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Ceawlin of Wessex

Ceawlin was a King of Wessex. He may have been the son of Cynric of Wessex and the grandson of Cerdic of Wessex, whom the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle represents as the leader of the first group of Saxons to come to the land which became Wessex. Ceawlin was active during the last years of the Anglo-Saxon expansion, with little of southern England remaining in the control of the native Britons by the time of his death; the chronology of Ceawlin's life is uncertain. The historical accuracy and dating of many of the events in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle have been called into question, his reign is variously listed as lasting seven, seventeen, or thirty-two years; the Chronicle records several battles of Ceawlin's between the years 556 and 592, including the first record of a battle between different groups of Anglo-Saxons, indicates that under Ceawlin Wessex acquired significant territory, some of, to be lost to other Anglo-Saxon kingdoms. Ceawlin is named as one of the eight "bretwaldas", a title given in the Chronicle to eight rulers who had overlordship over southern Britain, although the extent of Ceawlin's control is not known.

Ceawlin died in 593, having been deposed the year before by his successor, Ceol. He is recorded in various sources as having two sons and Cuthwine, but the genealogies in which this information is found are known to be unreliable; the history of the sub-Roman period in Britain is poorly sourced and the subject of a number of important disagreements among historians. It appears, that in the fifth century raids on Britain by continental peoples developed into migrations; the newcomers included Angles, Saxons and Frisians. These peoples captured territory in the east and south of England, but at about the end of the fifth century, a British victory at the battle of Mons Badonicus halted the Anglo-Saxon advance for fifty years. Near the year 550, the British began to lose ground once more, within twenty-five years, it appears that control of all of southern England was in the hands of the invaders; the peace following the battle of Mons Badonicus is attested by Gildas, a monk, who wrote De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae or On the Ruin and Conquest of Britain during the middle of the sixth century.

This essay is a polemic against corruption and Gildas provides little in the way of names and dates. He appears, however, to state that peace had lasted from the year of his birth to the time he was writing; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is the other main source that bears on this period, in particular in an entry for the year 827 that records a list of the kings who bore the title "bretwalda", or "Britain-ruler". That list shows a gap in the early sixth century. Ceawlin's reign belongs to the period of Anglo-Saxon expansion at the end of the sixth century. Though there are many unanswered questions about the chronology and activities of the early West Saxon rulers, it is clear that Ceawlin was one of the key figures in the final Anglo-Saxon conquest of southern Britain; the two main written sources for early West Saxon history are the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle and the West Saxon Genealogical Regnal List. The Chronicle is a set of annals which were compiled near the year 890, during the reign of King Alfred the Great of Wessex.

They record earlier material for the older entries, which were assembled from earlier annals that no longer survive, as well as from saga material that might have been transmitted orally. The Chronicle dates the arrival of the future "West Saxons" in Britain to 495, when Cerdic and his son, land at Cerdices ora, or Cerdic's shore. Twenty annals describing Cerdic's campaigns and those of his descendants appear interspersed through the next hundred years of entries in the Chronicle. Although these annals provide most of what is known about Ceawlin, the historicity of many of the entries is uncertain; the West Saxon Genealogical Regnal List is a list of rulers of Wessex, including the lengths of their reigns. It survives including as a preface to the manuscript of the Chronicle; as with the Chronicle, the list was compiled during the reign of Alfred the Great, both the list and the Chronicle are influenced by the desire of their writers to use a single line of descent to trace the lineage of the Kings of Wessex through Cerdic to Gewis, the legendary eponymous ancestor of the West Saxons, made to descend from Woden.

The result served the political purposes of the scribe, but is riddled with contradictions for historians. The contradictions may be seen by calculating dates by different methods from the various sources; the first event in West Saxon history, the date of which can be regarded as reasonably certain, is the baptism of Cynegils, which occurred in the late 630s as late as 640. The Chronicle dates Cerdic's arrival to 495, but adding up the lengths of the reigns as given in the West Saxon Genealogical Regnal List leads to the conclusion that Cerdic's reign might have started in 532, a difference of 37 years. Neither 495 nor 532 may be treated as reliable, however--the latter date relies on the presumption that the Regnal List is correct in presenting the Kings of Wessex as having succeeded one another, with no omitted kings, no joint kingships, that the durations of the reigns are correct as given. None of these presumptions may be made safely; the sources are inconsistent on the length of Ceawlin's reign.

The Chronicle gives it as thirty-two years, from 560 to 592, but the Regnal Lists disagree: different versions give it as seven or seventeen years. A recent detailed study of the Regnal List dates the arrival of the West Saxons in England to 538, favours seven years as

Marty Ravellette

Marty Ravellette was born in Goodland, Indiana without arms, attended Good Shepherd Rehabilitation Network in Allentown, Pennsylvania as an infant and the family moved to Oceanside, California where he was stopped for speeding in February 1963. The notoriety that resulted introduced him to his soon wife JoBeth Johnson and they moved to Klamath Falls, Oregon. Belonging to various denominations of Christianity and several of the family converted to the Baháʼí Faith between 1967 and 1970. Divorced, Ravellette moved to Teaneck, New Jersey serving the religion and Chapel Hill, North Carolina where he rescued an elderly woman in a burning car and again won national recognition. By he was married a second time, his life was noted in a documentary No Arms Needed: A Hero Among Us in 2003. Ravellette died in an auto accident in 2007. Marty Ravellette was the fourth child of the farm family of Ernest D. Ravellette and Laurene Ravellette, he was born without arms, though not because of Thalidomide, an issue in the 1950s and 1960s.

Faced with the challenge of this disability his family was convinced to place him at 2 months old at the Good Shepherd Home in Allentown, Pennsylvania. The main practice at Good Shepherd was mainstreaming and there they trained him in adapting the use of his legs and feet as arms and hand as well as an early prosthetic arms he stopped using. Ravellette was not the first armless person to go through the Good Shepherd facility -, Ray Meyers -, an inspiration to Ravellette. Ravellette, while missing arms, favored his left foot like many do their left hand. Ravellete was known to entertain people with his use of feet and body to do tricks. While there Ravellette attended regular public school as well starting with Jefferson Elementary School and South Mountain Junior High. At the age of 11 Ravellette suffered burns from a fire accident. At the age of 16 Ravellette rejoined his family because he was a discipline problem but was barred from attending high school by the principle - in the era, as Ravellette understood it, physical handicaps were equated with mental handicaps.

Ravellette's mother sued the school and produced transcripts from his public school years while living at the Good Shepherd. However while attending high school Ravellete's reputation was not built because of his lack of arms as much as by his "rebel" confrontational attitude where he "didn't back down" when fellow students picked at his difference and towns people treated him differently - "For the first time, I felt like I was a cripple." But living on a farm taught him to not be afraid of work. His family did not have running water and at one point it was his job to fill water troughs from a "hand" pump. For the high school prom Ravellette recalled he was denied a date saying "Marty, when I want to get married I want to marry a man, not half a one." After graduating circa 1957 the family moved to Oceanside and Ravellette ran away from home. In San Diego Ravellette began to work in a variety of jobs. Unemployed in 1962 he was driving from Los Angeles, California to his home on San Diego when he was pulled over in a line of cars for speeding.

After taking his driver's license the officer noticed that he was handed the license by Ravellette's foot. After proving he had a valid driver's license he sent Ravellette on with a citation; the incident was picked up by the Associated Press and it ran in several newspapers across the country. One place in particular was where JoBeth Johnson lived in Florida and they struck up a long distance relationship that grew to a marriage after Ravellette moved to Klamath Falls, Oregon in 1963, they lived there a number of years. Together they had Nancy and a son who died as a child in a car accident. Around 1967 after some community college, Ravellette soon moved to San Diego living in boarding house, where he was entertaining men with parlor tricks when he met Ray Estes who pointed out he was being used for their amusement and they were not his friends. In the same period Estes noticed he was much more agile with his feet and remarked "If God has seen fit to put you on earth without arms, it's up to the rest of us to accept you - not you to accept us."

Which Ravellette took as a turning point in his life. Estes and Ravellette would be long time friends. Estes had joined the Baháʼí Faith in 1966 and Ravellette converted to the religion in 1967. Soon his mother and wife were visible serving in the religion and the Ravellettes had a second child May 21, 1970 after they moved to Eugene, Oregon - Marcus Husayn Ravellette - "Husayn" is a name recognized in Baháʼí circles as the birth-name of the founder, Baháʼu'lláh. However, in June 11, 1975 Marcus was killed in an automobile accident and buried as a Baháʼí. Marty and JoBeth divorced some time afterwards. Ravellete moved to Teaneck, New Jersey where he became a grounds keeper at the Baháʼí property there, it was near there in New Jersey that he met the woman who would be his next wife - Maree. In 1991 Ravellette moved to Chapel Hill, North Carolina and lived in various circumstances but gained enough notoriety to win North Carolina's Disabled Citizen of the Year in 1994 while running a landscaping business called "Hands on Landscaping."

However he again gained national fame. He appeared on national television shows like Discovery Channel and other shows though he had sought no publicity. Following this he had the opportunity to go back to the Good Shepherd for a reunion and began a per

Roy Orbison's Sun Recordings

Roy Orbison's Sun Recordings were made by Roy Orbison at Sun Studio with producer Sam Phillips. Sun Records was established in 1952 in Memphis and during an eight-year period Sun Records signed such artists as Roy Orbison, B. B. King, Howlin' Wolf, Ike Turner, Rufus Thomas, Elvis Presley, Johnny Cash, Jerry Lee Lewis, Carl Perkins, Harold Jenkins, Charlie Rich; the musicians signed at Sun Records made music that laid the foundation of rock and roll in the 20th century. Roy Kelton Orbison was born in Vernon, Texas, on April 23, 1936, he grew up in Wink, Texas, his parents Orbie Lee and Nadine, gave him a guitar for his sixth birthday and taught him the chords to "You Are My Sunshine". Roy Orbison grew up around country music and stated it was a great influence to him. “I grew up with country music in Texas. The first singer I heard on the radio who slayed me was Lefty Frizzell, he had this technique which involved sliding syllables together that blew me away.” By the time Orbison was eight years old he was performing on local radio shows, at thirteen years old he formed the band The Wink Westerners.

The Wink Westerners obtained local notoriety and performed country and pop songs. He began playing guitar professionally in his teens with the band the Wink Westerners; the Wink Westerners had a weekly television show for them on KMID-TV. Roy Orbison attended North Texas University after high school, it was there where he discovered rock and roll and began to write more pop oriented songs. Orbison stayed at North Texas for only a year stating he felt like he was in the “wrong place at the wrong time.” He moved to Odessa, Texas where he formed The Teen Kings. The Teen Kings consisted of Roy Orbison, James Morrow, Jack Kennelley, Billy Pat Ellis, Johnny “Peanuts” Wilson; the Teen Kings got a job on a local television show and they recorded “Ooby Dooby” for a local label. In 1956, singer/songwriter Johnny Cash appeared on the show and on his advice Orbison and the Teen Kings signed with Sun Records in Memphis. Shortly after signing a new version of "Ooby Dooby" was recorded and became a hit in 1956.

"Ooby Dooby" did well nationwide, reaching #59 on the Billboards Hot 100 and sold 200,000 copies. According to the official Roy Orbison discography by Marcel Riesco, the follow-up single was "Rockhouse" b/w "You're My Baby", shortly after this release the Teen Kings disbanded, Orbison remained under contract to Sun as a solo artist. Orbison continued recording using the Sun house musicians. Not unlike several other artists at Sun, Roy Orbison was unhappy with the direction Sam Phillips was taking. Orbison noted that he wasn't quite comfortable with rockabilly but stated he enjoyed the freedom in the studio that came with being a Sun artist. Sun’s musical director Bill Justice gave Orbison the song “Chicken Hearted.” Released in December 1957, it was Orbison’s last shot at remaining a contracted artist for Sun. Shortly after the failure of "Chicken Hearted", Orbison moved back to Texas with his first wife Claudette Frady. Sam Phillips stated having regret in not promoting Orbison more than he did.

Orbison began to question rather or not he still wanted to be a performer and began to focus more on writing. As a writer, Orbison scored a Hot 100 hit for Warren Smith with "So Long I'm Gone" and he did better when Jerry Lee Lewis recorded a new version of "Go!, Go!, Go!", renaming the track "Down The Line." The greatest writing success Orbison had was due to The Everly Brothers recording the song "Claudette". The success of "Claudette" gave Orbison enough money to buy himself out of his contract at Sun and he signed over all of his copyrights in exception to "Claudette". Roy Orbison played lead guitar in all of his Sun Records recordings, creating a breakthrough sound which became such a big part of rockabilly music. According to Riesco's official Roy Orbison discography, Orbison's first 2 Sun singles were released in the UK on an extended play called "Hillbilly Rock" in 1957. Orbison affiliated himself with the Everlys' music publisher, Acuff-Rose. Wesley Rose got Orbison a one-year contract with RCA, an affiliation that spawned two mediocre singles.

During the last RCA session, Orbison had a conversation with bassist Bob Moore, buying himself a stake in Monument Records. Moore called owner Fred Foster, said, "You know what I heard today? RCA's letting Roy Orbison go." Fred Foster signed Roy Orbison. Orbison, still in Texas began writing with Joe Melson, who led a group in Midland called the Cavaliers. Together they wrote the hit "Uptown," which sold better than any single since "Ooby Dooby". Looking for a follow-up, Melson showed Orbison a piece of a song he had been working on called "Only the Lonely"; this song was the "first song that probed the frightening potential of Orbison's voice." In the early sixties Orbison reached his first peak period from 1961-1964. Despite the lack of commercial success Orbison looked back at his time at Sun Records as an important and historical part of his career. Into the seventies and early eighties artists such as Linda Ronstadt, Van Halen, Don McLean, had hits with Orbison's songs. In 1980 Roy Orbison released "That Lovin' You Feelin' Again" with Emmylou Harris, winning the artists a grammy.

After Roy's death in 1988 he had two simultaneous posthumously-charting Top 5 albums with Mystery Girl and The Traveling Wilburys. Mystery Girl went platinum and reached #5 on the US Billboard 200 and #2 on the UK Albums Chart. Orbison recorded at Sun Records from 1956-1958. Written by Wade Moore and Dick PennerProduced by Sam Phillips Recorded Spring 1956.


Imst is a town in the Austrian federal state of Tyrol. It lies on the River Inn in western Tyrol, some 50 kilometres west of Innsbruck and at an altitude of 828 metres above sea level. With a current population of 9,552, Imst is the administrative centre of Imst District. Licensed since 1282 to hold a regular market; until 1918, the town was part of the Austrian monarchy, head of the district of the same name, one of the 21 Bezirkshauptmannschaften in the Tyrol province. Imst received full town rights in 1898; every four years Imst hosts carnival before Lent. This carnival is listed by UNESCO as one of their Lists of Intangible Cultural Heritage; as part of Schemenlaufen pairs of men wear bells, tuned differently, while performing dances of jumps and bows. They are accompanied by masked characters imitating their dance. In 1958, the first artificially refrigerated track was completed at Imst; the track was 1000.9 meters long with 17 turns and a vertical drop of 124.8 meters, giving the track an average grade of 12.48%.

No turn names were given for the track. It hosted the FIL World Luge Championships in 1963 and 1978 and it hosted the FIL European Luge Championships in 1956, 1971, 1974. In 1949 Hermann Gmeiner founded the first SOS Children's Village in the Sonnberg district of Imst; the SOS-Kinderdörfer organization now runs over 450 such villages worldwide. Theodor von Hörmann, landscape painter Friedrich Heinrich Suso Denifle, church historian, professor in Graz Alfons Gorbach, Federal Chancellor of Austria from 1961 to 1964 Official Imst town council website Imst-Gurgltal tourist site Website of SOS-Kinderdorf international

Sauer Castle

The Sauer Castle was the residence of Anton Sauer. Sauer had married his wife Francesca in Austria at age eighteen and a half. There, they had their five children: Gustave O. L. Anthony Philip Jr. Julius J. Emil, Johanna, it is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. In 1858, they decided to move to New York City to be with Anton's mother and sisters, there for some time. Due to his worsening case of tuberculosis and Francesca's death in 1868, he decided to move his family to Kansas City. After his business became successful, he began courting a young 28-year-old widow, Mary Einhellig Messerschmidt, who had two daughters of her own: Anna and Maria. After marrying in 1869 they had five daughters: Eva Marie, Antoinette and Clara. Daughter Helen died in infancy age 14 months. By 1872 the mansion was fully furnished, sitting on the Shawnee Indian trail, part of the old Santa Fe Trail that many wagons passed. After Anton's death on August 16, 1879 in the second floor master bedroom and the children continued living in the house, as did the children continue living there after Mary's death in 1919.

On November 29th 1919, she passed in MO of a heart attack. Daughter Eve Maria Sauer married William C. Van Fossen in the house, having one child named Helen before the marriage failed 18 months into it, she married a widower with six children of his own, local Wyandotte County businessman and landowner, Mr. John S. Perkins. Together they had three children and stayed married until he committed suicide with a handgun at age 73, the reason being his declining health. Eve and John S. Perkins' son John Harrison Perkins had an infant daughter drown in the swimming pool on the west side of the house. Eve continued to live in the family home with her son and two daughters, Eva Marie Perkins, Marguerite A. Perkins, until her death in 1955. Five generations of the Sauer family continued living in the mansion until the owner of a home heating oil company, Paul Berry, bought the house after Eve's death, he lived in the mansion until his own death in December 1986. Because of ghost stories originating in 1930, the house was trespassed and vandalized, which Barry and his dog fought off themselves.

In January 1987, Bud Wyman, his son and daughter in law and Cindy Jones, bought the home hoping to turn it into a bed and breakfast. At this time, no one lived in the house. In 1988, Carl Lopp, great grandson of Anthony Sauer, bought the house with the intention of fixing it up and residing there to keep it in the family. However, this has proved to be a difficult task for Lopp, has only managed minor repairs such as fixing balconies and putting a large fence around the property. Carl Lopp's hired caretaker of the house was charged with felony theft on August 15, 1996 for stealing 30 thousand dollars worth of artifacts from the house, including a tractor, chandelier, copper from the furnace, wall sconces. There have been a number of ghost stories that can be disproved that keep people vandalizing the house, which keeps Lopp from receiving insurance money, it is located at 935 Shawnee Road in Kansas. The architect may have been Asa Beebe Cross; the home's design is an example of Italianate architecture.

It was placed in the Kansas City, Kansas Historic Landmarks on January 29, 1987. It was placed in the Register of Historic Kansas Places on July 1, 1977, it was placed in the National Register of Historic Places: August 2, 1977

Alf Goullet

Alf Goullet was an Australian cyclist who won more than 400 races on three continents, including 15 six-day races. He set world records from two-thirds of a mile to 50 miles, the record for the distance ridden in a six-day race. Goullet – pronounced to rhyme with roulette – was born in the Gippsland region of Victoria and grew up in Emu, 240 kilometres north of Melbourne, he created a cycling track at home by leading a horse. He was contracted to ride in the United States, he landed at New York in winter 1910 "in a snowstorm, wearing a sleeveless shirt and a straw hat because it was summer at home." He was 19. He raced on outdoor tracks set in parks and sports grounds. In Salt Lake City in 1912 he set world records at two-thirds of a mile, three-quarters of a mile and a mile. A reporter there wrote: Alfred Goullet, sensation of the cycle racing world, declares that the women of Salt Lake are the most beautiful he has seen, he is not quite 21 years old and is one of the cleanest, most straightforward and likeable athletes who appeared here.

But Goullet is not a woman's man. He likes to admire from a distance. In fact, he does not allow any counter attractions to interfere with his determination to become the cycle racing champion of the world; that winter Goullet won the first Paris six-day race, paired with Joe Fogler of Brooklyn. He returned to America and in November 1914 won the six-day at Madison Square Garden, paired with another Australian, Alfred Grenda; the 2,759.2 miles they covered is still a record. Goullet rode the last hour of the race - a six-day relay race - without Grenda's help, his partner had appendicitis. He wrote in the Saturday Evening Post after his first six-day race in New York: My knees were sore, I was suffering from stomach trouble, my hands were so numb I couldn't open them wide enough to button my collar for a month, my eyes were so irritated I couldn't, for a long time, stand smoke in a room. Goullet took American nationality in 1916, he joined the navy when the USA never left the country. Goullet was so popular in the 1920s.

The historian Peter Nye says a National Football League franchise could be bought at the time for a few hundred dollars. National Football League teams sold for $100 each in the 1920s, making all 11 teams together worth $1100. Goullet made 10 times as much; such was the crowd - 15,000 - to see him at Madison Square Garden in 1921 that firemen surrounded the building to stop gatecrashers. The New York Times said: "Goullet won the race through the greatest exhibition of sustained speed known in history." He and a Tour de France rider, Maurice Brocco, picked up $50,000, equivalent to $720,000 in 2019, on the last night. Damon Runyon wrote in The New York Times that Goullet was the king of six-day racers, proclaiming, "Long live the king!"By 1925, Goullet had won around 400 races, established six world records and won the New York six-day eight times. Goullet retired at 34 married, after that December's race at Madison Square Garden; the organisers paid him an appearance fee of $10,000. He estimated.

At his peak he earned more than the $20,000 paid to baseball's Babe Ruth in the year he hit 54 home runs for the Yankees. He owned and ran a skating rink in Wayne Township, he was inducted into the Madison Square Garden Hall of Fame in 1968 flew to Melbourne - his first trip to Australia in 75 years - to join the Sport Australia Hall of Fame in 1986. He was enrolled in the US Bicycling Hall of Fame in May 1988, he died in a nursing home aged 103 in New Jersey. He was survived by his son, daughter Suzanne, six grandchildren and seven great-grandchildren. In 2016, he was posthumously inducted into the Cycling Australia Hall of Fame. Alf Goullet at Cycling Archives