Cayuga is an unincorporated community and county seat of Haldimand County, Canada located at the intersection of Highway 3 and Munsee Street and along the Grand River. Cayuga is about a 20-minute drive from Lake Erie and 30 minutes south of Hamilton and 115 minutes south of Toronto and it has some cottages and recreational properties in the area. In the past, there was some light industry, it has the local district detachment for the Ontario Provincial Police. It is uniquely located among larger communities on both the American and Canadian sides of the border boasting television reception from Toronto, New York, Hamilton and Erie, Pennsylvania. Cayuga was incorporated as a village in 1859 and became the county seat for Haldimand County because of its central location, it is named after the Cayuga, one of the Six Nations of the Grand River Natives who were awarded land in the area for siding with the British in the American Revolution. As the county seat, it is the location of jail and a museum.
In the late 18th century and early 19th century, public hangings were held in the courtyard and the prisoners buried on site. The Highway 3 bridge over the Grand River is a well recognized bridge over the Grand River and is used as a symbol of Haldimand County and the Grand River; the same bridge was used in a movie that commemorated Terry Fox. That bridge no longer remains a symbol of the Grand River and Haldimand County as it was replaced in the summer of 2014 with a concrete bridge; the village's population grew to about 2,500 in the mid-19th century because the Grand River was an important commercial route. There were locks constructed at Indiana just north of Cayuga. However, when the Welland Canal was completed, the Grand became an obsolete route. Further, an impassable dam was built downriver from Cayuga at Dunnville. Although part of the Welland Canal, the purpose of the dam and a canal at Port Maitland is to keep the level of the Welland Canal consistent. Presently the population of Cayuga has recovered to 1,500 after having been around 1,000 for a century.
In 1974, the village was amalgamated into the new town of Haldimand within the Regional Municipality of Haldimand-Norfolk. Despite nearby Caledonia being the largest community in the town, the town hall was located in Cayuga because of its central location. In 2001, Haldimand and all other municipalities within the region were dissolved and the region was instead divided into two single tier municipalities with city-status but called counties. Cayuga is now an unincorporated community in Ward 2 of Haldimand County. Cayuga is in Ward 2 of Haldimand County; the current councilor for Ward 2 is Fred Morison 2010–Present. Before Fred Morison, it was Buck Sloat from 2003 to 2010; the current Mayor Of Haldimand County is Ken Hewitt 2010–Present. The previous Mayor was Marie Trainer from 2003 to 2010. Before Marie Trainer, the mayor was Lorraine Bergstrand 2001-2003; the current Clerk is Evelyn Eichenbaum who works in Cayuga at the Haldimand County Cayuga Administration building. The current Chief Administrative Officer of Haldimand County is Don Boyle who works in Cayuga at the Haldimand County Cayuga Administration building.
Cayugians are overwhelmingly British by national background but many can trace their roots to an original German settlement near Cayuga in the 19th century. There was a large Dutch migration to the area after the Second World War. Cayuga is perched on the Banks of the Grand River, along a navigable portion of the river that stretches some 20 miles, ending at Lake Erie; the main office of the Haldimand Press is located in Cayuga. Cayuga has one of the oldest Courthouses in the area, located at 55 Munsee St; until the late 1960s, a functioning jail surrounded by tall rock walls was attached to the Courthouse. The New York Central Railroad went through Cayuga but the track has been torn up. One of the termini for the Underground Railway was St. Catharines, about 45 minutes northeast of Cayuga. Harriet Tubman's nephew Lorne Barnes was the barber in Cayuga and was held out to the still-enslaved as an example of the success to be found by escaping to Canada. There is a National bank and a credit union in town along with a United Church of Canada, an Anglican Church and a Catholic Church.
The main street has a "rural brick charm" to it and many older houses continue to reflect Cayuga's prosperous past. Cayuga much retains its small-town character. Uniquely isolated for years by the Six Nations Indian Reservation to the North and the Lake to the South, it has its own independent atmosphere and does not feel attached to anyone larger community. Cayuga has had a small town feel for decades, the residents who have lived there for those decades appreciate the small town charm. Frank Martin played over 300 games for the tragic-filled Chicago BlackHawks of the late 1940s and the early 1950s. In 1939, Helen Kinnear, appointed the first woman King's Counsel, was appointed the first woman Superior Court judge in the British Empire. Dr. Justice T. David Marshall, Doctor of Medicine, Justice of the Supreme Court of the Northwest Territories, Justice of the Superior Court of Ontario, honorary chief of Six Nations, Founding Director of Canada's National Judicial Institute, and Colonel Commandant of the Canadian Forces, Medical Branch.
Author of several books including "Dr. Marshall's History of Haldimand County". Cayuga is known for producing a couple of noteworthy NHL hockey players. Both Marty McSorley and Ray Emery grew up playing minor league hockey in Cayuga. Andrew Wilson, a defenceman played two seasons in the OHL, with the Kitchener Rangers and Oshaw
A Cayuga Duck is a medium-class domesticated duck breed, a popular variety in the USA since the mid-19th century. They are used for meat production, as well as an ornamental bird; the Cayuga name is taken from Cayuga Lake, one of the lakes in the Finger Lakes region of New York State, where the breed was popularized. They are black with a green head. Writers on the derivation of the Cayuga Duck have, over time, made more or less the same assertions regarding its origin. There is evidence to support one portion of this theory, but it is an inaccurate assumption. John James Audubon, the naturalist and artist, mentions early domestication of the Dusky Duck as related to him prior to 1843; the text interchanges the name "Dusky" and "Black". After feeding a few weeks on the seeds it becomes fat and tender.... He informs me that he has known hybrid broods produced by a male of this species and the common domestic Duck; the young birds were larger than either of their parents, but although they laid eggs in the course of the following spring, not one of these proved impregnated.
He further states. "The young of this species, in the early part of autumn, afford delicious eating, and, in my estimation, are much superior in this respect to the more celebrated Canvass-back Duck. That the species should not before now have been brought into a state of perfect domestication, only indicates our reluctance unnecessarily to augment the comforts which have been so bountifully accorded by Nature to the inhabitants of our happy country."Although no date is assigned to it, the above text is a acceptable account of early hybridisation between the Dusky/Black Duck and a variety of domestic duck, as known to Dr. Bachman. However, this evidence has never been included by any writers on the history of the Cayuga Duck. Writing in 1848, Richard L. Allen, recommends the "common black duck" as being the most profitable for domestic use, as they laid between forty to fifty eggs and sometimes more, if kept from sitting. An article that appears to be the first public announcement of the Cayuga Duck – it does not name its subject and is under the title "Variety of Ducks" – is found in The Cultivator, 1851.
This article states the birds bore a striking resemblance to the wild Black Duck and had been bred distinct from any other variety for at least twenty years. Some birds had been obtained in Orange County around the year 1840 by Mr. John S. Clarke and taken to his farm at Throopsville, Cayuga County. Mr. Clarke says of the birds: "The characteristics of this variety are, nearly a uniform color, good size, attaining the weight of eight pounds, dressed, at four months old quiet and prolific, one duck laying from 150 to 200 eggs in a season with proper care. There are some in this vicinity which have acquired a top-knot, equal to any fowl." Luther Tucker, the editor of The Cultivator, concludes: "We have received from Mr. Clarke a pair of these ducks which answer the above description; the drake has a top-knot in perfection."The large size of Mr. Clarke’s ducks and the high number of eggs produced by one of them suggests they were not of pure Black Duck lineage, which weigh 2½ to 3 lbs each and produce an average clutch of 10 eggs.
The reference to a acquired “top-knot,” indicates there had been either an infusion of Crested Duck blood, or Mr. Clarke's dark-coloured birds were derived from Crested Ducks; the first mention of the name "Cayuga Black Duck", that the writer has found, is in 1853, when T. B. Miner wrote. How Dr. Wight came by his birds is not stated. Y. for near twenty years, is undoubtedly a cross between some wild variety, the domestic duck." Dr. Wight states. There was a breed class for “Black Cayuga Ducks” at the Maryland State Agricultural Society Show held at Baltimore in 1853. In Britain, in 1855, attention was drawn to the Cayuga Duck with the reproduction of Miner’s article in The Poultry Chronicle; the editors of The Cultivator received "a pair of plump black Cayuga Ducks" from D. L. Halsey, Esq. of Victory, Cayuga County, in 1858. In 1860, Mr. John R. Page of Cayuga County, N. Y. exhibited some "Cayuga Black Ducks", at the New York State Fair, each weighing 9 lbs. at six months old. An article, taken from the Boston Cultivator, mentioning Mr. Page and giving the weights of an as
New York Central Railroad
The New York Central Railroad was a railroad operating in the Great Lakes region of the United States. The railroad connected greater New York and Boston in the east with Chicago and St. Louis in the Midwest along with the intermediate cities of Albany, Cleveland and Detroit. New York Central was headquartered in New York City's New York Central Building, adjacent to its largest station, Grand Central Terminal; the railroad was established in 1853. In 1968 the NYC merged with the Pennsylvania Railroad, to form Penn Central. Penn Central went bankrupt in 1970 and merged into Conrail in 1976. Conrail was broken up in 1998, portions of its system were transferred to CSX and Norfolk Southern Railway, with CSX acquiring most of the old New York Central trackage. Extensive trackage existed in the states of New York, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and West Virginia plus additional trackage in the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec. At the end of 1925, the NYC operated 26,395 miles of track; the railroad was formed in 1853 through a consolidation of earlier independent companies running between Albany and Buffalo: The Mohawk and Hudson Railroad was the oldest segment of the NYC merger and was the first permanent railroad in the state of New York and one of the first railroads in the United States.
It was chartered in 1826 to connect the Mohawk River at Schenectady to the Hudson River at Albany, providing a way for freight and passengers to avoid the extensive and time-consuming locks on the Erie Canal between Schenectady and Albany. The Mohawk and Hudson opened on September 24, 1831, changed its name to the Albany and Schenectady Railroad on April 19, 1847; the Utica and Schenectady Railroad was chartered April 29, 1833. Revenue service began August 2, 1836, extending the line of the Albany and Schenectady Railroad west from Schenectady along the north side of the Mohawk River, opposite the Erie Canal, to Utica. On May 7, 1844 the railroad was authorized to carry freight with some restrictions, on May 12, 1847 the ban was dropped, but the company still had to pay the equivalent in canal tolls to the state; the Syracuse and Utica Railroad was chartered May 1, 1836, had to pay the state for any freight displaced from the canal. The full line opened July 1839, extending the line further to Syracuse via Rome.
This line was not direct, going out of its way to stay near the Erie Canal and serve Rome, so the Syracuse and Utica Direct Railroad was chartered January 26, 1853. Nothing of that line was built, though the West Shore Railroad, acquired by the NYC in 1885, served the same purpose; the Auburn and Syracuse Railroad was chartered May 1, 1834, opened in 1838, the remaining 4 miles opening on June 4, 1839. A month with the opening of the Syracuse and Utica Railroad, this formed a complete line from Albany west via Syracuse to Auburn, about halfway to Geneva; the Auburn and Rochester Railroad was chartered May 13, 1836, as a further extension via Geneva and Canandaigua to Rochester, opening on November 4, 1841. The two lines merged on August 1850, to form the rather indirect Rochester and Syracuse Railroad. To fix this, the Rochester and Syracuse Direct Railway was chartered and merged into the Rochester and Syracuse Railroad on August 6, 1850; that line opened June 1, 1853, running much more directly between those two cities parallel to the Erie Canal.
The Tonawanda Railroad, to the west of Rochester, was chartered April 24, 1832 to build from said city to Attica. The first section, from Rochester southwest to Batavia, opened May 5, 1837, the rest of the line to Attica opened on January 8, 1843; the Attica and Buffalo Railroad chartered in 1836 and opened on November 24, 1842, running from Buffalo east to Attica. When the Auburn and Rochester Railroad opened in 1841, there was no connection at Rochester to the Tonawanda Railroad, but with that exception there was now an all-rail line between Buffalo and Albany. On March 19, 1844, the Tonawanda Railroad was authorized to build the connection, it opened that year; the Albany and Schenectady Railroad bought all the baggage and emigrant cars of the other railroads between Albany and Buffalo on February 17, 1848, began operating through cars. On December 7, 1850, the Tonawanda Railroad and Attica and Buffalo Railroad merged to form the Buffalo and Rochester Railroad. A new direct line opened from Buffalo east to Batavia on April 26, 1852, the old line between Depew and Attica was sold to the Buffalo and New York City Railroad on November 1.
The line was added to the New York and Erie Railroad system and converted to the Erie's 6 ft broad gauge. The Schenectady and Troy Railroad was chartered in 1836 and opened in 1842, providing another route between the Hudson River and Schenectady, with its Hudson River terminal at Troy; the Lockport and Niagara Falls Railroad was incorporated April 24, 1834 to run from Lockport on the Erie Canal west to Niagara Falls. On December 14, 1850, it was reorganized as the Rochester and Niagara Falls Railroad, an extension east to Rochester opened on July 1, 1852; the railroad was consolidated into the New York Central Railroad under the act of 1853. A portion of the line is operate
Waterfalls in Ricketts Glen State Park
There are 24 named waterfalls in Ricketts Glen State Park in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania along Kitchen Creek as it flows in glens. They range in height from 9 feet to the 94-foot Ganoga Falls. Ricketts Glen State Park is named for R. Bruce Ricketts, a colonel in the American Civil War who owned over 80,000 acres in the area in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, but spared the old-growth forests in the glens from clearcutting; the park, which opened in 1944, is administered by the Bureau of State Parks of the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. Nearly all of the waterfalls are visible from the Falls Trail, which Ricketts had built from 1889 to 1893 and which the state park rebuilt in the 1940s and late 1990s; the Falls Trail has been called "the most magnificent hike in the state" and one of "the top hikes in the East". The waterfalls are on the section of Kitchen Creek that flows down the Allegheny Front, a steep escarpment between the Allegheny Plateau to the north and the Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians to the south.
The glens are made of sedimentary rocks from the Huntley Mountain and Catskill Formations that formed up to 370 million years ago in the Devonian and Carboniferous periods. The waterfalls are the result of increased flow in Kitchen Creek from glaciers enlarging its drainage basin during the last Ice Age. Ricketts named 21 of the waterfalls for Native American tribes and places, his family and friends. There are ten named falls in Ganoga Glen, eight named falls in Glen Leigh, between four and six named waterfalls in Ricketts Glen; the DCNR names 22 falls, the United States Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System names 23 falls, Scott E. Brown's 2004 book Pennsylvania waterfalls: a guide for hikers and photographers names 24; the falls are described in order going upstream along the creek for each of the three glens. The waterfalls in Ricketts Glen State Park are on the Allegheny Front, the boundary between the Allegheny Plateau to the north and the Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians to the south.
The headwaters of Kitchen Creek are on the dissected plateau, from which the stream drops 1,000 feet in 2.25 miles as it flows down the steep escarpment of the Allegheny Front. Much of this drop occurs in Glen Leigh and Ganoga Glen, two narrow valleys carved by branches of Kitchen Creek, which come together at Waters Meet; the branch in Glen Leigh has eight named waterfalls and lies north of the confluence, while the branch in Ganoga Glen has ten named waterfalls and lies to the northwest. Ricketts Glen lies south of and downstream from Waters Meet; the DCNR names only four in Ricketts Glen, all on Kitchen Creek. The rocks exposed in the park were formed between 370 and 340 million years ago, when the land was part of the coastline of a shallow sea that covered a great portion of what is now North America; the high mountains to the east of the sea eroded, causing a build-up of sediment made up of clay and gravel. Tremendous pressure on the sediment caused the formation of the rocks that are found in the park and in the Kitchen Creek drainage basin: sandstone, shale and conglomerates.
About 300 to 250 million years ago, the Allegheny Plateau, Allegheny Front, Appalachian Mountains all formed in the Alleghanian orogeny. This happened long after the sedimentary rocks in the park were deposited, when the part of Gondwana that became Africa collided with what became North America, forming Pangaea. In the years since, up to 5,000 feet of rock has been eroded away by weather. At least three major glaciations in the past million years have been the final factor in shaping the land that makes up the park today; the effects of glaciation have made Kitchen Creek "unique compared to all other nearby streams that flow down the Allegheny Front", as it is the only one with an "almost continuous series of waterfalls". Prior to the last ice age, Kitchen Creek and Phillips Creek to the east had drainage basins of similar area and slope, both watersheds were confined to the Allegheny Front; this changed when receding glaciers formed temporary dams on two of Kitchen Creek's neighboring streams on the Allegheny Plateau, South Branch Bowman Creek to the northeast and Big Run, a tributary of Fishing Creek to the northwest.
The headwaters of South Branch Bowman Creek were close to those for the Glen Leigh branch of Kitchen Creek, the headwaters for Big Run were close to those for the Ganoga Glen branch. As the glaciers retreated to the northeast about 20,000 years ago, glacial lakes formed. Drainage from the melting glacier and lakes cut a sluiceway, or channel, that diverted the headwaters of South Branch Bowman Creek into the Glen Leigh branch of Kitchen Creek; the retreating glaciers left deposits of debris 20 to 30 feet thick, which formed a dam blocking water from draining into Big Run. Instead water from Ganoga Lake and the area that became Lake Jean was diverted into the Ganoga Glen branch of Kitchen Creek; these diversions added about 7 square miles to the Kitchen Creek drainage basin, increasing it by just over 50 percent to 20.1 square miles. The result was increased water flow in Kitchen Creek, cutting the falls in the glens since; the gradient or slope of Kitchen Creek was stable for its flow when it had a much smaller drainage basin, as Phillips Creek still does.
The increased basin size means that Kitchen Creek in the glens is too steep for its present amount of
Peoria is a genus of moths of the snout moth family. The genus was erected by Émile Louis Ragonot in 1887. In alphabetical order: Peoria albifasciata Peoria approximella Peoria bipartitella Ragonot, 1887 Peoria calamistis Peoria cashmiralis Peoria discinotella Peoria floridella Shaffer, 1968 Peoria gaudiella Peoria gemmatella Peoria holoponerella Peoria johnstoni Shaffer, 1968 Peoria longipalpella Peoria luteicostella Peoria opacella Peoria padreella Blanchard, 1981 Peoria punctata Shaffer, 1976 Peoria punctilineella Peoria roseotinctella Peoria rosinella Peoria rostrella Peoria santaritella Peoria tetradella Pitkin, Brian & Jenkins, Paul. "Peoria Ragonot, 1887". Butterflies and Moths of the World. Natural History Museum, London. Retrieved October 30, 2018
Royal Canadian Navy
The Royal Canadian Navy is the naval force of Canada. The RCN is one of three environmental commands within the unified Canadian Armed Forces; as of 2017, Canada's navy operates 12 frigates, 4 patrol submarines, 12 coastal defence vessels and 8 unarmed patrol/training vessels, as well as several auxiliary vessels. The Royal Canadian Navy consists of 8,500 Regular Force and 5,100 Primary Reserve sailors, supported by 5,300 civilians. Vice-Admiral Ron Lloyd is the current Commander of the Royal Canadian Navy and Chief of the Naval Staff. Founded in 1910 as the Naval Service of Canada and given royal sanction on 29 August 1911, the Royal Canadian Navy was amalgamated with the Royal Canadian Air Force and the Canadian Army to form the unified Canadian Armed Forces in 1968, after which it was known as "Maritime Command" until 2011. In 2011, its historical title of "Royal Canadian Navy" was restored. Over the course of its history, the RCN has served in the First and Second World Wars, the Korean War, the Persian Gulf War, the War in Afghanistan and numerous United Nations peacekeeping missions and NATO operations.
Established following the introduction of the Naval Service Act by Prime Minister Sir Wilfrid Laurier, the Naval Service of Canada was intended as a distinct naval force for Canada, should the need arise, could be placed under British control. The bill received royal assent on 4 May 1910. Equipped with two former Royal Navy vessels, HMCS Niobe and HMCS Rainbow, King George V granted permission for the service to be known as the Royal Canadian Navy on 29 August 1911. During the first years of the First World War, the RCN's six-vessel naval force patrolled both the North American west and east coasts to deter the German naval threat, with a seventh ship, HMCS Shearwater joining the force in 1915. Just before the end of the war in 1918, the Royal Canadian Naval Air Service was established with the purpose of carrying out anti-submarine operations. After the war, the Royal Canadian Navy took over certain responsibilities of the Department of Transport's Marine Service, started to build its fleet, with the first warships designed for the RCN being commissioned in 1932.
At the outbreak of the Second World War, the Navy had 145 officers and 1,674 men. During the Second World War, the Royal Canadian Navy expanded ultimately gaining responsibility for the entire Northwest Atlantic theatre of war. By the end of the war, the RCN had become the fifth-largest navy in the world after the United States Navy, the Royal Navy, the Imperial Japanese Navy, the Soviet Navy, with over 900 vessels and 375 combat ships. During the Battle of the Atlantic, the RCN sank 31 U-boats and sank or captured 42 enemy surface vessels, while completing 25,343 merchant crossings; the Navy lost 1,797 sailors in the war. In 1940–41, the Royal Canadian Navy Reserves scheme for training yacht club members developed the first central registry system. From 1950 to 1955, during the Korean War, Canadian destroyers maintained a presence off the Korean peninsula, engaging in shore bombardments and maritime interdiction. During the Cold War, the Navy developed an anti-submarine capability to counter the growing Soviet naval threat.
In the 1960s, the Royal Canadian Navy retired most of its Second World War vessels, further developed its anti-submarine warfare capabilities by acquiring the Sikorsky CH-124 Sea King, pioneered the use of large maritime helicopters on small surface vessels. At that time, Canada was operating an aircraft carrier, HMCS Bonaventure, flying the McDonnell F2H Banshee fighter jet until 1962, as well as various other anti-submarine aircraft. From 1964 through 1968, under the Liberal government of Lester B. Pearson, the Royal Canadian Navy, Royal Canadian Air Force and Canadian Army were amalgamated to form the unified Canadian Forces; this process was overseen by then–Defence Minister Paul Hellyer. The controversial merger resulted in the abolition of the Royal Canadian Navy as a separate legal entity. All personnel and aircraft became part of Maritime Command, an element of the Canadian Armed Forces; the traditional naval uniform was eliminated and all naval personnel were required to wear the new Canadian Armed Forces rifle green uniform, adopted by former Royal Canadian Air Force and Canadian Army personnel.
Ship-borne aircraft continued to be under the command of MARCOM, while shore-based patrol aircraft of the former Royal Canadian Air Force were transferred to MARCOM. In 1975 Air Command was formed and all maritime aircraft were transferred to Air Command's Maritime Air Group; the unification of the Canadian Forces in 1968 was the first time that a nation with a modern military combined its separate naval and air elements into a single service. The 1970s saw the addition of four Iroquois-class destroyers, which were updated to air defence destroyers, in the late 1980s and 1990s the construction of twelve Halifax-class frigates and the purchase of the Victoria-class submarines. In 1990, Canada deployed three warships to support Operation Friction. In the decade, ships were deployed to patrol the Adriatic Sea during the Yugoslav Wars and the Kosovo War. More Maritime Command provided vessels to serve as a part of Operation Apollo and to combat piracy off the coast of Somalia. Following the Official Languages Act enshrinement in 1969, MARCOM instituted the French Language Unit, which constituted a francophone unit with the navy.
The first was HMCS Ottawa. In the 1980s and 1990s, women were accepted into the fleet, with the submarine service the last to allow them, beginning in 2001; some of the c
Cayuga Lake AVA
The Cayuga Lake AVA is an American Viticultural Area around Cayuga Lake in Upstate New York. The boundaries of the AVA include portions of Cayuga and Tompkins counties. Most of the vineyards in the AVA are planted in the shale soils of the hillsides on the western side of Cayuga Lake. Vineyards are planted at a range of elevations above the surface of the lake, up to 800 feet higher; the steep hillsides and the lake together form a unique micro-climate in autumn that helps extend the growing season by preventing cold air from settling and producing frost. The Cayuga grape variety was created in this region by researchers at Cornell University; the first winery in the area was founded in 1980, although grapes were grown on the shores of Cayuga Lake for the large wineries in Hammondsport before then. In 1981, four wineries on the lake banded together to form the Cayuga Lake Wine Trail, the first of its kind in New York State. By 1988, the appellation was given AVA status, the first Finger Lake to be granted its own AVA