slave trade; the infamous "House of Slaves" was built at Gorée in 1776. In 1795, the Lebou of Cape Verde revolted against Cayor rule. A new theocratic state, subsequently called the "Lebou Republic" by the French, was established under the leadership of the Diop, a Muslim clerical family from Koki in Cayor.
The capital of the republic was established at Ndakaaru. In 1857 the French established a military post at Ndakaaru and annexed the Lebou Republic, though its institutions continued to function nominally; the Serigne of Ndakaaru is still recognized as the traditional political authority of the Lebou by the Senegalese State today. The slave trade was abolished by France in February 1794. However, Napoleon reinstated it in May 1802 finally abolished it permanently in March 1815. Despite Napoleon's abolition, a clandestine slave trade continued at Gorée until 1848, when it was abolished throughout all French territories. To replace trade in slaves, the French promoted peanut cultivation on the mainland; as the peanut trade boomed, tiny Gorée Island, whose population had grown to 6,000 residents, proved ineffectual as a port. Traders from Gorée decided to move to the mainland and a "factory" with warehouses was established in Rufisque in 1840. Large public expenditure for infrastructure was allocated by the colonial authorities to Dakar's development.
The port facilities were improved with jetties, a telegraph line was established along the coast to Saint-Louis and the Dakar-Saint-Louis railway was completed in 1885, at which point the city became an important base for the conquest of the western Sudan. Gorée, including Dakar, was recognised as a French commune in 1872. Dakar itself was split off from Gorée as a separate commune in 1887; the citizens of the city elected their own mayor and municipal council and helped send an elected representative to the National Assembly in Paris. Dakar replaced Saint-Louis as the capital of French West Africa in 1902. A second major railroad, the Dakar-Niger built from 1906–1923, linked Dakar to Bamako and consolidated the city's position at the head of France's West African empire. In 1929, the commune of Gorée Island, now with only a few hundred inhabitants, was merged into Dakar. Urbanization during the colonial period was marked by forms of racial and social segregation—often expressed in terms of health and hygiene—which continue to structure the city today.
Following a plague epidemic in 1914, the authorities forced most of the African population out of old neighborhoods, o
Kingdom of Sine
The Kingdom of Sine was a pre-colonial Serer kingdom along the north bank of the Saloum River delta in modern Senegal. The inhabitants are called Sine-Sine. According to the historian David Galvan, "The oral historical record, written accounts by early Arab and European explorers, physical anthropological evidence suggest that the various Serer peoples migrated south from the Fuuta Tooro region beginning around the eleventh century, when Islam first came across the Sahara." Over generations these people Pulaar speaking herders migrated through Wolof areas and entered the Siin and Saluum river valleys. This lengthy period of Wolof-Serer contact has left us unsure of the origins of shared "terminology, political structures, practices."Professor Étienne Van de Walle gave a later date, writing that "The formation of the Sereer ethnicity goes back to the thirteenth century, when a group came from the Senegal River valley in the north fleeing Islam, near Niakhar met another group of Mandinka origin, called the Gelwar, who were coming from the southeast.
The actual Sereer ethnic group is a mixture of the two groups, this may explain their complex bilinear kinship system".}The actual foundation of the Kingdom of Sine is unclear, but in the late 14th century Mandinka migrants entered the area. They were led by a matrilineal clan known as the Gelwaar. Here they encountered the Serer, who had established a system of lamanic authorities, established a Gelwaar led state with its capital in or near a Serer lamanic estate centred at Mbissel. Father Henry Gravrand reports an oral tradition that one Maad a Sinig Maysa Wali Jaxateh Manneh, fleeing with his family from Kaabu following a battle in 1335 which he calls The Battle of Troubang, was granted asylum by the Serer nobility of Sine. Charles Becker notes that Gravrand had not recognised that this is a description of the 1867 Battle of Kansala although he agrees that the migration of the Guelowar can be explained by a war or a conflict of succession. Serer oral history says that after Maysa Wali assimilated into Serer culture and served as legal advisor to the laman council of electors, he was chosen by the lamans and people to rule.
A decade he elected the legendary Ndiadiane Ndiaye and founder of the Jolof Empire to rule the Kingdom of Jolof. He was the first Senegambian king to voluntarily gave his allegiance to Ndiadiane Ndiaye and asked others to do so, thereby making Sine a vassal of the Jolof Empire, it is for this reason that scholars propose the Jolof Empire was not an empire founded by conquest but by voluntary confederacy of various states. Around early 1550, both Sine and its sister Serer Kingdom overthrew the Jolof and became independent Kingdoms. Serer oral tradition says that the Kingdom of Sine never paid tribute to Ndiadiane Ndiaye nor any of his descendants and that the Jolof Empire never subjugated the Kingdom of Sine and Ndiadiane Ndiaye himself received his name from the mouth of Maysa Waly; the historian Sylviane Diouf states that "Each vassal kingdom—Walo, Kayor, Sine, Salum and Niani—recognized the hegemony of Jolof and paid tribute."The rulers of Sine as well as Jolof continued to follow the Traditional African religion.
On 18 July 1867, the Muslim cleric Maba Diakhou Bâ was killed at The Battle of Fandane-Thiouthioune by the King of Sine Maad a Sinig Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof while he was trying to take control of Sine and make it a Muslim land. The rulers of Sine retained their titles throughout the colonial period and did not lose all official recognition until 1969 after the death of Maad a Sinig Mahecor Joof. Portuguese explorers in the 15th century referred to Sine as the kingdom of Barbaçim, a corruption of'Bur-ba-Sine', its people as Barbacins Old European maps denote the Saloum River as the "River of Barbacins/Barbecins" It has now been acknowledged that the terms "Serreos" and "Barbacini" were a corruption by Alvise Cadamosto - the 15th-century navigator. Alvise mistakenly distinguished between the "Sereri" and the "Barbacini", which seems to indicate that he was referring to two different people when in fact, the Kingdom of Sine was a Serer Kingdom where the "King of Sine" took residence. Since he had never set foot in Serer country, his accounts about the Serer people were based on what his Wolof interpreters were telling him.
"Barbacini" is a corruption of the Wolof phrase "Buur ba Sine" meaning King of Sine, a phrase the Serers would not use. The economic base of Sine was fishing. Millet and other crops were grown. Sine was reluctant to grow groundnut for the French market, in spite of French colonial directives, it was less dependent on groundnut than other states. Rooted in Serer conservatism and Serer religion, for several decades during the 19th century, the Serer farmers refused to grow it or when they did, they ensured that their farming cycle was not only limited to groundnut production, their religious philosophy of preserving the ecosystem
Traditional African religions
The traditional African religions are a set of diverse beliefs that include various ethnic religions. These traditions are oral rather than scriptural, include belief in a supreme creator, belief in spirits, veneration of the dead, use of magic and traditional medicine; the role of humanity is seen as one of harmonising nature with the supernatural. According to Lugira, "it is the only religion. Other religions found in Africa have their origins in other parts of the world." Adherents of traditional religions in Sub-Saharan Africa are distributed among 43 countries and are estimated to number over 100 million. Although the majority of Africans are adherents of Christianity or Islam, African people combine the practice of their traditional belief with the practice of Abrahamic religions; the two Abrahamic religions are widespread across Africa, though concentrated in different areas. They have replaced indigenous African religions, but are adapted to African cultural contexts and belief systems.
West and Central African religious practices manifest themselves in communal ceremonies or divinatory rites in which members of the community, overcome by force, are excited to the point of going into meditative trance in response to rhythmic or driving drumming or singing. One religious ceremony practiced in Gabon and Cameroon is the Okuyi, practiced by several Bantu ethnic groups. In this state, depending upon the region, drumming or instrumental rhythms played by respected musicians, participants embody a deity or ancestor, energy or state of mind by performing distinct ritual movements or dances which further enhance their elevated consciousness; when this trance-like state is witnessed and understood, adherents are privy to a way of contemplating the pure or symbolic embodiment of a particular mindset or frame of reference. This builds skills at separating the feelings elicited by this mindset from their situational manifestations in daily life; such separation and subsequent contemplation of the nature and sources of pure energy or feelings serves to help participants manage and accept them when they arise in mundane contexts.
This facilitates better control and transformation of these energies into positive, culturally appropriate behavior and speech. This practice can give rise to those in these trances uttering words which, when interpreted by a culturally educated initiate or diviner, can provide insight into appropriate directions which the community might take in accomplishing its goal. Followers of traditional African religions pray to various spirits as well as to their ancestors; these secondary spirits serve as intermediaries between humans and the primary God referred to as the Supreme Deity. Most African societies believe in a single Supreme being; some recognize a dual Goddess such as Mawu-Lisa. There are more similarities than differences in all traditional African religions; the supreme Deity is worshiped through consultation or communion with lesser deities and ancestral spirits. The deities and spirits are honored through sacrifice; the will of the Supreme Deity is sought by the believer through consultation of divinities or divination.
In many traditional African religions, there is a belief in a cyclical nature of reality. The living stand between the unborn. Traditional African religions embrace natural phenomena – ebb and tide and waning moon and drought – and the rhythmic pattern of agriculture. According to Gottlieb and Mbiti: The environment and nature are infused in every aspect of traditional African religions and culture; this is because cosmology and beliefs are intricately intertwined with the natural phenomena and environment. All aspects of weather, lightning, day, sun, so on may become amenable to control through the cosmology of African people. Natural phenomena are responsible for providing people with their daily needs. For example, in the Serer religion, one of the most sacred stars in the cosmos is called Yoonir. With a long farming tradition, the Serer high priests and priestesses deliver yearly sermons at the Xoy Ceremony in Fatick before Yoonir's phase in order to predict winter months and enable farmers to start planting.
Traditional healers are common in most areas, their practices include a religious element to varying degrees. Since Africa is a large continent with many ethnic groups and cultures, there is not one single technique of casting divination; the practice of casting may be done with small objects, such as bones, cowrie shells, strips of leather, or flat pieces of wood. Some castings are done using sacred divination plates performed on the ground. In traditional African societies, many people seek out diviners on a regular basis. There are no prohibitions against the practice. Diviner are sought for their wisdom as counselors in life and for their knowledge of herbal medicine. Virtue in traditional African religion is connected with carrying out obligations of the communal aspect of life. Examples include social behaviors such as the respect for parents and elders, raising children appropriately, providing hospitality, being honest and courageous. In some traditional African religions, morality is associated with obedience or disobedience to God regarding the way a
Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies. In political theory, sovereignty is a substantive term designating supreme authority over some polity; the term arises from the unattested Vulgar Latin's *superanus, meaning "chief", "ruler". Its spelling, which varied from the word's first appearance in English in the fourteenth century, was influenced by the English "reign"; the concepts of sovereignty have been discussed throughout history, are still debated. Its definition and application has changed throughout during the Age of Enlightenment; the current notion of state sovereignty contains four aspects consisting of territory, population and recognition. According to Stephen D. Krasner, the term could be understood in four different ways: domestic sovereignty – actual control over a state exercised by an authority organized within this state, interdependence sovereignty – actual control of movement across state's borders, assuming the borders exist, international legal sovereignty – formal recognition by other sovereign states, Westphalian sovereignty – lack of other authority over state other than the domestic authority.
These four aspects all appear together, but this is not the case – they are not affected by one another, there are historical examples of states that were non-sovereign in one aspect while at the same time being sovereign in another of these aspects. According to Immanuel Wallerstein, another fundamental feature of sovereignty is that it is a claim that must be recognised by others if it is to have any meaning: The Roman jurist Ulpian observed that: The people transferred all their imperium and power to the Emperor. Cum lege regia, quae de imperio eius lata est, populus ei et in eum omne suum imperium et potestatem conferat The emperor is not bound by the laws. Princeps legibus. Quod principi placuit legis habet vigorem. Ulpian was expressing the idea that the Emperor exercised a rather absolute form of sovereignty, that originated in the people, although he did not use the term expressly. Ulpian's statements were known in medieval Europe, but sovereignty was an important concept in medieval times.
Medieval monarchs were not sovereign, at least not so, because they were constrained by, shared power with, their feudal aristocracy. Furthermore, both were constrained by custom. Sovereignty existed during the Medieval period as the de jure rights of nobility and royalty, in the de facto capability of individuals to make their own choices in life. Around c. 1380–1400, the issue of feminine sovereignty was addressed in Geoffrey Chaucer's Middle English collection of Canterbury Tales in The Wife of Bath's Tale. A English Arthurian romance, The Wedding of Sir Gawain and Dame Ragnell, uses many of the same elements of the Wife of Bath's tale, yet changes the setting to the court of King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table; the story revolves around the knight Sir Gawain granting to Dame Ragnell, his new bride, what is purported to be wanted most by women: sovereignty. We desire most From men both lund and poor, To have sovereignty without lies. For where we have sovereignty, all is ours, Though a knight be so fierce, And win mastery.
It is our desire to have master Over such a sir. Such is our purpose. Sovereignty reemerged as a concept in the late 16th century, a time when civil wars had created a craving for stronger central authority, when monarchs had begun to gather power onto their own hands at the expense of the nobility, the modern nation state was emerging. Jean Bodin in reaction to the chaos of the French wars of religion, presented theories of sovereignty calling for strong central authority in the form of absolute monarchy. In his 1576 treatise Les Six Livres de la République Bodin argued that it is inherent in the nature of the state that sovereignty must be: Absolute: On this point he said that the sovereign must be hedged in with obligations and conditions, must be able to legislate without his subjects' consent, must not be bound by the laws of his predecessors, could not, because it is illogical, be bound by his own laws. Perpetual: Not temporarily delegated as to a strong leader in an emergency or to a state employee such as a magistrate.
He held that sovereignty must be perpetual because anyone with the power to enforce a time limit on the governing power must be above the governing power, which would be impossible if the governing power is absolute. Bodin rejected the notion of transference of sovereignty from people to the ruler, and the sovereign is not above natural law. He is above only positive law, he emphasized that a sovereign is bound to observe certain basic rules derived from the divine law, the law of nature or reason, the law, common to all nations, as well as the fundamental laws of the state that determine, the sovereign, who succeeds to sovereignty, what limits the sovereign power. Thus, Bodin’s sovereign was restricted by the constitutional law of the state and by the higher law, considered as binding upon every human being; the fact that the sovereign must obey divine and natural law imposes ethical constraints on him. Bodin held that the lois royales, the fun
Louis Léon César Faidherbe was a French general and colonial administrator. He created the Senegalese Tirailleurs. Faidherbe was born into a lower-middle-class family in Lille, he was the fifth child of Louis César Joseph Faidherde, a hosier, his wife, Sophie Monnier. His father died in 1826 when he was seven and he was brought up by his mother, he received his military education at the École Polytechnique and at the École d'Application in Metz. From 1843 to 1847 he served in Algeria for one year in Guadeloupe, again from 1849 to 1852 in Algeria. In 1852 he was transferred to Senegal as sub-director of engineers, in 1854 was promoted chef de bataillon and appointed governor of the colony on December 16, he held this post with one brief interval until July 1865. The work he accomplished in French West Africa constitutes his most enduring legacy. At that time France possessed in Senegal little else than the town of Saint-Louis and a strip of coast. Explorers had, made known the riches and possibilities of the Niger regions, Faidherbe formed the design of adding those countries to the French dominions.
He dreamed of creating a French African empire stretching from Senegal to the Red Sea. Faidherbe's actions were not of his own creation, but were an implementation of "The Plan of 1854": a series of ministerial orders given to Governor Protet that originated in petitions from the powerful Bordeaux-based Maurel and Prom company, the largest shipping interest in Saint-Louis; the plan specified in detail the creation of forts along the Sénégal River to end African control of the acacia gum trade from the interior. Faidherbe's push to build fortifications farther out, his conflicts with Protet, his protests to Paris over Protet's inaction earned him the governorship in 1854. Within three months of his appointment as governor, he had begun work on the first in a series on inland forts up the Sénégal, at Médine just below the Félou Falls. By 1860, Faidherbe had built a series of forts between Médine and Saint-Louis, launching missions against the Trarza Moors in Waalo, who had collected taxes on goods coming to Saint-Louis from the interior.
French military forces had avoided conflicts with the most powerful states in the area, the Toucouleur empire along the Niger River, the Cayor in the south. By sending emissaries to sign protectorates with weaker states and by completing the "pacification" of Casamance and the Wolof peoples through what is now northern Senegal, Faidherbe came into direct conflict with these states. To accomplish the first part of his design, he had inadequate resources in view of the opposition from El Hadj Umar Tall, the Muslim ruler of the countries of the middle Niger. By advancing the French outposts on the upper Senegal, by breaking Umar Tall's siege of Medina Fort, Faidherbe stemmed the Muslim advance. Striking an advantageous treaty with Umar in 1860, Faidherbe brought the French possessions into touch with the Niger, he brought into subjection the country lying between the Senegal river and Gambia. At the Battle of Logandème, Faidherbe launched war against the Serer people of Sine, during the reign of Maad a Sinig Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof.
After his victory, he gave the order for Fatick and its surrounding villages to be burned to the ground. The French government in Paris criticised him for undertaking a military campaign without their authority. To answer his critics, Faidherbe claimed that he only occupied areas that belonged to France since 1679. Scholars like Martin A. Kelin notes that, Faidherbe was playing with words and was making political decisions in Senegal without any authority whatsoever; the Kingdom of Sine nor any of its provinces never belonged to France. Saint-Louis was placed under formal military control, a telegraph and road link was set up to the other French colonies in Gorée Island and Rufisque. In 1857, the French seized the inland region between these two from the Lebu Republic, rechristened their capital Ndakarou as the new colonial city of Dakar. Work was begun on the Dakar–Saint-Louis railway, as well as a rail line along the Senegal into the interior. Faidherbe's large-scale projects included the building of bridges and provisioning of fresh drinking water.
But Saint-Louis' place as a door of French trade into an African interior began to wane with the expansion of direct colonial rule. Access to its port became awkward in the age of the steamship and the completion of the Dakar-Saint Louis railroad in 1885 meant that up-country trade circumvented its port. Large French firms, many from the city of Bordeaux, took over the new commercial networks of the interior, marginalizing the Métis traders who had always been the middle men of upstream commerce. Faidherbe placed under direct French control large scale seasonal groundnut cultivation near the fort systems, along the rail lines; this created the navétanes system of seasonal labor migration, first in Cayor spreading along the rail lines to Baol and Sine-Saloum, along the Thies-Kayes railway. This would be a pattern spread throughout French West Africa and French Equatorial Africa well into the 20th century; when he resigned his post French rule had been established over a considerable and fertile area and the foundation laid upon which his successors built up the position occupied after 1904 by France in West Africa.
The first half-century of French colonialism in Senegal produced neither solid political control
A gold coin is a coin, made or of gold. Most gold coins minted since 1800 are 90–92% gold, while most of today's gold bullion coins are pure gold, such as the Britannia, Canadian Maple Leaf, American Buffalo. Alloyed gold coins, like the American Gold Eagle and South African Krugerrand, are 91.7% gold by weight, with the remainder being silver and copper. Traditionally, gold coins have been circulation coins, including coin-like dinars. Since recent decades, gold coins are produced as bullion coins to investors and as commemorative coins to collectors. While modern gold coins are legal tender, they are not observed in everyday financial transactions, as the metal value exceeds the nominal value. For example, the American Gold Eagle, given a denomination of 50 USD, has a metal value of more than $1,200 USD; the gold reserves of central banks are dominated by gold bars, but gold coins may contribute. Gold has been used as money for many reasons, it is fungible, with a low spread between the prices to sell.
Gold is easily transportable, as it has a high value to weight ratio, compared to other commodities, such as silver. Gold can be re-coined, divided into smaller units, or re-melted into larger units such as gold bars, without destroying its metal value; the density of gold is higher than most other metals. Additionally, gold is unreactive, hence it does not tarnish or corrode over time. Gold was used in commerce in the Ancient Near East since the Bronze Age, but coins proper originated much during the 6th century BC, in Anatolia; the name of king Croesus of Lydia remains associated with the invention. In 546 BC, Croesus was captured by the Persians; the most valuable of all Persian minted coinage still remains the gold drams, minted in 1 AD as a gift by the Persian King Vonones Hebrew Bible new testament. Ancient Greek coinage contained a number of gold coins issued by the various city states; the Ying yuan is an early gold coin minted in ancient China. The oldest ones known are from about the 5th or 6th century BC.
Larger units such as the various talent measures were used for high value exchanges. The German gold mark was introduced in 1873 in the German Empire, replacing the various local Gulden coins of the Holy Roman Empire. Gold coins had a long period as a primary form of money, only falling into disuse in the early 20th century. Most of the world stopped making gold coins as currency by 1933, as countries switched from the gold standard due to hoarding during the worldwide economic crisis of the Great Depression. In the United States, 1933's Executive Order 6102 forbade the hoarding of gold and was followed by a devaluation of the dollar relative to gold, although the United States did not uncouple the dollar from the value of gold until 1971. Gold-colored coins have made a comeback in many currencies. However, "gold coin" always refers to a coin, made of gold, does not include coins made of manganese brass or other alloys. Furthermore, many countries continue to make legal tender gold coins, but these are meant for collectors and investment purposes and are not meant for circulation.
Many factors determine the value of a gold coin, such as its rarity, age and the number minted. Most gold coins minted since the late 19th century are worth more than spot price, but many are worth more. Gold coins coveted by collectors include the Aureus and Spur Ryal. In July 2002, a rare $20 1933 Double Eagle gold coin sold for a record $7,590,020 at Sotheby's, making it by far the most valuable coin sold up to that time. In early 1933, more than 445,000 Double Eagle coins were struck by the U. S. Mint, but most of these were surrendered and melted down following Executive Order 6102. Only a few coins survived. In 2007 the Royal Canadian Mint produced a 100 kilograms gold coin with a face value of $1,000,000, though the gold content was worth over $2 million at the time, it is 3 centimetres thick. It was intended as a one-off to promote a new line of Canadian Gold Maple Leaf coins, but after several interested buyers came forward the mint announced it would manufacture them as ordered and sell them for between $2.5 million and $3 million.
As of May 3, 2007, there were five orders. One of these coins has been stolen. Austria had produced a 37 centimetres diameter 31 kg Philharmonic gold coin with a face value of €100,000. On October 4, 2007, David Albanese stated that a $10, 1804-dated eagle coin was sold to an anonymous private collector for $5 million. In 2012 the Royal Canadian Mint produced the world first gold coin with a 0.11–0.14ct diamond. The Queen’s Diamond Jubilee coin has been crafted in 99.999% pure gold with a face value of $300. Precious metals in bulk form are known as bullion, are traded on commodity markets. Bullion metals may be minted into coins; the defining attribute of bullion is that it is valued by its mass and purity rather than by a face value as money. While obsolete gold coins are collected for their numismatic value, gold bull