The Cecil H. Green Library is the main library on the Stanford University campus and is part of the SUL system, it is named for Cecil H. Green. Green Library houses 4 million volumes, most of which are related to the humanities and social sciences. Libraries elsewhere on campus cover specialized areas such as Business, Art, Medicine, or Engineering. Books from Green and other Stanford libraries are being scanned as part of the Google Books project; the earliest library at Stanford was in the inner quadrangle. It was housed in one large room capable of accommodating 100 readers; this was replaced in 1900 by a separate building on the outer quadrangle, named the Thomas Welton Stanford library after its major donor. This library was recognized as being too small, a new larger library in a separate building was begun, but it was destroyed in the 1906 San Francisco earthquake before it could be occupied. A major new library was approved in 1913 and completed in 1919; this building forms the older portion of the Green Library.
In 1980, a larger annex was added and the library renamed for Cecil H. Green; the original part of the building is now known as the Bing Wing for Peter Bing, who donated a substantial amount of money for fixing it after the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. Stanford University Libraries Stanford University Libraries & Academic Information Resources Online Tour of Green Library Information Center, Green Library
Passengers is a 2016 American science fiction romance film directed by Morten Tyldum and written by Jon Spaihts. The film stars Jennifer Lawrence and Chris Pratt as Aurora Lane and Jim Preston with Michael Sheen and Laurence Fishburne in supporting roles; the plot depicts two people who are awakened ninety years too early from an induced hibernation on a spaceship, transporting thousands of passengers, travelling to a colony on a planet in a star system 60 light years from Earth. The film was written in 2007 by Spaihts but was kept in development hell, with multiple actors attached over the years. In December 2014, Sony Pictures Entertainment picked up the film's rights, with Tyldum attached to direct. Chris Pratt and Jennifer Lawrence were cast as the two leads in February 2015; the film was produced by Village Roadshow Pictures, Start Motion Pictures, Original Film, LStar Capital, Wanda Pictures and Company Films. Principal photography took place at Pinewood Atlanta Studios in Atlanta, Georgia from September 2015 to February 2016.
It is the last film from Columbia Pictures to have the involvement of Village Roadshow Pictures. Passengers premiered at the Regency Village Theater in Los Angeles on December 14, 2016 and was released theatrically in the United States on December 21, 2016, in 2D and RealD 3D by Columbia Pictures; the film received mixed reviews from critics, with praise for Lawrence and Pratt's performances, as well as the musical score, visual style and production values, though it was criticized for its plot and characters. It grossed $303 million worldwide, becoming the third-biggest original live-action U. S. release of 2016. The film received two nominations for Best Original Score and Best Production Design at the 89th Academy Awards; the Avalon, a sleeper ship transporting 5,000 colonists and 258 crew members in hibernation pods, is on course to the planet Homestead II, a journey lasting 120 years. Thirty years into the journey, an asteroid collision damages the ship and causes its computer to awaken one passenger, mechanical engineer Jim Preston, 90 years too early.
After a year of isolation, with only an android barman named Arthur for company, Jim grows despondent and contemplates suicide until he notices a beautiful young woman named Aurora Lane inside her pod. Jim is smitten with her. After struggling with the morality of manually reviving Aurora for companionship, therein robbing her of her future/planned life, he awakens her, telling her that her pod malfunctioned. Jim asks Arthur to keep the secret that he woke her up until Jim himself has told her. Aurora, devastated at having to live out her life on the ship, unsuccessfully attempts to re-enter hibernation. Resigned to the situation, Aurora, a journalist, begins writing a book about her experience. Over the next year and Aurora grow closer falling in love. Jim intends to propose to Aurora, but Arthur inadvertently reveals the truth to her when she says there are "no secrets" between her and Jim. Aurora, alternately berates and physically attacks Jim, she furiously rejects Jim's pleas for forgiveness, the two avoid contact.
Soon after, another pod failure awakens Chief Deck Officer. He discovers multiple failures throughout the ship's systems. If not repaired, the ship will continue suffering critical system failures and the mission may fail. Gus attempts to repair the ship with Jim and Aurora's help but he soon falls critically ill, having been physically injured by his malfunctioning pod; the Autodoc, the ship's automated medical diagnostics and treatment pod, reveals that Gus has a prognosis of only hours to live. Before dying, Gus gives Jim and Aurora his ID badge to access crew-only areas and to repair the ship. Jim and Aurora discover a series of hull breaches from the asteroid collision two years earlier; the computer module administering the fusion reactor powering the ship has been critically damaged, causing the ship's cascading malfunctions as all other systems divert power towards the reactor. Jim and Aurora replace the damaged module; when the computer fails to vent the reactor to extinguish a massive reactor fire, Jim has to vent it by opening the vent hatch from the ship's exterior while Aurora assists from inside.
She admits being left alone. After venting the reactor, Jim's tether snaps, his damaged spacesuit loses oxygen. Afterwards, Jim learns, he can put Aurora to sleep for the remainder of the voyage. Realizing that she will never see Jim again, Aurora chooses to remain awake with Jim, he presents her with the ring he had made, which she accepts. Eighty-eight years the ship's crew is awakened on schedule, shortly before arrival at Homestead II. In the ship's grand concourse area they discover a huge tree, lots of trailing vines and vegetation, birds flying, a cabin. Aurora's voice-over is reading her story, describing the wonderful life she and Jim had together on the Avalon. Jennifer Lawrence as Aurora Lane, a journalist and writer Chris Pratt as Jim Preston, a mechanical engineer Michael Sheen as Arthur, an android bartender on the Avalon Laurence Fishburne as Gus Mancuso, the chief deck officer Julee Cerda and Nazanin Boniadi as hologram instructors Andy García as Captain Norris, the commanding officer of the Avalon Aurora Perrineau as Celeste, Aurora's best friendEmma Clarke, Chris Edgerly, Matt Corboy, Fred Melamed, screenwriter Jon Spaihts appear as the voices of the Avalon, InfoMat, video game and Autodoc respectively.
The original script for Passengers was written by Jon Spaihts in 2007 and had been in development hell for years
In the late Roman Empire and the Early Middle Ages a colonus was a tenant farmer. Known collectively as the "colonate", these farmers operated as sharecroppers, paying landowners with a portion of their crops in exchange for use of their farmlands; the coloni's tenant-landlord relationship degraded into one of debt and dependence. As a result, the colonus system became a new type of land tenancy, placing the occupants in a state between freedom and slavery. Colonus system can be considered as predecessor of European feudal serfdom. In Italy, much of the agricultural land was leased to tenants. There was a concept in place that allowed the tenants to have tenure on the land though they were not the owners. Tax liabilities went with the sales of a land plot, but most of the taxed public land in Italy was leased rather than owned. Therefore, many of the taxes were imposed upon the tenants rather than the land owners; these tenants could sell and buy leases, which indicates a somewhat flexible and fair property system.
According to the Roman courts, agricultural tenants had rights against landowners who tried to unjustly infringe upon their contracts. This time period indicated a degree of justice toward the coloni. A colonus was in a mutual relationship in which a landowner allowed a tenant the use of their land, in return for a portion of the farmed crops. However, under the rule of Emperor Diocletian, there was a reform in the taxation system, which many historians attribute as the cause of the shift in the tenant-landowner relationship. During his reign 284-305 there were several edicts which tied coloni to the land in order to increase land taxes and poll taxes. Diocletian created a complex tax system based on persons as well as a regular census of the people to monitor the empire's population and wealth; the tax rates were computed by complex mathematical formula. The system was distributive, i.e. it did not take in consideration capacity to pay as would be the case in a contributive system. By converting ad hoc requisitions and regular tax demands into a regular system of tax collectives had given the Empire a budget for the first time.
The status of these farm workers declined until they reached an all-time low during the reign of Justinian. His top goal was to eliminate corruption in tax collecting by giving governors more direct control. In Book 11 of his codification of Roman law, the Corpus juris civilis, Justinian updated laws based upon taxation, distribution of land, types of coloni; when describing the agricolae censiti, Justinian explicitly mentions a type of coloni, known as coloni adscripticii, which were considered non-free and comparable to slaves. An estate owner could claim a laborer as a colonus adscripticius with the intention that this person would provide him services; the landowner would need to show proof through two documents, such as a conductio instrumentum, or a copy of the publici census adscription. These documents would prevent people from being unknowingly drawn into the adscripticii, as such contracts were not able to be annulled. By signing onto a contract, a man would sign his family and self into the adscripticii.
The birth status, or origo, of this family and descendants would thus be “adscripticii”. According to the rules of international private law, one's origo determined their hometown and private law system, the public tasks they must perform. In the cases of the colonus adscripticius, their hometown was substituted or replaced with the estate of the landowner. Therefore, the land owner could summon one of his colonus farmers to perform duties, such as the way a town could summon its citizen to perform public duties. If the landowner of the estate should sell his property, the coloni adscripticii tied to the estate would be forced to work for the new owner. Thus, they were forced to do the bidding of the landowner, attached to a specific plot of land, bound to the contract indefinitely; the only difference between the coloni and slaves was that the coloni were attached to a specific piece of land, could not be sold or separated from it. The adscripticii had many obligations to the estate, they had to perform tasks on the estate and farm the land, perform the work that a colonus would perform, remain on the estate.
They were unable to litigate or lodge complaints against the estate owner. Adscripticii that tried to leave the estate without permission were punished, with the methods ranging from being forced to wear chains to corporal punishment; the free coloni, although subjected to the estate owner with whom they had a contract, were able to leave the estate. Most important were the differences in the coloni concerning possessions, or peliculium. Coloni adscripticii were forced to subject their possessions to the estate owner and were forbidden from removing them from the house without permission. Free coloni were able to move their possessions as they wished and were not subjected to orders of the estate owners. Free coloni were responsible for the taxes of the leased land on which they lived, they had two options of paying this: either by paying the tax directly to the imperial officials, or they could turn over a lump sum to the landowner. If the colonus decided to give the owner the lump sum, or tota sota, the estate owner turned over the appropriate amount to the tax collector and kept the remaining balance as income.
When a colonus adscripticius signed a contract to work for the landowner indefinitely, the landowner was forced to take responsibility for the taxes that the farmer would have paid if he was just a tenan
SAR or Harosa is a clade that includes stramenopiles and Rhizaria. The first letter of each group provides the "SAR" in the name; the term "Harosa" has been used for this grouping by Cavalier-Smith. Adl et al. formalized the SAR supergroup as the node-based taxon Sar. They defined it as: Sar: the least inclusive clade containing Bigelowiella natans Moestrup & Sengco 2001, Tetrahymena thermophila Nanney & McCoy 1976, Thalassiosira pseudonana Cleve 1873; this is a node-based definition. Note that as a formal taxon, "Sar" has only its first letter capitalized, while the earlier abbreviation, SAR, retains all uppercase letters. Both names refer to the same group of organisms. Members of the SAR supergroup were once included under the separate supergroups Chromalveolata and Rhizaria, until phylogenetic studies confirmed that stramenopiles and alveolates diverged with Rhizaria; this excluded haptophytes and cryptomonads, leading Okamoto et al. to propose the clade Hacrobia to accommodate them. Based on a compilation of the following works.
The Haradinaj Cabinet de jure formed the government of Kosovo between 9 September 2017 and to the present upon the defeat of Isa Mustafa and the LA Coalition in the 2017 elections. The cabinet was made up of some members of the opposition; the cabinet consists of the following Ministers: 9 September 2017: Ramush Haradinaj and the majority of his cabinet take office. 10 September 2017: Pal Lekaj, the Minister of Infrastructure, takes office. 26 January 2018: An attempt to dismiss Dardan Gashi failed with only 36 of 88 MPs voting in favor. 30 May 2018: Flamur Sefaj, the Minister of Internal Affairs, is dismissed after deporting several Turkish nationals. 12 April 2018: The Special Prosecution of Kosovo filed an indictment against Pal Lekaj for corruption. 13 April 2018: Bejtush Gashi, the Minister of Internal Affairs, takes office. 5 September 2018: Burim Rrecaj, the Minister of Trade and Industry, is dismissed. 30 September 2018: Bejtush Gashi, the Minister of Internal Affairs, is dismissed. 1 October 2018: Endrit Shala, the Minister of Trade and Industry, takes office.
Ekrem Mustafa, the Minister of Internal Affairs, takes office. 21 November 2018: Kosovo increases tariffs on Serbia and Bosnia by 100%
Aulus Postumius Albus Regillensis was a patrician politician of ancient Rome, son of Aulus Postumius Albus Regillensis, therefore brother of Spurius Postumius Albus Regillensis. He was consul in 464 BC, carried on war against the Aequians, protected the border from raiders. Before the Battle of Mount Algidus he was sent as ambassador, along with Quintus Fabius Vibulanus and Publius Volumnius Amintinus Gallus, to the Aequians in 458 BC, on which occasion he was insulted by their commander, who told him to take Rome's entreaties and tell them to an oak tree. Postumia This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed.. "Albinus". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. 1. P. 91