England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
The KLM Open is an annual golf tournament played in the Netherlands, has been part of the European Tour's schedule since the Tour was inaugurated in 1972. Founded in 1912, the tournament was known as the Dutch Open, before a variety of sponsors resulted in numerous name changes over the years, with KLM being the incumbent; the tournament has been moved around the golfing calendar, but since 2010 it has been held in early September. The 2016 event was held for the first time at The Dutch near Gorinchem. 2019 will be the 100th edition of the event. Source: In 1920 Burrows won the 36-hole playoff by 5 strokes, 146 to 151. In 1954 Grappasonni and de Wit were tied at 154 after a 36-hole playoff. Grappasonni won the first extra hole. In 1955 Angelini beat de Wit in a 36-hole playoff, 142 to 143. In 1965 Miguel beat Benito at the first extra hole. In 1968 Shaw dropped out at the second extra hole and Cockin won on the third extra hole. In 1989 Olazábal beat Rafferty at the 9th hole of the sudden-death playoff.
Olazábal had a double-bogey 6 while Rafferty took a triple-bogey 7. Chapman had dropped out of the playoff at the first extra hole after a bogey 5. In 1992 Langer beat Brand at the second extra hole. In 2001 Langer beat Bennett at the first extra hole after Bennett took a bogey 5. In 2006 Dyson beat Green at the first playoff hole with a birdie 3. In 2009 Dyson beat Lawrie at the first playoff hole with a birdie. In 2013 Luiten beat Jiménez with a par 4 on first extra hole. In 1915 Burrows and Kettley contested a 36-hole playoff to determine who would be the professional champion. Burrows won, scoring 155 to Kettley's 168, took the first prize of ƒ100. Official website Coverage on the European Tour's official site
Great Finborough is a village and civil parish in the Mid Suffolk district, in the county of Suffolk, England. It has a pub and an active church. In 2001 the parish had a population of 755, increasing to 808 at the 2011 Census Route 461 bus service operated by Beeston's connects Finborough with Sudbury and Stowmarket on Tuesday and Thursday only. Great Finborough has a Primary School, Great Finborough CEVC Primary School, founded in 1873; the original buildings, to which two new classrooms were added in 2000. The school's catchment area includes the neighbouring village of Buxhall; the primary school is a feeder for Stowmarket High School, to which pupils transfer at the age of 11. The independent school Finborough School is located in the village. About 250 pupils attend the school, which includes Nursery, Pre-Prep, Prep School, Senior School and Sixth Form. St Andrew's church is the Church of England church; the current church is Victorian, apart from the Tudor porch, the spire nearly reaches 300 ft.
There has been a place of worship on the site for over 1000 years and in 1086 the church as well as Finborough Hall were recorded in the Domesday Book. There was a Congregational chapel built in 1862, now a private residence. Inside St Andrew's church the side chapel is filled with monuments dedicated to the Wollaston family who played a big part in the Finborough Estate, they owned the Estate for a century and there are monuments dedicated to nearly all the family members. The Pettiward family played a big role, they took control of the estate after the Wollaston's and owned it until the mid 1930s; the connection with the Pettiward family meant that it gave its name to Finborough Road in Earls Court, developed as part of the Pettiward Estate and the Finborough Theatre. The Bog Race is a key part of village life, it happens on Easter Monday every year. It is a battle between Great Finborough; the race starts at the pub, The Chestnut Horse, where 15 or so men from Haughley and Great Finborough get drunk and are taken to a nearby farm, Boyton Hall, where they have to race over the fields, about a mile, to get to the pub with the scroll.
The first man at the pub with the scroll wins and is declared the winner over-all and that village has won for that year. William Skrene, a prominent judge became Lord of the Manor of Great Finborough in circa 1390. John Green Crosse, was born at Boyton Hall, near Great Finborough. John Peel, radio broadcaster, lived in a cottage nicknamed "Peel Acres" in the village from the 1970s, in which many of his shows were produced, his body was buried in the graveyard of St Andrew's Church. William Wollaston, Enlightenment philosopher and author of The Religion of Nature Delineated, lived at Finborough Hall; the Pettiward family reside at Finborough Hall. William White, History and Directory of Suffolk, the Towns Near Its Borders. Great Finborough Stowmarket Sport
In the sport of golf, the distinction between amateurs and professionals is rigorously maintained. An amateur who breaches the rules of amateur status may lose their amateur status. A golfer who has lost their amateur status may not play in amateur competitions until amateur status has been reinstated, it is difficult for a professional to regain their amateur status. A player must apply to the governing body of the sport to have amateur status reinstated; the distinction between amateur and professional golfers had much to do with social class. In 18th and 19th century Britain, golf was played for pleasure; the early professionals were working class men who made a living from the game in a variety of ways: caddying, greenkeeping and playing challenge matches. When golf arrived in America at the end of the 19th century, it was an elite sport there, too. Early American golf clubs imported their professionals from Britain, it was not possible to make a living from playing tournament golf until some way into the 20th century.
In the developed world, the class distinction is now entirely irrelevant. Golf is affordable at public courses to a large portion of the population, most golf professionals are from middle-class backgrounds, which are the same sort of backgrounds as the members of the clubs where they work or the people they teach the game, educated to university level. Leading tournament golfers are wealthy. S. usage of the term. However, in some developing countries, there is still a class distinction. Golf is restricted to a much smaller and more elite section of society than is the case in countries like the United States and the United Kingdom. Professional golfers from these countries are quite from poor backgrounds and start their careers as caddies, for example, Ángel Cabrera of Argentina, Zhang Lian-wei, the first significant tournament professional from the People's Republic of China. In various countries, Professional Golfers' Associations serve either or both of these categories of professionals. There are separate LPGAs for women.
Under the rules of golf and amateur status of the R&A, the maximum an amateur can win is £500. Under the rules of golf and amateur status of the USGA the maximum an amateur can win is $750. If an amateur accepts a prize of greater than this they forfeit their amateur status, are therefore by definition a professional golfer. Professional golfers are divided into two main groups, with a limited amount of overlap between them: The great majority of professional golfers make their living from teaching the game, running golf clubs and courses, dealing in golf equipment. In golf pro refers to individuals involved in the service of other golfers; the senior professional golfer at a golf club is referred to as the club professional, but at a large golf club or resort with several courses his job title is to be director of golf. If they have assistants who are registered professional golfers, they are known as assistant professionals. A golfer who concentrates wholly or nearly so on giving golf lessons is a teaching professional, golf instructor or golf coach.
Most of these people will enter a few tournaments against their peers each year, they may qualify to play in important tournaments with the other group of professional golfers mentioned below. Many club and teaching professionals working in the golf industry start as caddies, or a general interest in the game, finding employment at golf courses and moving on to certifications in their chosen profession; these programs include independent institutions and universities, those that lead to a Class A golf professional certification. Note that the USGA defines "instruction" as teaching the physical aspects of golf. Instruction in the psychological aspects of the game is explicitly excluded from this definition. A much smaller but higher profile group of professional golfers earn a living from playing in golf tournaments, or aspire to do so, their income comes from prize money, sometimes endorsements. These individuals are referred to as tour professionals, or pro golfers. In the United States, the PGA of America has 31 distinct member classifications for professionals.
Many of the classifications have corresponding apprenticeship positions. Lists of golfers - lists of professional golfers PGA Tour PGA of America
The Masters Tournament is one of the four major championships in professional golf. Scheduled for the first full week of April, the Masters is the first major of the year, unlike the others, it is always held at the same location, Augusta National Golf Club, a private course in the southeastern United States, in the city of Augusta, Georgia; the Masters was started by noted amateur champion Bobby Jones and investment banker Clifford Roberts. After his grand slam in 1930, Jones acquired the former plant nursery and co-designed Augusta National with course architect Alister MacKenzie. First played 85 years ago in 1934, the tournament is an official money event on the PGA Tour, the European Tour, the Japan Golf Tour; the field of players is smaller than those of the other major championships because it is an invitational event, held by the Augusta National Golf Club. The tournament has a number of traditions. Since 1949, a green jacket has been awarded to the champion, who must return it to the clubhouse one year after his victory, although it remains his personal property and is stored with other champions' jackets in a specially designated cloakroom.
In most instances, only a first-time and reigning champion may remove his jacket from the club grounds. A golfer who wins the event multiple times uses the same green jacket awarded upon his initial win; the Champions Dinner, inaugurated by Ben Hogan in 1952, is held on the Tuesday before each tournament, is open only to past champions and certain board members of the Augusta National Golf Club. Beginning in 1963, legendary golfers past champions, have hit an honorary tee shot on the morning of the first round to commence play; these have included Fred McLeod, Jock Hutchinson, Gene Sarazen, Sam Snead, Byron Nelson, Arnold Palmer, Jack Nicklaus, Gary Player. Since 1960, a semi-social contest at the par-3 course has been played on Wednesday, the day before the first round. Nicklaus has the most Masters wins, with six between 1963 and 1986. Palmer and Tiger Woods won four each, five have won three titles at Augusta: Jimmy Demaret, Sam Snead, Gary Player, Nick Faldo, Phil Mickelson. Player, from South Africa, was the first non-American player to win the tournament, in 1961.
The Augusta National course first opened 86 years ago in 1933 and has been modified many times by different architects. Among the changes: greens have been reshaped and, on occasion re-designed, bunkers have been added, water hazards have been extended, new tee boxes have been built, hundreds of trees have been planted, several mounds have been installed; the idea for Augusta National originated with Bobby Jones, who wanted to build a golf course after his retirement from the game. He sought advice from Clifford Roberts, who became the chairman of the club, they came across a piece of land in Augusta, Georgia, of which Jones said: "Perfect! And to think this ground has been lying here all these years waiting for someone to come along and lay a golf course upon it." The land had been an indigo plantation in the early nineteenth century and a plant nursery since 1857. Jones hired Alister MacKenzie to help design the course, work began in 1931; the course formally opened in 1933, but MacKenzie died before the first Masters Tournament was played.
The first "Augusta National Invitational" Tournament, as the Masters was known, began on March 22, 1934, was won by Horton Smith, who took the first prize of $1,500. The present name was adopted in 1939; the first tournament was played with current holes 10 through 18 played as the first nine, 1 through 9 as the second nine reversed permanently to its present layout for the 1935 tournament. The Augusta National Invitational field was composed of Bobby Jones' close associates. Jones had petitioned the USGA to hold the U. S. Open at Augusta but the USGA denied the petition, noting that the hot Georgia summers would create difficult playing conditions. Gene Sarazen hit the "shot heard'round the world" in 1935, holing a shot from the fairway on the par 5 15th for a double eagle; this tied Sarazen with Craig Wood, in the ensuing 36-hole playoff Sarazen was the victor by five strokes. The tournament was not played from 1943 to 1945, due to World War II. To assist the war effort and turkeys were raised on the Augusta National grounds.
The Big Three of Arnold Palmer, Gary Player, Jack Nicklaus dominated the Masters from 1960 through 1978, winning the event 11 times among them during that span. After winning by one stroke in 1958, Palmer won by one stroke again in 1960 in memorable circumstances. Trailing Ken Venturi by one shot in the 1960 event, Palmer made birdies on the last two holes to prevail. Palmer would go on to win another two Masters in 1962 and 1964. Jack Nicklaus emerged in the early 1960s, served as a rival to the popular Palmer. Nicklaus won his first green jacket in 1963. Two years he shot a then-course record of 271 for his second Masters win, leading Bobby Jones to say that Nicklaus played "a game with which I am not familiar." The next year, Nicklaus won his third green jacket in a grueling 18-hole playoff against Tommy Jacobs and Gay Brewer. This made Nicklaus the first player to win consecutive Masters, he won again in 1972 by three strokes. In 1975, Nicklaus won by one stroke in a close contest with Tom Weiskopf and Johnny Miller in one of the most exciting Masters to date.
Gary Player became the first non-American to win the Masters in 1961, beating Palmer, the defending champion. In 1974, he won again by two strokes. After no
Alfred Harry Padgham was one of the leading British professional golfers of the 1930s and 1940s. Padgham was born in Surrey. After finishing third at The Open Championship in 1934, coming second in 1935, he won the 1936 Open at Hoylake. Padgham played for Great Britain in the Ryder Cup in 1933, 1935 and 1937, but he lost all six of his matches, he was at times a brilliant putter. He lost what might have been some of his best competitive years due to World War II, he was club professional at Sundridge Park Golf Club in the south east suburbs of London for many years. Padgham died in Greater London; this list may be incomplete.1931 News of the World Match Play 1932 Irish Open 1934 German Open, Dunlop-Southport Tournament, Yorkshire Evening News Tournament 1935 News of the World Match Play 1936 The Open Championship, Daily Mail Tournament, Silver King Tournament, Dunlop-Southport Tournament, Western Province Open 1938 Dutch Open, Kent Professional Championship 1939 Silver King Tournament, News Chronicle Tournament 1946 Daily Mail Tournament 1947 Silver King Tournament Note: Padgham only played in The Open Championship NT = No tournament CUT = missed the half-way cut "T" indicates a tie for a place Ryder Cup: 1933, 1935, 1937 England–Scotland Professional Match: 1932, 1933, 1934, 1935, 1936, 1937, 1938 England–Ireland Professional Match: 1932, 1933 Coronation Match: 1937 Llandudno International Golf Trophy: 1938