Alexios I Komnenos
Alexios I Komnenos, was Byzantine emperor from 1081 to 1118. Although he was not the founder of the Komnenian dynasty, it was during his reign that the Komnenos family came to full power, the basis for this recovery were various reforms initiated by Alexios. His appeals to Western Europe for help against the Turks were the catalyst that contributed to the convoking of the Crusades. Alexios was the son of the Domestic of the Schools John Komnenos and Anna Dalassena, Alexios father declined the throne on the abdication of Isaac, who was thus succeeded by four emperors of other families between 1059 and 1081. Under one of these emperors, Romanos IV Diogenes, Alexios served with distinction against the Seljuq Turks. Under Michael VII Doukas Parapinakes and Nikephoros III Botaneiates, he was employed, along with his elder brother Isaac, against rebels in Asia Minor, Thrace. In 1074, western mercenaries led by Roussel de Bailleul rebelled in Asia Minor, in 1078, he was appointed commander of the field army in the West by Nikephoros III.
Alexios was ordered to march against his brother-in-law Nikephoros Melissenos in Asia Minor and this did not, lead to a demotion, as Alexios was needed to counter the expected invasion of the Normans of Southern Italy, led by Robert Guiscard. While Byzantine troops were assembling for the expedition, the Doukas faction at court approached Alexios, the mother of Alexios, Anna Dalassena, was to play a prominent role in this coup détat of 1081, along with the current empress, Maria of Alania. First married to Michael VII Doukas and secondly to Nikephoros III Botaneiates, she was preoccupied with the future of her son by Michael VII, furthermore, to aid the conspiracy Maria had adopted Alexios as her son, though she was only five years older than he. Maria was persuaded to do so on the advice of her own Alans and her eunuchs, given Annas tight hold on her family, Alexios must have been adopted with her implicit approval. As a result and Constantine, Marias son, were now adoptive brothers, by secretly giving inside information to the Komnenoi, Maria was an invaluable ally.
As stated in the Alexiad and Alexios left Constantinople in mid-February 1081 to raise an army against Botaneiates, when the time came, Anna quickly and surreptitiously mobilized the remainder of the family and took refuge in the Hagia Sophia. From there she negotiated with the emperor for the safety of family members left in the capital, the tutor discovered they were missing and eventually found them on the palace grounds, but Anna was able to convince him that they would return to the palace shortly. However, before they were to gain entry into the sanctuary and she refused to go with them and demanded that they allow her to pray to the Mother of God for protection. This request was granted and Anna manifested her true theatrical and manipulative capabilities, Nikephoros III Botaneiates was forced into a public vow that he would grant protection to the family. Straboromanos tried to give Anna his cross, but for her it was not sufficiently enough for all bystanders to witness the oath. She demanded that the cross be personally sent by Botaneiates as a vow of his good faith and he obliged, sending a complete assurance for the family with his own cross
Mosul is a major city in northern Iraq. Since October 2016 it has been the site of an operation led by the Iraqi Government, under Haider al-Abadi, in an effort to dislodge. The city has been under the control of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant since June 2014, and no westerner has entered the city until the latest initiative. The Battle of Mosul, an offensive to retake the city begun in October 2016, is the largest deployment of Iraqi forces since the 2003 invasion by U. S. Located some 400 km north of Baghdad, Mosul stands on the west bank of the Tigris, opposite the ancient Assyrian city of Nineveh on the east bank. The metropolitan area has grown to encompass substantial areas on both the Left Bank and the Right Bank, as the two banks are described by the locals compared to the direction of Tigris. Mosuls population grew rapidly around the turn of the millennium and by 2004 was estimated to be 1,846,500, an estimated half million people fled Mosul in the second half of 2014 when the IS fought with government forces for control of the city.
On November 17,2014, ISIS attacked the city of Mosul, ultimately killing seven civilians, while some residents returned, more fled in 2015 as fighting and violence increased, and US bombings pounded the city. Historically, important products of the area include Mosul marble and oil, the city of Mosul is home to the University of Mosul and its renowned Medical College, which together was one of the largest educational and research centers in Iraq and the Middle East. The University has since been closed, the Islamic States leadership in Mosul has kept the Medical College open but it is reported to be barely functional. The name of the city is first mentioned by Xenophon in his expeditionary logs in Achaemenid Assyria of 401 BC, there, he notes a small Assyrian town of Mépsila on the Tigris somewhere about where modern Mosul is today. Be that as it may, the name Mepsila is doubtless the root for the modern name, in its current Arabic form and spelling, the term Mosul, or rather Mawsil, stands for the linking point – or loosely, the Junction City, in Arabic.
Mosul should not be confused with the ancient Assyrian capital of Nineveh and this area is known today as the town of Nebi Yunus and is now populated largely by Kurds. It is the only neighborhood in Mosul. The site contains the tomb of the Biblical Jonah, as he lived and died in the capital of ancient Assyria. Today, this area has been absorbed into the Mosul metropolitan area. The indigenous Assyrians still refer to the city of Mosul as Nineveh. The ancient Nineveh was succeeded by Mepsila after the fall of Assyria between 612-599 BC at the hands of a coalition of Babylonians, Persians, Scythians and Sagartians, the Assyrians largely abandoned the city, building new smaller settlements such as Mepsila nearby
Pons, Count of Tripoli
Pons of Tripoli was the son of Bertrand of Tripoli, and was count of Tripoli from 1112 to 1137. Pons married Cecile of France, the widow of his mentor Tancred, Prince of Galilee and this marriage helped to reconcile the Norman and Provençal Crusaders, who had fallen out during the Siege of Antioch. In 1118 he allied with Baldwin II, the new king of Jerusalem, Roger decided not to wait for them, and he and his army were slaughtered at the Battle of Ager Sanguinis. However and Baldwin managed to prevent Ilghazi from occupying the Principality of Antioch by defeating him at the Battle of Hab, several years later, Baldwin II was taken hostage by Balak ibn-Braham. In 1124, while Baldwin was still imprisoned, Pons helped capture Tyre, Baldwin was released that year, and in 1125 he and Pons won a decisive victory over the Muslims at the Battle of Azaz. In 1131 Pons came into conflict with Fulk of Jerusalem, who had ascended the throne that year, in 1137 Tripoli was invaded by the sultan of Damascus, and Pons was taken prisoner and executed with most of the other Frankish prisoners.
He was succeeded by his son Raymond II, william of Tyre, A History of Deeds Done Beyond the Sea, trans. Steven Runciman, A History of the Crusades, Vol. II, The Kingdom of Jerusalem
Margat, known as Marqab from the Arabic Qalaat al-Marqab is a castle near Baniyas, which was a Crusader fortress and one of the major strongholds of the Knights Hospitaller. It is located around 2 kilometres from the Mediterranean coast and approximately 6 kilometres south of Baniyas, the castle remained in a poor state of preservation until 2007 when some reconstruction and renovation began. Margat is located on a formed by an extinct volcano about 360 metres above sea level on the road between Tripoli and Latakia, overlooking the Mediterranean Sea. When the Principality was defeated at the Battle of Harran in 1104, a few years it was captured by Tancred, Prince of Galilee, regent of Antioch, and became part of the Principality. In the 1170s it was controlled by Reynald II Mazoir of Antioch as a vassal of the count of Tripoli, the fortress was so large that it had its own household officials and a number of rear-vassals. Reynauds son Bertrand sold it to the Hospitallers in 1186 as it was too expensive for the Mazoir family to maintain, after some rebuilding and expansion by the Hospitallers it became their headquarters in Syria.
Under Hospitaller control, its fourteen towers were thought to be impregnable, in 1188, Saladin marched on Margat having left Krak des Chevaliers in search of easier prey. According to Abul-Fida, Recognising that Maqab was impregnable and that he had no hope of capturing it and it was one of the few remaining territories left in Christian hands after Saladins conquests. By the beginning of the 13th century the Hospitallers controlled the land and roads and made a large profit from travellers. Isaac Comnenus of Cyprus was imprisoned there after Richard I of England captured Cyprus from him during the Third Crusade, the bishop of nearby Valenia used Margat as his headquarters after around 1240. Margat was second in size and power only to the other Hospitaller fortress to the south, to punish the Hospitallers, Qalawun clandestinely raised an army in Damascus and besieged Margat on 17 April 1285. After a 38-day siege during which sappers and miners managed to dig several tunnels underneath the fortresss walls, the defenders panicked and on discovering the numerous tunnels around the fortress, surrendered to the Mamluk commander Fakhr al-Din Mukri on 23 May, with Qalwun entering Margat two days later.
The siege was witnessed by eleven-year-old Abul Fida and his father, Qalawun allowed the Hospitallers to leave with everything they could carry. Rather than destroy Margat as he did with other fortresses, he repaired its defences, known as Marqab by the Muslims, became a district of the Mamluk province of Tripoli with maintenance of the area financed by the sultan. Intrepid traveller Ibn Battuta visited the fortress and noted that a suburb was built outside of it for foreigners, the district governor based at the Marqab fortress held the military rank of Emir of 20 Mamluks. He was charged with defending the coast, particularly from threats from the island of Cyprus, during the Burji Mamluk period, Margat was well known in the region for containing an imperial prison with many high-profile inmates. The 15th-century Muslim historian Khalil al-Zahiri noted that Marqab fortress was among the most important sites of Tripoli province, Marqab was clearly impregnable and controls a territory containing numerous villages.
During the Ottoman era, Margat became the center of a kaza of the same name
Prince of Antioch
Prince of Antioch was the title given during the Middle Ages to Norman rulers of the Principality of Antioch, a region surrounding the city of Antioch, now known as Antakya in Turkey. The Princes originally came from the County of Sicily in Southern Italy, after 1130 and until 1816 this county was known as the Kingdom of Sicily. Prince Bohemond IV of Antioch additionally came into possession of the County of Tripoli, Antioch had been the chief city of the region since the time of the Roman Empire. When the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt drove out the Knights in 1268, the Lordship of Saône was centered on the castle of Saône, but included the towns of Sarmada and Balatanos. Saône was captured by Saladin from the last lord, robert the Leprous William Matthew Like Jerusalem, Antioch had its share of great officers, including Constable, Seneschal, Vicomte, Butler and Chancellor
Fulk, King of Jerusalem
Fulk, known as Fulk the Younger, was the Count of Anjou from 1109 to 1129 and the King of Jerusalem from 1131 to his death. During his reign, the Kingdom of Jerusalem reached its largest territorial extent, Fulk was born at Angers, between 1089 and 1092, the son of Count Fulk IV of Anjou and Bertrade de Montfort. In 1092, Bertrade deserted her husband and bigamously married King Philip I of France and he became count of Anjou upon his fathers death in 1109. In the next year, he married Ermengarde of Maine, cementing Angevin control over the County of Maine, Fulk went on crusade in 1119 or 1120, and became attached to the Knights Templar. He returned, late in 1121, after which he began to subsidize the Templars, much later, Henry arranged for his daughter Matilda to marry Fulks son Geoffrey of Anjou, which she did in 1127 or 1128. By 1127 Fulk was preparing to return to Anjou when he received an embassy from King Baldwin II of Jerusalem, Baldwin II had no male heirs but had already designated his daughter Melisende to succeed him.
Baldwin II wanted to safeguard his daughters inheritance by marrying her to a powerful lord, Fulk was a wealthy crusader and experienced military commander, and a widower. His experience in the field would prove invaluable in a state always in the grip of war. However, Fulk held out for better terms than mere consort of the Queen, Baldwin II, reflecting on Fulks fortune and military exploits, acquiesced. Fulk abdicated his county seat of Anjou to his son Geoffrey and left for Jerusalem, Baldwin II bolstered Melisendes position in the kingdom by making her sole guardian of her son by Fulk, Baldwin III, born in 1130. Fulk and Melisende became joint rulers of Jerusalem in 1131 with Baldwin IIs death, from the start Fulk assumed sole control of the government, excluding Melisende altogether. He favored fellow countrymen from Anjou to the native nobility, Melisendes sister Alice of Antioch, exiled from the Principality by Baldwin II, took control of Antioch once more after the death of her father.
She allied with Pons of Tripoli and Joscelin II of Edessa to prevent Fulk from marching north in 1132, Fulk and Pons fought a battle before peace was made. In Jerusalem as well, Fulk was resented by the generation of Jerusalem Christians who had grown up there since the First Crusade. These natives focused on Melisendes cousin, the popular Hugh II of Le Puiset, count of Jaffa, Fulk saw Hugh as a rival, and it did not help matters when Hughs own stepson accused him of disloyalty. In 1134, in order to expose Hugh, Fulk accused him of infidelity with Melisende, Hugh secured himself to Jaffa, and allied himself with the Muslims of Ascalon. He was able to defeat the army set against him by Fulk, the Patriarch interceded in the conflict, perhaps at the behest of Melisende. Fulk agreed to peace and Hugh was exiled from the kingdom for three years, a lenient sentence, however, an assassination attempt was made against Hugh
Church of the Holy Sepulchre
The Church of the Holy Sepulchre is a church in the Christian Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem, a few steps away from the Muristan. The tomb is enclosed by the 18th-century shrine, called the Aedicule, within the church proper are the last four Stations of the Via Dolorosa, representing the final episodes of Jesus Passion. The main denominations sharing property over parts of the church are the Greek Orthodox, Armenian Orthodox and Roman Catholic, and to a lesser degree the Egyptian Copts and Ethiopians. According to Eusebius of Caesarea, the Roman emperor Hadrian in the 2nd century AD built a dedicated to the goddess Venus in order to bury the cave in which Jesus had been buried. The first Christian emperor, Constantine the Great, ordered in about 325/326 that the temple be replaced by a church, during the building of the Church, Constantines mother, Helena, is believed to have rediscovered the tomb. Socrates Scholasticus, in his Ecclesiastical History, gives a description of the discovery.
The remains are enveloped by a marble sheath placed some 500 years before to protect the ledge from Ottoman attacks. However, there are several thick window wells extending through the marble sheath and they appear to reveal an underlying limestone rock, which may be part of the original living rock of the tomb. The church was starting in 325/326, and was consecrated on 13 September 335. From pilgrim reports it seems that the housing the tomb of Jesus was freestanding at first. Each year, the Eastern Orthodox Church celebrates the anniversary of the consecration of the Church of the Resurrection on 13 September and this building was damaged by fire in May of 614 when the Sassanid Empire, under Khosrau II, invaded Jerusalem and captured the True Cross. In 630, the Emperor Heraclius restored it and rebuilt the church after recapturing the city, after Jerusalem came under Arab rule, it remained a Christian church, with the early Muslim rulers protecting the citys Christian sites. A story reports that the Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab visited the church and stopped to pray on the balcony and he feared that future generations would misinterpret this gesture, taking it as a pretext to turn the church into a mosque.
Eutychius added that Umar wrote a decree prohibiting Muslims from praying at this location, the building suffered severe damage due to an earthquake in 746. Early in the century, another earthquake damaged the dome of the Anastasis. The damage was repaired in 810 by Patriarch Thomas, in the year 841, the church suffered a fire. In 935, the Orthodox Christians prevented the construction of a Muslim mosque adjacent the Church, in 938, a new fire damaged the inside of the basilica and came close to the rotunda. In 966, due to a defeat of Muslim armies in the region of Syria, the doors and roof were burnt, and the Patriarch John VII was murdered
Tarsus is a historic city in south-central Turkey,20 km inland from the Mediterranean. It is part of the Adana-Mersin Metropolitan Area, the fourth-largest metropolitan area in Turkey with a population of 3 million people, Tarsus forms an administrative district in the eastern part of the Mersin Province and lies in the core of Çukurova region. With a history going back over 6,000 years, Tarsus has long been an important stop for traders, during the Roman Empire, Tarsus was the capital of the province of Cilicia. It was the scene of the first meeting between Mark Antony and Cleopatra, and the birthplace of Paul the Apostle, the climate is typical of the Mediterranean region, with very hot summers and chilly, damp winters. Industries include agricultural machinery, spare parts, fruit-processing, brick-making, agriculture is an important source of income, half the land area in the district is farmland and most of the remainder is forest and orchard. The farmland is mostly well-irrigated and managed with up-to-date equipment, first mentioned in historical record in Akkadian texts of the Neo-Assyrian era as Tarsisi.
During the Hellenistic era it was known as Antiochia on the Cydnus and it was known as Juliopolis to the Romans, Darson in Western Armenian and Tarson in Eastern Armenian. Excavation of the mound of Gözlükule reveals that the development of Tarsus reaches back to the Neolithic Period and continues unbroken through Chalcolithic. The settlement was located at the crossing of important trade routes, linking Anatolia to Syria. Because the ruins are covered by the city, archaeology has barely touched the ancient city. A Greek legend connects it with the memory of the Assyrian king Sardanapalus, still preserved in the Dunuk-Tach, called tomb of Sardanapalus, much of this legend of the foundation of Tarsus, appeared in the Roman era, and none of it is reliable. The geographer Strabo states that Tarsus was founded by people from Argos who were exploring this coast, another legend states that Bellerophon fell off his winged horse Pegasus and landed here, hurting his foot, and thus the city was named tar-sos.
Other candidates for legendary founder of the city include the hero Perseus and Triptolemus, son of the earth-goddess Demeter, the coinage of Tarsus bore the image of Hercules, due to yet another tale in which the hero was held prisoner here by the local god Sandon. Tarsus has been suggested as an identification of the biblical Tarshish, where the prophet Jonah wanted to flee. In historical times, the city was first ruled by the Hittites, followed by Assyria, Tarsus, as the principal town of Cilicia, was the seat of a Persian satrapy from 400 BC onward. Indeed, Xenophon records that in 401 BC, when Cyrus the Younger marched against Babylon, at this period the patron god of the city was Sandon, of whom a large monument existed at Tarsus at least until the 3rd century AD. Alexander the Great passed through with his armies in 333 BC, by this time Tarsus was already largely influenced by Greek language and culture, and as part of the Seleucid Empire it became more and more hellenized. Strabo praises the cultural level of Tarsus in this period with its philosophers, the schools of Tarsus rivaled those of Athens and Alexandria
Mopsuestia, is an ancient city in Cilicia Campestris on the Pyramus River located approximately 20 km east of ancient Antiochia in Cilicia. From the city’s harbour the river is navigable to the Mediterranean Sea, the founding of this city is attributed in legend to the soothsayer, who lived before the Trojan war, although it is scarcely mentioned before the Christian era. Pliny the Elder calls it the city of Mopsos, but the ordinary name is Mopsuestia, as found in Stephanus of Byzantium. Constantius II built there a magnificent bridge over the Pyramus afterwards restored by Justinian and has been restored again recently, christianity seems to have been introduced very early into Mopsuestia and during the 3rd century there is mention of a bishop, the adversary of Paul of Samosata. Other famous residents of the early Christian period in the city’s history include Saint Auxentius, and Theodore, bishop from 392–428, the bishopric is included in the Catholic Churchs list of titular sees. Along with much of Cilicia, the region was wrested from Roman control by the Arabs in the late 630s, Mopsuestia numbered 200,000 inhabitants, some of whom were Muslim, and the Byzantines made efforts to re-Christianize the city.
It suffered much from internecine war between Crusaders and Greeks who lost it and recaptured it, notably in 1106,1132, finally in 1151-52 the Armenian Baron T’oros II captured the city and defeated the Greek counter attack led by Andronikos I Komnenos. Thereafter it remained a possession of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, but was captured and plundered by the Mamluks in 1266,1275. The Venetians and Genoese were licensed by the Armenians to maintain warehouses near the harbour to store goods brought from India, the Armenians were permanently evicted by the Mamluks in 1347. The city was the site of church councils and possessed four Armenian churches. In 1432 the Frenchman Bertrandon reported that he city was ruled by the Muslims and was largely destroyed, in 1515 Mopsuestia, and the whole of Cilica, was incorporated into the Ottoman Empire by Sultan Selim I. Since it has declined and became the small village of Misis. Misis was renamed Yakapınar in the 1960s, only fragments of the medieval fortifications survive today.
However, an etching of the walls and towers was made in the mid-19th century. The Misis Mosaic Museum was founded in 1959 to exhibit the mosaics found in the area, including the famous “Samson Mosaic. ”Tabula Imperii Byzantini, Band 5, Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Charles. Article on modern Yakapınar in the Turkish Wikipedia Pictures of the bridge
A dowry is a transfer of parental property at the marriage of a daughter. Dowry contrasts with the concepts of bride price and dower. Similarly, dower is the property settled on the bride herself, by the groom at the time of marriage, Dowry is an ancient custom, and its existence may well predate records of it. Dowries continue to be expected, and demanded as a condition to accept a proposal, in some parts of the world, mainly in parts of Asia, Northern Africa. In some parts of the world, disputes related to dowry sometimes result in acts of violence against women, including killings, the custom of dowry is most common in cultures that are strongly patrilineal and that expect women to reside with or near their husbands family. Dowries have a history in Europe, South Asia, Africa. A dowry is the transfer of property to a daughter at her marriage rather than at the owners death. A dowry establishes a type of fund, the nature of which may vary widely. This fund may provide an element of security in widowhood or against a negligent husband.
Dowries may go toward establishing a marital household, and therefore might include such as linens. This practice differs from the majority of Sub-Saharan African societies that practice homogenous inheritance in which property is transmitted only to children of the same sex as the property holder. These latter African societies are characterized by the transmission of the bride price, drawing on the work of Ester Boserup, Goody notes that the sexual division of labour varies in intensive plough agriculture and extensive shifting horticulture. In sparsely populated regions where shifting cultivation takes place, most of the work is done by women and these are the societies that give brideprice. Boserup further associates shifting horticulture with the practice of polygamy, in plough agriculture farming is largely mens work, this is where dowry is given. In contrast, plough agriculture is associated with property and marriage tends to be monogamous. Close family are the preferred marriage partners so as to property within the group.
There is a debate on Goodys theory. She notes that Goodys is a model in which these historical variables may not be the decisive factors today
Tancred, Prince of Galilee
Tancred was an Italo-Norman leader of the First Crusade who became Prince of Galilee and regent of the Principality of Antioch. Tancred had a great-grandfather with the name, Tancred of Hauteville. Tancred was a son of Emma of Hauteville and Odo the Good Marquis and his maternal grandparents were Robert Guiscard and Guiscards first wife Alberada of Buonalbergo. Emma was a sister of Bohemond of Taranto, in 1096, Tancred joined his maternal uncle Bohemund on the First Crusade, and the two made their way to Constantinople. There, he was pressured to swear an oath to Byzantine Emperor Alexius I Comnenus, although the other leaders did not intend to keep their oaths, Tancred refused to swear the oath altogether. He participated in the siege of Nicaea in 1097, but the city was taken by Alexius army after secret negotiations with the Seljuk Turks, because of this, Tancred was very distrustful of the Byzantines. In 1097 the Crusaders divided their forces at Heraclea and Tancred entered the Levant by passing south through the Cilician Gates, the last three settlements were annexed to the Principality of Antioch.
During their fourteen-year occupation of Anazarbus the Crusaders built the magnificent donjon atop the center of the fortified outcrop, at Sarvandikar, which controlled the strategic Amanus Pass, Tancred imprisoned Raymond of Saint-Gilles in 1101/02. He assisted in the siege of Antioch in 1098, one year later, during the assault on Jerusalem, along with Gaston IV of Béarn, claimed to have been the first Crusader to enter the city on July 15. However, the first crusader to enter Jerusalem was Ludolf of Tournai, when the city fell, Tancred gave his banner to a group of the citizens who had fled to the roof of the Temple of Solomon. This should have assured their safety, but they were massacred, along many others. The author of the Gesta Francorum records that, when Tancred realised this, when the Kingdom of Jerusalem was established, Tancred became Prince of Galilee. In 1100, Tancred became regent of Antioch when Bohemund was taken prisoner by the Danishmends at the Battle of Melitene. He expanded the territory of the Latin principality by capturing land from the Byzantines, over the decade, Alexius attempted, unsuccessfully.
In 1104, he took control of the County of Edessa when Baldwin II was taken captive after the Battle of Harran. After Baldwins release in late 1108, he had to fight Tancred to regain control of the county, after Harran, Bohemond returned to Europe to recruit more Crusaders, again leaving his nephew as regent in Antioch. Tancreds victory over Radwan of Aleppo at the Battle of Artah in 1105 allowed the Latin principality to recover some its territories east of the Orontes River. In 1108, Tancred refused to honour the Treaty of Devol, in which Bohemund swore an oath of fealty to Alexius, in 1110, he brought Krak des Chevaliers under his control, which would become an important castle in the County of Tripoli