England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
John William Henry Tyler Douglas was an English cricketer, active in the early decades of the twentieth century. Douglas was an all-rounder who played for Essex County Cricket Club from 1901 to 1928 and captained the county from 1911 to 1928, he played for England and captained the England team both before and after the First World War with markedly different success. As well as playing cricket, Douglas was a notable amateur boxer who won the middleweight gold medal at the 1908 Olympic Games. Douglas was the son of John Herbert Douglas and Julia Ann and was born at Stoke Newington, London in what is now Belfast Road, he was educated at Moulton Grammar School and Felsted School and joined his father's wood-importing firm, which supported his amateur status in cricket and boxing. Douglas played football once for the England amateur side, he served in the Bedfordshire Regiment throughout World War I as major. In 1908 Douglas won an Olympic gold medal as a middleweight boxer. All three of his bouts, including the final, described by The Times as "one of the most brilliant exhibitions of skilful boxing, allied to tremendous hitting seen.", were held on the same day.
The silver medal winner, Snowy Baker, 44 years falsely claimed that Douglas's father was the sole judge and referee. Baker never publicly contested the close points verdict which Douglas, who scored a second-round knockdown over him and won in their Olympic final. Yet, in a 1952 interview, he claimed that Douglas's father had refereed the fight, leading to widespread suspicion of a dodgy decision. In reality Douglas senior was at ringside, to present the medals, in his role as president of the Amateur Boxing Association of England; the real referee was Eugene Corri, who did not have to give a casting vote as the two judges agreed that Douglas was a narrow winner. Douglas Jr, his father and his younger brother, Cecil were all prominent referees and officials in the ABA, the last being the leading referee in the professional sport in the 1930s. Besides his Olympic gold, Douglas won the 1905 ABA middleweight title. Defeated René Doudelle KO round 1 2nd round bye Defeated Ruben Warnes KO round 2 Defeated Snowy Baker Decision Douglas was an untiring fast-medium bowler and obdurate batsman, nicknamed with a play on his initials JWHT as "Johnny Will Hit Today", or conversely "Johnny Won't Hit Today" by Australian hecklers.
He captained the school teams at Felsted and was a member of Wanstead C. C, he played for Essex in 1902 and for London County in 1903. In 1904 he returned to Essex where he remained, captaining the side from 1911 to 1928, he played for England after the First World War. Douglas was named as a Wisden Cricketer of the Year in 1915, but play was suspended during the war years. After the war until 1923 had to carry Essex's bowling on his shoulders except when George Louden turned out, he took over 100 wickets in a season seven times with a best of 147 in 1920. The following year against Derbyshire he produced the most remarkable all-round performance in English first-class cricket history. After taking nine for 47, Douglas stopped a breakdown against Bill Bestwick with an unbeaten 210 that tired him so much he did not bowl until the end of Derbyshire's second innings, he took two for none, giving him a match record of eleven for 47. Douglas captained England eighteen times, with a Test match record of won eight, lost eight, drawn two.
Successful as stand-in captain in Australia in 1911, he won the series 4–1. On the 1920/21 tour of Australia he led a depleted post-war side which suffered a 0–5'whitewash', a scoreline not repeated in an Ashes series until the 2006/7 England team lost by the same margin. Reappointed reluctantly by the M. C. C. in 1921, he lost the first two Tests at home to Warwick Armstrong's side and was displaced as captain but retained in the XI. He captained England in one further Test match, against South Africa in July 1924, played his final Test on the 1924/25 England tour of Australia. Douglas married Evelyn Ruby, the widow of Captain Thomas Elphinstone Case, of the Coldstream Guards, daughter of Adolphus Ferguson, on 25 December 1916, he had no children but the actor Gerald Case. He drowned when the Oberon, on which he and his father were travelling, was wrecked seven miles south of the Laeso Trindel Lightship, Denmark, it had collided with a sister-vessel in foggy weather when the two captains who were brothers were attempting to exchange Christmas greetings.
According to a witness at the post mortem enquiry, Douglas may well have been trying to save his father. They had been purchasing timber in Finland, he was aged 48. Media related to Johnny Douglas at Wikimedia Commons Johnny Douglas at ESPNcricinfo Corinthian Casuals F. C. - Player profiles
Potchefstroom is an academic city in the North West Province of South Africa. It hosts the Potchefstroom Campus of the North-West University. Potchefstroom is on the Mooi Rivier 120 km west-southwest of Johannesburg and 45 km east-northeast of Klerksdorp. Potchefstroom, together with Rustenburg, is the second-largest city in the North West Province; the largest city, Klerksdorp, is about 45 kilometres away. Several theories exist about the origin of the city's name. According to one theory, it originates from Potgieter + Chef + stroom. Geoffrey Jenkins writes, "Others however, attribute the name as having come from the word'Potscherf', meaning a shard of a broken pot, due to the cracks that appear in the soil of the Mooi River Valley during drought resembling a broken pot". M. L. Fick suggests that Potchefstroom developed from the abbreviation of "Potgieterstroom" to "Potgerstroom", which became "Potchefstroom". However, this does not account for the appearance of "Potjestroom" on many documents and photographs.
The African National Congress decided to change the name of the municipality and some street names in 2006, favouring "Tlokwe" as the new name. In 2007, its name was changed from Potchefstroom Municipality to Tlokwe Municipality. However, the city continued to use the name Potchefstroom; the Tlowke Municipality merged with the Ventersdorp Municipality in 2016, forming the larger JB Marks Local Municipality. Potchefstroom, founded in 1838 by the Voortrekkers, is the second-oldest European settlement in the Transvaal; the oldest European settlement is Klerksdorp, about 40 km west. Some historians challenge this, because the first settlement was in the "upper regions of the Schoon Spruit". However, Potchefstroom was the first to develop into a town; until 1840, the towns of Potchefstroom and Winburg and their surrounding territories were a Boer Republic known as the Republic of Winburg-Potchefstroom. Voortrekker leader Andries Hendrik Potgieter was elected as chief commandant. In October 1840, after a meeting between Potgieter, Andries Pretorius and G. R. van Rooyen, it was decided that Potchefstroom would unite with "Pieter Mouriets Burg".
On 16–17 January 1852, the Sand River Convention was signed between Andries Pretorius and Major W. S. Hogge and C. M. Owen. According to the convention, the British government would allow the immigrant farmers north of the Vaal River to govern themselves with no interference from either side; this signalled the establishment of the Zuid Afrikaanse Republiek. In Article 17 of the Constitution of the ZAR dated 18 February 1858, it was stated that "Potchefstroom, located on the Mooi River, would be the capital of the Republic and that Pretoria would be the seat of government". In May 1860, Potchefstroom became the "chief city" of the republic and the capital moved to Pretoria. On 16 December 1880, the First Boer War began; the siege ended amicably on 23 March 1881. The British built an internment camp during the Second Boer War for Boer women and elderly men. At the opening of the city hall in 1909, colonial secretary Jan Smuts was asked about the possibility of Potchefstroom becoming capital of the Union.
He replied that the city stood no chance, but should aim to be South Africa's largest educational centre. This has led to Potchefstroom's being the "city of expertise", with numerous tertiary educational institutions, it has hosted the annual late-September Aardklop Arts Festival, a predominantly-Afrikaans arts festival, since 1997. The Potchefstroom Municipality, which encompasses several neighbouring settlements, had a population of 128,357 in the 2007 community survey. Of these, 69.6 percent were African, 27.0 percent were white, three percent were coloureds and 0.4 percent were Asian. However, the city itself and surrounding suburbs have a population of 43,448, of which 69.9 percent are white, 25.4 percent are African, 2.8 percent were coloured and 1.3 percent were Asian. Ken McArthur of Potchefstroom won a gold medal at the 1912 Stockholm Olympics in the marathon. McArthur was known in his home village of North Antrim for his training routine, which consisted of racing a narrow-gauge train.
Potchefstroom is home to five tertiary institutions, 30 other schools and a number of research bureaus and training centres, including: The North-West University, a merged tertiary institution, created on 1 January 2004, with campuses in Potchefstroom and Vanderbijlpark. The Potchefstroom Campus is the largest, the university's head office is located there; the North-West University became one of South Africa's larger universities after the merger, with about 32,000 full-time and distance-education students. The Potchefstroom College of Education, founded in 1919; the college was housed in galvanised-iron buildings on the same premises as the Potchefstroom High School for Boys, moved to its present location in 1923. The College of Education was incorporated by the university on 1 January 2001; the Technical College Potchefstroom, founded in 1939 when the Union Education Department began "continuation classes". The Agricultural Centre known as the Experimental Farm and Agricultural College, is the largest agricultural facility in one location in southern Africa.
The centre houses th
South Africa national cricket team
The South African national cricket team, nicknamed the Proteas, is administered by Cricket South Africa. South Africa is a full member of the International Cricket Council with Test, One Day International and Twenty20 International status. South Africa entered first-class and international cricket at the same time when they hosted an England cricket team in the 1888–89 season. At first, the team was no match for Australia or England but, having gained in experience and expertise, they were able to field a competitive team in the first decade of the 20th century; the team played against Australia and New Zealand through to the 1960s, by which time there was considerable opposition to the country's apartheid policy and an international ban was imposed by the ICC, commensurate with actions taken by other global sporting bodies. When the ban was imposed, South Africa had developed to a point where its team including Eddie Barlow, Graeme Pollock and Mike Procter was arguably the best in the world and had just outplayed Australia.
The ban remained in place until 1991 and South Africa could play against India, Sri Lanka and the West Indies for the first time. The team since reinstatement has been strong and has at times held number one positions in international rankings but has lacked success in organised tournaments. Outstanding players since reinstatement have included Allan Donald, Makhaya Ntini, Shaun Pollock, Jacques Kallis, Graeme Smith, Kagiso Rabada, AB de Villiers, Dale Steyn, Faf du Plessis and Hashim Amla. European colonisation of southern Africa began on Tuesday, 6 April 1652 when the Dutch East India Company established a settlement called the Cape Colony on Table Bay, near present-day Cape Town, continued to expand into the hinterland through the 17th and 18th centuries, it was founded as a victualling station for the Dutch East Indies trade route but soon acquired an importance of its own due to its good farmland and mineral wealth. There was no significant British interest in South Africa until 1795, when British troops under General Sir James Henry Craig seized Cape Colony during the French Revolutionary War, the Netherlands having been occupied by French forces the same year.
After the British seized Cape Colony a second time in 1806 to counteract French interests in the region in the course of the Napoleonic Wars, Cape Colony was turned into a permanent British settlement. As in most other parts of the world, British colonisation brought in its wake the introduction of the game of cricket, which began to develop rapidly; the first recorded cricket match in South Africa took place in 1808, in Cape Town between two service teams for a prize of one thousand rix-dollars. The oldest cricket club in South Africa is the Port Elizabeth Cricket Club, founded in 1843. In 1862, an annual fixture "Mother Country v Colonial Born" was staged for the first time in Cape Town. By the late 1840s, the game had spread from its early roots in Cape Colony and permeated the Afrikaners in the territories of Orange Free State and Transvaal, who were descendants of the original Dutch settlers and were not considered a cricket-playing people. In 1876, Port Elizabeth presented the "Champion Bat" for competition between South African towns.
The first tournament was staged in Port Elizabeth. King William's Town won the tournament in 1877, too. In 1888, Sir Donald Currie sponsored the first English team to tour South Africa, it was managed by Major R. G. Warton and captained by future Hollywood actor C. Aubrey Smith; the tour marked the advent, retrospectively, of both Test cricket in South Africa. Currie donated the Currie Cup that became the trophy, first won by Transvaal in 1889–90, for a national championship of the provincial teams in South Africa. In 1889, South Africa became the third test-playing nation when it played against England at Port Elizabeth, captained by Owen Robert Dunnell. Soon after, a 2nd test was played at Cape Town. However, these two matches, as was the case with all early matches involving the erstwhile'South African XI' against all touring teams, did not receive the status of official'Test' matches until South Africa formed the Imperial Cricket Conference with England and Australia in 1906. Neither did the touring English team organised by Major Warton claim to be representing the English cricket team.
The players who participated did not know that they had played international cricket, the side that played South Africa was regarded to be of weak county strength. The team was captained by C. A. Smith, a decent medium pacer from Sussex, for two of the Major Warton's XI, Basil Grieve and The Honourable Charles Coventry, the two Tests constituted their entire first-class career. So, the nascent, fledgling'South African XI' was weak, losing both tests comfortably to England, English spinner Johnny Briggs claiming 15–28 in the second Test at Cape Town. However, Albert Rose-Innes did make history by becoming the first South African bowler to take a five-wicket haul in Tests at Port Elizabeth. South Africa's early Test record remains the worst among all current Test-playing nations with ten defeats and just a solitary draw from their first eleven tests, it was not until 1904 that they began to emerge as a quality international team, they recorded. The low point of this barren early period for the South African team was an English tour of 1895–96, where South Africa was humiliated 3–0 in 3 Tests by an English side for the first time remotely comparab
Test cricket is the form of the sport of cricket with the longest duration, is considered the game's highest standard. Test matches are played between national representative teams with "Test status", as determined and conferred by the International Cricket Council; the term Test stems from the fact of the form's long, gruelling matches being both mentally and physically testing. Two teams of 11 players each play a four-innings match, it is considered the most complete examination of a team's endurance and ability. The first recognised Test match took place between 15 and 19 March 1877 and was played between England and Australia at the Melbourne Cricket Ground, where Australia won by 45 runs. A Test match to celebrate 100 years of Test cricket was held in Melbourne between 12 and 17 March 1977, in which Australia beat England by 45 runs—the same margin as that first Test. In October 2012, the ICC recast the playing conditions for Test matches, permitting day/night Test matches; the first day/night game took place between Australia and New Zealand at the Adelaide Oval, Adelaide, on 27 November – 1 December 2015.
Women's Test cricket is played over four days, with slight differences in format from men's Tests. Test matches are the highest level of cricket, statistically, their data form part of first-class cricket. Matches are played between national representative teams with "Test status", as determined by the International Cricket Council; as of June 2017, twelve national teams have Test status, the most promoted being Afghanistan and Ireland on 22 June 2017. Zimbabwe's Test status was voluntarily suspended, because of poor performances between 2006 and 2011. In January 2014, during an ICC meeting in Dubai, the pathway for new potential Test nations was laid out with the winners of the next round of the ICC Intercontinental Cup playing a 5-day match against the bottom ranked Test nation. If the Associate team defeats the Test nation they could be added as the new Test country and granted full membership. A list of matches, defined as "Tests", was first drawn up by Australian Clarence Moody in the mid-1890s.
Representative matches played by simultaneous England touring sides of 1891–92 and 1929–30 are deemed to have "Test status". In 1970, a series of five "Test matches" was played in England between England and a Rest of the World XI; these matches scheduled between England and South Africa, were amended after South Africa was suspended from international cricket because of their government's policy of apartheid. Although given Test status, this was withdrawn and a principle was established that official Test matches can only be between nations. Despite this, in 2005, the ICC ruled that the six-day Super Series match that took place in October 2005, between Australia and a World XI, was an official Test match; some cricket writers and statisticians, including Bill Frindall, ignored the ICC's ruling and excluded the 2005 match from their records. The series of "Test matches" played in Australia between Australia and a World XI in 1971–72 do not have Test status; the commercial "Supertests" organised by Kerry Packer as part of his World Series Cricket enterprise and played between "WSC Australia", "WSC World XI" and "WSC West Indies" from 1977 to 1979 have never been regarded as official Test matches.
There are twelve Test-playing men's teams. The teams all represent individual, independent nations, except for England, the West Indies and Ireland. Test status is conferred upon a group of countries by the International Cricket Council. Teams that do not have Test status can play in the ICC Intercontinental Cup designed to allow non-Test teams to play under conditions similar to Tests; the teams are listed below with the date of each team's Test debut: England Australia South Africa West Indies New Zealand India Pakistan Sri Lanka Zimbabwe Bangladesh Ireland Afghanistan In the mid 2010s, the ICC evaluated proposals for dividing Test cricket into two tiers, with promotion and relegation between Tier-1 and Tier-2. These proposals were opposed by others; these proposals were not implemented. A standard day of Test cricket consists of three sessions of two hours each, the breaks between sessions being 40 minutes for lunch and 20 minutes for tea; however the times of sessions and intervals may be altered in certain circumstances: if bad weather or a change of innings occurs close to a scheduled break, the break may be taken immediately.
Today, Test matches are scheduled to be played across five consecutive days
Scotland national cricket team
The Scotland national cricket team represents the country of Scotland. They play their home matches at The Grange and some other venues. Scotland became associate members of the International Cricket Council in 1994 after severing links with the England cricket team two years earlier. Since they have played in three Cricket World Cups and three ICC World Twenty20 tournaments. However, their first win in either of these events did not come until they beat Hong Kong in the 2016 World Twenty20. Scottish cricket team is governed by Cricket Scotland. Scotland have played in every ICC Intercontinental Cup tournament, winning the inaugural edition in 2004. Between 2010 and 2013, the team competed in the ECB 40 as the Scottish Saltires. Kyle Coetzer became captain of the side in November 2016 after Preston Mommsen who had captained the side since September 2014 stepped down; the coach is South African Shane Burger, who took on the role in January 2019. In April 2018, the ICC decided to grant full Twenty20 International status to all its members.
Therefore, all Twenty20 matches played between Scotland and other ICC members after 1 January 2019 will be a full T20I. The first recorded cricket match in Scotland took place in Alloa in 1785, it would be another eighty years, before Scotland played their first full match, against Surrey in 1865, which they won by 172 runs. The first Scottish Cricket Union was formed in 1879, the national team beat Australia by 7 wickets three years later; the cricket union became defunct in 1883, Grange Cricket Club took over the administration of the game until 1909. The first match against Ireland took place in Dublin with Ireland winning, they played South Africa, West Indies, an all-Indian team, New Zealand before the start of World War II. 1948 saw Australia visit Scotland for two games at the end of their tour of England. These games, both of which were won by the Australians, were to be the last international games for Don Bradman; the Don signed off in typical style. Scotland first competed in English domestic cricket in 1980, when they competed in the Benson & Hedges Cup for the first time.
Three years they took part in the NatWest Trophy. Their first Benson & Hedges win came against Lancashire in 1986; the most famous cricketers to have come from Scotland are the former England captain, Mike Denness, Warwickshire all-rounder Dougie Brown, former England Test player Gavin Hamilton. Another great Scottish cricketer was B. R. Hardie, a major contributor to the successful Essex side of the 1970s and 1980s. One of the best spinners and a respected journalist was the aptly named Ian Peebles, one of the cricketers of the year in 1931 alongside Don Bradman; the most infamous cricketer, a man, vilified in Australia, was a Scot, Douglas Jardine, father to and inventor of "Body Theory", well documented under "Bodyline". Jardine was born in British India, died in Switzerland, spending most of his life in England. However, his parents were Scottish, he gave his own children Scottish names. In 1992 Scotland severed their ties with the Test and County Cricket Board and England, gained associate membership of the ICC in their own right in 1994.
They competed in the ICC Trophy for the first time in 1997, finishing third and qualifying for the 1999 World Cup, where they lost all their games. The 2001 ICC Trophy saw them finish 4th, losing a play-off game to Canada, but they won the 2005 tournament, beating long-time rivals Ireland in the final. 2004 saw Scotland first confirm themselves as one of the leading associate nations by winning the inaugural Intercontinental Cup. However, they did not progress beyond the first round in the 2005 tournament. March 2006 saw Scotland embark on a pre-season tour to Barbados, they performed with some credit, although they only won one of their 6 games, against a Barbados XI. They owed much of their success to Dougie Brown, who re-qualified to represent Scotland internationally in 2004, they competed in the C & G Trophy in English domestic cricket in the early part of the 2006 English cricket season. They performed better than expected, winning three of their nine games, finishing eighth in the Northern conference.
In June, they played their first ODI since the 1999 World Cup when they took on Pakistan in Edinburgh. Without key players Dougie Brown and Navdeep Poonia, they lost by five wickets, they got their first ODI win in the European Championships in August with a win over Holland in a rain-shortened game. They again missed key players for some games in this tournament though, thanks to their loss against Ireland, finished second in the tournament. During 2006 and early 2007, Scotland participated in the third edition of the Intercontinental Cup, they beat Namibia by an innings in May 2006, but draws against Ireland in August and the United Arab Emirates in January 2007 meant that they failed to reach the final. In December 2006, they travelled to Test nation Bangladesh for a two-match ODI series – their first outside the UK – but lost both matches heavily. In January 2007, after the Intercontinental Cup match against United Arab Emirates in Sharjah, they travelled to Kenya, first playing in a tri-series against Canada and Kenya in Mombasa, which they finished second in.
This was followed by Division One of the World Cricket League in Nairobi, where Scotland finished as runners up. They travelled to West Indies for their second World Cup, they again failed to progress beyond the first round. Back in the UK, they competed in the Friends Provident Trophy, their only win coming against Lan
Batting average (cricket)
In cricket, a player's batting average is the total number of runs they have scored divided by the number of times they have been out. Since the number of runs a player scores and how they get out are measures of their own playing ability, independent of their teammates, batting average is a good metric for an individual player's skill as a batter; the number is simple to interpret intuitively. If all the batter's innings were completed, this is the average number of runs they score per innings. If they did not complete all their innings, this number is an estimate of the unknown average number of runs they score per innings; each player has several batting averages, with a different figure calculated for each type of match they play, a player's batting averages may be calculated for individual seasons or series, or at particular grounds, or against particular opponents, or across their whole career. Batting average has been used to gauge cricket players' relative skills since the 18th century.
Most players have career batting averages in the range of 20 to 40. This is the desirable range for wicket-keepers, though some fall short and make up for it with keeping skill; until a substantial increase in scores in the 21st century due to improved bats and smaller grounds among other factors, players who sustained an average above 50 through a career were considered exceptional, before the development of the heavy roller in the 1870s an average of 25 was considered good. All-rounders who are more prominent bowlers than batsmen average something between 20 and 30. 15 and under is typical for specialist bowlers. A small number of players have averaged less than 5 for a complete career, though a player with such an average is a liability unless an exceptional bowler as Alf Valentine, B. S. Chandrasekhar or Glenn McGrath were. Career records for batting average are subject to a minimum qualification of 20 innings played or completed, in order to exclude batsmen who have not played enough games for their skill to be reliably assessed.
Under this qualification, the highest Test batting average belongs to Australia's Sir Donald Bradman, with 99.94. Given that a career batting average over 50 is exceptional, that only five other players have averages over 60, this is an outstanding statistic; the fact that Bradman's average is so far above that of any other cricketer has led several statisticians to argue that, statistically at least, he was the greatest athlete in any sport. Disregarding this 20 innings qualification, the highest career test batting average is 112, by Andy Ganteaume, a Trinidadian Keeper-batsman, dismissed for 112 in his only test innings. Batting averages in One Day International cricket tend to be lower than in Test cricket, because of the need to score runs more and take riskier strokes and the lesser emphasis on building a large innings, it should be remembered in relation to the ODI histogram above, that there were no ODI competitions when Bradman played. If a batter has been dismissed in every single innings this statistic gives the average number of runs they score per innings.
However, for a batter with innings which finished not out, the true average number of runs they score per innings is unknown as it is not known how many runs they would have scored if they could have completed all their not out innings. This statistic is an estimate of the average number of runs. If their scores have a geometric distribution this statistic is the maximum likelihood estimate of their true unknown average. Batting averages can be affected by the number of not outs. For example, Phil Tufnell, noted for his poor batting, has an respectable ODI average of 15, despite a highest score of only 5 not out, as he scored an overall total of 15 runs from 10 innings, but was out only once. A batter who has not been dismissed in any of the innings over which their average is being calculated does not have a batting average, as dividing by zero does not give a result. Highest career batting averages in Test matches. Table shows players with at least 20 innings completed. * denotes not out. Last updated: 14 October 2018.
Highest career batting averages in First-class cricket as follows: Source: Cricinfo Statsguru. Table shows players with at least 50 innings batted, note this table has no requirement for minimum number of runs scored. * denotes not out. Last updated: 10 November 2018. Alternative measures of batting effectiveness have been developed, including: Strike rate measures a different concept to batting average – how the batter scores – so it does not supplant the role of batting average, it is used in limited overs matches, where the speed at which a batter scores is more important than it is in first-class cricket. A system of player rankings was developed to produce a better indication of players' current standings than is provided by comparing their averages. Cricket statistics Batting average Bowling average