Boston is the capital and most populous city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States. The city proper covers 48 square miles with an estimated population of 685,094 in 2017, making it the most populous city in New England. Boston is the seat of Suffolk County as well, although the county government was disbanded on July 1, 1999; the city is the economic and cultural anchor of a larger metropolitan area known as Greater Boston, a metropolitan statistical area home to a census-estimated 4.8 million people in 2016 and ranking as the tenth-largest such area in the country. As a combined statistical area, this wider commuting region is home to some 8.2 million people, making it the sixth-largest in the United States. Boston is one of the oldest cities in the United States, founded on the Shawmut Peninsula in 1630 by Puritan settlers from England, it was the scene of several key events of the American Revolution, such as the Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, the Battle of Bunker Hill, the Siege of Boston.
Upon gaining U. S. independence from Great Britain, it continued to be an important port and manufacturing hub as well as a center for education and culture. The city has expanded beyond the original peninsula through land reclamation and municipal annexation, its rich history attracts many tourists, with Faneuil Hall alone drawing more than 20 million visitors per year. Boston's many firsts include the United States' first public park, first public or state school and first subway system; the Boston area's many colleges and universities make it an international center of higher education, including law, medicine and business, the city is considered to be a world leader in innovation and entrepreneurship, with nearly 2,000 startups. Boston's economic base includes finance and business services, information technology, government activities. Households in the city claim the highest average rate of philanthropy in the United States; the city has one of the highest costs of living in the United States as it has undergone gentrification, though it remains high on world livability rankings.
Boston's early European settlers had first called the area Trimountaine but renamed it Boston after Boston, England, the origin of several prominent colonists. The renaming on September 7, 1630, was by Puritan colonists from England who had moved over from Charlestown earlier that year in quest for fresh water, their settlement was limited to the Shawmut Peninsula, at that time surrounded by the Massachusetts Bay and Charles River and connected to the mainland by a narrow isthmus. The peninsula is thought to have been inhabited as early as 5000 BC. In 1629, the Massachusetts Bay Colony's first governor John Winthrop led the signing of the Cambridge Agreement, a key founding document of the city. Puritan ethics and their focus on education influenced its early history. Over the next 130 years, the city participated in four French and Indian Wars, until the British defeated the French and their Indian allies in North America. Boston was the largest town in British America until Philadelphia grew larger in the mid-18th century.
Boston's oceanfront location made it a lively port, the city engaged in shipping and fishing during its colonial days. However, Boston stagnated in the decades prior to the Revolution. By the mid-18th century, New York City and Philadelphia surpassed Boston in wealth. Boston encountered financial difficulties as other cities in New England grew rapidly. Many of the crucial events of the American Revolution occurred near Boston. Boston's penchant for mob action along with the colonists' growing distrust in Britain fostered a revolutionary spirit in the city; when the British government passed the Stamp Act in 1765, a Boston mob ravaged the homes of Andrew Oliver, the official tasked with enforcing the Act, Thomas Hutchinson the Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts. The British sent two regiments to Boston in 1768 in an attempt to quell the angry colonists; this did not sit well with the colonists. In 1770, during the Boston Massacre, the army killed several people in response to a mob in Boston.
The colonists compelled the British to withdraw their troops. The event was publicized and fueled a revolutionary movement in America. In 1773, Britain passed the Tea Act. Many of the colonists saw the act as an attempt to force them to accept the taxes established by the Townshend Acts; the act prompted the Boston Tea Party, where a group of rebels threw an entire shipment of tea sent by the British East India Company into Boston Harbor. The Boston Tea Party was a key event leading up to the revolution, as the British government responded furiously with the Intolerable Acts, demanding compensation for the lost tea from the rebels; this led to the American Revolutionary War. The war began in the area surrounding Boston with the Battles of Concord. Boston itself was besieged for a year during the Siege of Boston, which began on April 19, 1775; the New England militia impeded the movement of the British Army. William Howe, 5th Viscount Howe the commander-in-chief of the British forces in North America, led the British army in the siege.
On June 17, the British captured the Charlestown peninsula in Boston, during the Battle of Bunker Hill. The British army outnumbered the militia stationed there, but it was a Py
L. Fidelia Woolley Gillette
Reverend Lucia Fidelia Woolley Gillette was among the first women ordained Universalist minister in the United States and the first woman ordained of any denomination in Canada. Lucia Fidelia Woolley was born in Nelson, New York, on April 8, 1827, she was the daughter of Rev. Edward Mott Woolley and Laura Smith, the oldest of a family of seven children, her ancestry was French. When Woolley was still a child the family moved in the New York State: on her grandparents' farm in Cazenovia, New York, in Munnsville, New York, where her father opened a leather shop, in 1841 in Bridgewater, New York, where her father was a Universalist minister. Woolley was an timid and sensitive child, but an enthusiast about her studies, her father expected her, when she was a mere girl, to read books upon abstruse subjects and to be able to talk about them with himself and his friends, but the distinguishing characteristic of her childhood was spontaneous sympathy for every living thing and all her life it had made her the helper of the helpless and the friend "of such as are in bunds".
Woolley attended the Bridgewater Academy. L. Fidelia Woolley Gillette's literary work started when she was 16 years old under the pen-names "Lyra" and "Carrie Russell", "Ruth Dinsmore" and her own name, her poems and prose articles appeared in various magazines. In 1847, Woolley's father moved to a small farm near Birmingham, ministering at Pontiac and Birmingham, Wolley took a teaching position. On August 21, 1873, Gillette obtained a license to preach and was ordained in 1877, she was among the first women ordained Universalist minister, Augusta Jane Chapin being the first on December 7, 1864, in Lansing, Michigan. In 1888 Gillette was the first woman ordained to preach of any denomination in Canada: she was ministering at the Universalist Church of Bloomfield, Prince Edward County, Ontario. Gillette's published works are: "Pebbles From the Shore", "Floating Leaves", "Editorials and Other Waifs" and a memoir of her father, "Memoir of Rev. Edward Mott Woolley", a popular minister in the Universalist Church.
There was a faint suggestion of the dramatic in Gillette's style of speaking charm. Gillette's missionary and pastoral work lasted several years, she wrote hymns, like: "Be True, Boys!", "The Beautiful World", "Come to My Kingdom", "I Will Not Forget, Our Father Is True" and "Jesus Leads Me Every Day". Gillette lectured on women's issues and literary issues, campaigned for woman's suffrage. Gillette's lectures received high praise. In 1874 Gillette was selected to represent the Michigan State Woman Suffrage Association in Lansing. In October 1874, Gillette opened and closed the 6th annual meeting of the National Woman Suffrage Association in Detroit, she was the women's rights editor for the Rochester Era. On December 23, 1850, Fidelia Woolley married Hartson Gillette and they had one daughter, Florence Lillian Gillette Flett, actress and poet. In the 1860s, Gillette moved with her family to Rochester, where her husband ran the Rochester mill. In February 1864 Hartson Gillette enlisted in the 22nd Michigan Volunteer Infantry Regiment.
In Rochester, Gillette helped founding the Rochester Woman's Club. In 1873, Gillette's daughter, joined a theater company based in Chicago and married Eugene Russell Soggs, an actor, on February 25, 1875, she married again, on July 9, 1889, to George A. Flett, a bookkeeper, actor, she died on June 10, 1900, after five years of paresis, her dying wish was to be buried in Southern California, which her mother accomplished: she is buried at Pomona, California. Florence Gillette was a protege of Charlotte Saunders Cushman and co-worker of George Vanderhof and Edwin Booth. Gillette spent the last years of her life at the Messiah Universalist Home in Germantown and died on October 14, 1905, at Standing Stone Township, Bradford County, Pennsylvania, she is buried at Ivy Hill Cemetery, together with her husband. Media related to L. Fidelia Woolley Gillette at Wikimedia Commons
John W. North
John Wesley North was a 19th-century pioneer American statesman of national reputation. He was the founder of the cities of Northfield and Riverside, where John W. North High School and the John W. North Water Treatment Plant are located and named after him, he received a Presidential appointment to Nevada's highest court, the predecessor of the United States District Court for the District of Nevada. North was born at Sand Lake, Rensselaer County, New York, January 4, 1815, his grandparents had come to New York from Connecticut shortly after the Revolutionary War. He started teaching school at the age of 15 and became a licensed lay preacher in 1833, he completed his post secondary education at Cazenovia Seminary in New York and attended Wesleyan University. He studied law and was admitted to the New York State Bar in 1845, his first wife was Emma Bacon. In 1848, he married Ann Hendrix Loomis, he moved to the Minnesota Territory in 1849. The first years in Minnesota were spent at St. Anthony. In the fall of 1850, North was elected a member of the second Minnesota Territorial Legislature of the territory.
He was defeated. He was one of the founders of the Republican Party of Minnesota in 1855. In 1857, he was a member of the Minnesota state Constitutional Convention. In 1860, he was a delegate to the Chicago Republican Convention which nominated Abraham Lincoln for the presidency of the United States and was a member of the committee that went to Springfield to notify Lincoln of his nomination. In addition to his legislative career in Minnesota, North was influential in founding the University of Minnesota, wrote the act which became the University's charter and was treasurer of its board of regents from 1851–60. On August 17, 1855, North purchased 160 acres of land from three farmers: Daniel Kuykendahl, Daniel Turner, Herman Jenkins; the entire tract of 320 acres was platted in the fall of 1855, the plat of the Original Town, comprising most of what is now the First and Second wards and a small tract across the river south of the section line now marked by Fourth street, was filed in the office of the register of deeds March 7, 1856.
The town was named Minnesota. In the summer of 1855 North started work on the dam and a $4,000 saw mill which began sawing lumber about the first of December of that year. North’s wife, Ann Loomis North, three children aged four months to four years, joined him in Northfield in on January 3, 1856. A fourth child, son John Greenleaf North, was born that year; the North's had six children together. The Norths founded many of the early societies in Northfield. A college-bred man, John was keenly interested in the organization of the Lyceum Society, formed October 1, 1856, of which he was the first president. A number of the early Northfield settlers had known the Norths in Syracuse, New York, including Ann's brother and sister-in-law and Kate A. Loomis; when John North suffered financial failure in the Panic of 1857, his business interests were purchased in 1859 by his friend, Charles Augustus Wheaton, who had moved to Northfield from Syracuse on the advice of the Norths after the death of Wheaton's first wife.
The connection of John North with the community he founded lasted only about six years and he left well before the historical event that brought the most notoriety to the town—the infamous attempt by the James-Younger Gang to rob the First National Bank of Northfield in 1876. In 1861 President Abraham Lincoln appointed North to be the official surveyor of the new Territory of Nevada, North moved to Virginia City, Nevada; the territorial surveyor was a sensitive position in a mining region such as Nevada’s Comstock Lode, where the boundaries of mining claims were the constant subject of lawsuits. Lincoln may have counted on North to keep Nevada Territory loyal to the Union, to bring Nevada in as a Republican state, as he had Minnesota. North surveyed, invested in silver mining properties, began building an ore-treatment mill he named the Minnesota Mill, practiced law. In early 1863, when Justice Gordon Mott's resignation from the Supreme Court of Nevada Territory was a certainty, Judge Horatio M. Jones recommended North for the vacancy.
On August 20, 1863, President Lincoln granted North a temporary presidential appointment to Nevada's highest court, the predecessor of the United States District Court for the District of Nevada. North won praise both for his decisions and for removing the backlog of cases on his docket, he was elected president of the 1863 constitutional convention assigned to draft a proposed state constitution for Nevada. In both positions he clashed with William M. Stewart, a prominent lawyer with political ambitions and large mining companies as clients. North’s rulings supported the "many-ledge" interpretation of mining law on the Comstock Lode, which favored the smaller mining companies over the larger companies that were Stewart’s clients. Stewart accused North of accepting bribes from litigants. North denied the charge, Stewart was forced to publicly recant, but Stewart continued to attack North’s honesty, orchestrated a campaign against North in the Nevada newspapers allied with Stewart. Other newspapers supported North.
North resigned because of ill health after less than a year on the bench, but he sued Stewart for slander. North agreed to submit his suit to arbitration, after hearing both sides, the court declared that Stewart had indeed slandered North, that there was no evidence that North had engaged in corruption. North left the Territory for Cali
Methodist Episcopal Church
The Methodist Episcopal Church was the oldest and largest Methodist denomination in the United States from its founding in 1784 until 1939. It was the first religious denomination in the US to organize itself on a national basis. In 1939, the MEC reunited with two breakaway Methodist denominations to form the Methodist Church. In 1968, the Methodist Church merged with the Evangelical United Brethren Church to form the United Methodist Church; the MEC's origins lie in the First Great Awakening when Methodism emerged as an evangelical revival movement within the Church of England that stressed the necessity of being born again and the possibility of attaining Christian perfection. By the 1760s, Methodism had spread to the Thirteen Colonies, Methodist societies were formed under the oversight of John Wesley; as in England, American Methodists remained affiliated with the Church of England, but this state of affairs became untenable after the American Revolution. In response, Wesley ordained the first Methodist elders for America in 1784.
Under the leadership of its first bishops, Thomas Coke and Francis Asbury, the Methodist Episcopal Church adopted episcopal polity and an itinerant model of ministry that saw circuit riders provide for the religious needs of a widespread and mobile population. Early Methodism was countercultural in that it was anti-elitist and anti-slavery, appealing to African Americans and women. While critics derided Methodists as fanatics, the Methodist Episcopal Church continued to grow during the Second Great Awakening in which Methodist revivalism and camp meetings left its imprint on American culture. In the early 19th century, the MEC became the largest and most influential religious denomination in the United States. With growth came greater institutionalization and respectability, this led some within the church to complain that Methodism was losing its vitality and commitment to Wesleyan teachings, such as the belief in Christian perfection and opposition to slavery; as Methodism took hold in the Southern United States, church leaders became less willing to condemn the practice of slavery or to grant African American preachers and congregations the same privileges as their white counterparts.
A number of black churches were formed as African Americans withdrew from the MEC, including the African Methodist Episcopal Church and the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church. By the 1830s, however, a renewed abolitionist movement within the MEC made keeping a neutral position on slavery impossible; the church divided along regional lines in 1844 when pro-slavery Methodists in the South formed their own Methodist Episcopal Church, South. Around the same time, the holiness movement took shape as a renewal movement within the MEC focused on the experience of Christian perfection, but it led a number of splinter groups to break away from the church. Due to large-scale immigration of Catholics, the Catholic Church displaced the MEC as the largest US denomination by the end of the 19th century; the Methodist Episcopal Church originated from the spread of Methodism outside of England to the Thirteen Colonies in the 1760s. Earlier, Methodism had grown out of the ministry of John Wesley, a priest in the Church of England who preached an evangelical message centered on justification by faith, the possibility of having assurance of salvation, the doctrine of Christian perfection.
Wesley was loyal to the Anglican Church, he organized his followers into parachurch societies and classes with the goal of promoting spiritual revival within the Church of England. Members of Methodist societies were expected to attend and receive Holy Communion in their local parish church, but Wesley recruited and supervised lay preachers for itinerant or traveling ministry. Around fifteen or twenty societies formed a circuit. Anywhere from two to four itinerant preachers would be assigned to a circuit on a yearly basis to preach and supervise the societies within their circuit. One itinerant preacher in each circuit would be made the "assistant", he would direct the activities of the other itinerant preachers in the circuit, who were called "helpers". Wesley gave out preaching assignments at an annual conference. In 1769, Wesley sent itinerants Robert Williams, Richard Boardman, Joseph Pilmore to oversee Methodists in America after learning that societies had been organized there as early as 1766 by Philip Embury, Robert Strawbridge, Thomas Webb.
In 1773, Wesley appointed Thomas Rankin general assistant, placing him in charge of all the Methodist preachers and societies in America. On July 4, 1773, Rankin presided over the first annual conference on American soil at Philadelphia. At that time there were 1,160 Methodists in America led by ten lay preachers. Itinerant Methodist preachers would become known as circuit riders. Methodist societies in America operated within the Church of England. There were several Anglican priests who supported the work of the Methodists, attending Methodist meetings and administering the sacraments to Methodists; these included Charles Pettigrew of North Carolina, Samuel Magaw of Dover and Philadelphia, Uzel Ogden of New Jersey. Anglican clergyman Devereux Jarratt was a active supporter, founding Methodist societies in Virginia and North Carolina; the American Revolution left America's Anglican Church in disarray. Due to the scarcity of Anglican ministers, Methodists in the United States were unable to receive the sacraments of baptism and Holy Communion.
On September 1, 1784, Wesley responded to this situation by ordaining two Methodists a
Lewis Hartsough was a Methodist evangelist and gospel song writer. In 1853, one year after graduation from Cazenovia Seminary, he was ordained and commenced a 15-year ministry in the Oneida Conference of Upstate New York, he was cultivating his interest in religious poetry and music, as in 1858 he wrote the lyrics for "I Love to Sing of Heaven". While serving the South Street Methodist Episcopal Church in Utica, New York, Hartsough met publisher Joseph Hillman, a concurrence, to have long-lasting effects though Hartsough, for health reasons, had to request relocation to a drier climate. Hartsough transferred to the Utah Mission as its first superintendent and became presiding elder of the Wyoming District. In 1868, while in Wyoming but still in communication with Hillman, became musical editor of the Revivalist, a compendium of hymns and gospel songs which had 11 editions as items were removed or added; the Revivalist was published by Hillman in Troy, New York, with Hartsough and Hillman conducting most of their business through the mail.
In 1871, Hartsough moved to a congregation in Iowa. There, during a revival meeting, Hartsough finalized, soon published in the Revivalist, the one gospel song for which he is remembered because of its international popularity—“I Am Coming, Lord”. In 1873 the song came to the attention of Ira D. Sankey as he sang for Dwight L. Moody during evangelistic campaigns in the United Kingdom, where it became known as "Gwahoddiad" from its translation into Welsh. According to hymnologist William Jensen Reynolds, Hartsough during his ministerial career served 15 congregations and five Methodist districts, he traveled some 400,000 miles while making 9,000 ministerial visits to members in need and participated in 7,000 prayer meetings and other church gatherings. Hartsough preached 1,500 sermons, he spent the last years of his life in Iowa. See the Lewis Hartsough entry in Hymnary.org
John Philip Newman
John Philip Newman was an American Bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church, elected in 1888. Newman was born in New York City to Mary Newman, his father was of his mother of French. John was converted to the Christian faith at the age of sixteen and became a member of the M. E. Church, he married Miss Angeline Ensign, the daughter of the Rev. Datus Ensign, one of the early Methodist ministers in Northern New York. John entered the Seminary at Cazenovia, New York, where he pursued college preparatory and theological studies, intending to enter Wesleyan University, but acting on the advice of friends, he did not proceed to college, but instead entered the Methodist ministry. John entered upon pastoral work in 1848 as a member of the Oneida Annual Conference of the M. E. Church. During his first year his salary was only one hundred dollars. At the end of the year, after paying all of his expenses, he had five dollars remaining; each succeeding year, with a single exception, he saved some part of his salary, however small it might be.
He pastored at Hamilton, New York. In 1855 he was transferred to the Troy Annual Conference. In 1857-58 Rev. Newman was stationed in Albany, New York, where his preaching first attracted attention outside his own denomination. In 1858 he was stationed in New York City. In the spring of 1860 he sailed for Europe. After an extensive tour on the Continent he visited the East, for a year made a thorough study of Bible lands: Egypt and Palestine; as a result of his research he wrote a book on the Holy Land, entitled "From Dan to Beersheba." Upon his return from his travels, Rev. Newman was again stationed in New York City, remaining for two years. In 1864 he was sent by Bishop Ames to establish the M. E. Church in Louisiana and Mississippi; the M. E. Church had ceased to exist in these states after the great ecclesiastical secession of 1844. Rev. Newman began his mission in New Orleans, where he soon built a church worth fifty thousand dollars, he founded an orphan asylum, as well, each with ample buildings and endowments.
Indeed, out of the mission Rev. Newman organized grew four Annual Conferences of the M. E. Church. In 1870, Newman traveled to Salt Lake City via the newly completed Transcontinental Railroad for a publicized debate with Latter-day Saint church leaders over the controversial subject of polygamy. For three days Newman and LDS Apostle Orson Pratt debated the question, "Does the Bible sanction polygamy?" Transcripts of the debate were carried by major newspapers throughout the country. On the third and final day of the debate, more than 11,000 people crammed into the city's famed tabernacle to hear Newman's and Pratt's remarks. In 1869 Rev. Newman was appointed to Washington as Pastor of the Metropolitan M. E. Church, which he helped organize, he retired from this pulpit in the Spring of 1872. However, it was a general wish that he should return to it as soon as it was admissible, he accordingly resumed his pastorate in the Spring of 1875. In the meantime, Dr. Newman was Chaplain of the United States Senate, twice by unanimous vote, first assuming this position 8 March 1869, serving until 1874.
One biographer wrote this of Rev. Newman: "In pastoral work Dr. Newman is as useful and successful as in the pulpit. Since his return he has felt the necessity of, has sought, a more complete consecration to Christ, a fuller anointing of the Holy Ghost, on this he relies for the success of his ministry." In the Spring of 1873 Dr. Newman was appointed by President Ulysses S. Grant as Inspector of United States Consulates in Asia, serving 1874-76. In discharge of the duties of this position, Dr. Newman crossed the Pacific Ocean, traveling extensively in China and other oriental countries with which the U. S. A. had diplomatic relations. He prosecuted his investigations with conscientious faithfulness, his habits of observation and ability to describe what he saw pre-eminently fitted him for the duties he was required to perform. Dr. Newman's report to the United States Department of State covered more than two hundred pages, containing observations and suggestions of great value to the Government.
His expenses amounted to only two thousand, three hundred dollars, covering his service for one and one-half years. During various investigations, which were rife in 1876, Dr. Newman was summoned before a Congressional Committee, in answer to whose interrogations he gave much important information relating to the U. S. Diplomatic Service. Indeed, the Committee was surprised at the value of services, which had instead been represented in some of the newspapers as a mere "pleasure tour." Upon his return, Dr. Newman used his extensive notes in the preparation of a work entitled, "Thrones and Palaces of Babylon and Nineveh." Upon his return from overseas Government work, Rev. Newman returned to the pulpit of the Metropolitan Church, where he served an additional three years, he was transferred to the Central Methodist Church in New York City, where he served three years. In the winter of 1882 he accepted a unanimous invitation to become Pastor of the Madison Avenue Congregational Church in New York, serving two years.
Upon his resignation from the Madison Ave. church, Rev. Newman visited California, he was called upon to minister to President Ulysses S. Grant in his final illness. Dr. Newman was appointed a third time to the Metropolitan Church in Washington, serving a final two years. Dr. Newman was thrice elected a delegate to the General Conference of his denomination. In 1876 he served