American Civil War
The American Civil War was an internal conflict fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865. The Union faced secessionists in eleven Southern states grouped together as the Confederate States of America, the Union won the war, which remains the bloodiest in U. S. history. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, War broke out in April 1861 when Confederates attacked the U. S. fortress of Fort Sumter. The Confederacy grew to eleven states, it claimed two more states, the Indian Territory, and the southern portions of the western territories of Arizona. The Confederacy was never recognized by the United States government nor by any foreign country. The states that remained loyal, including border states where slavery was legal, were known as the Union or the North, the war ended with the surrender of all the Confederate armies and the dissolution of the Confederate government in the spring of 1865. The war had its origin in the issue of slavery. The Confederacy collapsed and 4 million slaves were freed, but before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies formed the Confederacy.
The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, the first seven with state legislatures to resolve for secession included split majorities for unionists Douglas and Bell in Georgia with 51% and Louisiana with 55%. Alabama had voted 46% for those unionists, Mississippi with 40%, Florida with 38%, Texas with 25%, of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession, outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincolns March 4,1861 inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war, speaking directly to the Southern States, he reaffirmed, I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists. I believe I have no right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so. After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed, the Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on King Cotton that they would intervene, but none did, and none recognized the new Confederate States of America.
Hostilities began on April 12,1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter, while in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive in 1861–62. The autumn 1862 Confederate campaigns into Maryland and Kentucky failed, dissuading British intervention, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy, much of their western armies, the 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lees Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg, Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grants command of all Union armies in 1864
Pennsylvania /ˌpɛnsᵻlˈveɪnjə/, officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle, Pennsylvania is the 33rd largest, the 5th most populous, and the 9th most densely populated of the 50 United States. The states five most populous cities are Philadelphia, Allentown, the state capital, and its ninth-largest city, is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of shoreline along Lake Erie and the Delaware Estuary. The state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States, it came into being in 1681 as a result of a land grant to William Penn. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden and it was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12,1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the states largest city of Philadelphia, during the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg, was fought in the south central region of the state.
Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washingtons headquarters during the winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west, of a total 46,055 square miles,44,817 square miles are land,490 square miles are inland waters, and 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie. It is the 33rd largest state in the United States, Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown, the northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining communities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre, Pittston City, and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest, the state has 5 regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the corner, has a humid continental climate. The largest city, has characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware.
Moving toward the interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increase. Western areas of the state, particularly locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, the Tuscarora Nation took up temporary residence in the central portion of Pennsylvania ca. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their lands in America
The Shenandoah River /ˌʃɛnənˈdoʊə/ is a tributary of the Potomac River,55.6 miles long with two forks approximately 100 miles long each, in the U. S. states of Virginia and West Virginia. The Shenandoah River is formed northeast of Front Royal near Riverton, by the confluence of the South Fork and it flows northeast across Warren County, passing underneath Interstate 661 mile from its formation. Beyond the I-66 bridge the river flows through a set of bends before turning to the northeast again, five miles downriver from the Clarke County border, the Shenandoah passes under U. S. Route 50 and passes through a triple bend. Once in West Virginia the river completes six large bends before joining with the Potomac from the south near Harpers Ferry,20 miles from the Virginia-West Virginia border, the Shenandoah valley is underlain by limestone. The fertile soil made it a place for early settlement. It continues to be an agricultural area of Virginia and West Virginia. Some karst topography is evident, and the limestone is honeycombed with caves, several have been developed as commercial tourist attractions, including Luray Caverns, Shenandoah Caverns, and Skyline Caverns.
On the riverbank a few miles above Harpers Ferry is said to be a cave with an opening just large enough for a rider to squeeze through. It widened in the interior to a room where hundreds of Col. John Mosbys raiding troops are said to have hidden from pursuing Union cavalry. Since 2005, the Shenandoah River has experienced several springtime fish kills that have affected several of its fish species. In 2005, redbreast sunfish and smallmouth bass along a 100-mile stretch of the South Fork Shenandoah River began dying of lesions caused by bacteria, although the fish kill eventually wiped out 80% of the adult redbreast sunfish and smallmouth bass, juvenile populations appeared to be unaffected. Various accounts tell the origin of the name and he sent much needed corn to Washington and his troops during their hard winter at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania in 1777-1778. It is said to be named after the Senedo people, the American folk song Oh Shenandoah has been recorded in the 20th century by a number of notable artists.
The song may or may not refer to the Shenandoah River or Valley, the Shenandoah River figures prominently in John Denvers Take Me Home, Country Roads, which associates the river with the state of West Virginia. Only the last 20 miles of the river are in the Eastern Panhandle of West Virginia, more than 92% of the river and its forks and tributaries flow through Virginia. The original song Shenandoah River is included on the 2011 album Middle of Everywhere by Pokey LaFarge and those willing to brave the colder water of spring will be rewarded with a more challenging big-water experience. The South Fork is formed at Port Republic in southern Rockingham County, by the confluence of the North River and South River. It flows 98.5 miles northeast in a meandering course, past Elkton and Shenandoah, through Page Valley, with the Blue Ridge Mountains to the east
The Potomac River /pəˈtoʊmək/ is located along the mid-Atlantic Ocean coast of the United States and flows into the Chesapeake Bay. The river is approximately 405 miles long, with an area of about 14,700 square miles. In terms of area, this makes the Potomac River the fourth largest river along the Atlantic coast of the United States, over 5 million people live within the Potomac watershed. The river forms part of the borders between Maryland and Washington, D. C. on the left descending bank and West Virginia and Virginia on the right descending bank. The majority of the lower Potomac River is part of the State of Maryland, exceptions include a small tidal portion within the District of Columbia, and the border with Virginia being delineated from point to point. Except for a portion of its headwaters in West Virginia. The South Branch Potomac River lies completely within the state of West Virginia except for its headwaters, the Potomac River runs 405 miles from the Fairfax Stone in West Virginia on the Allegheny Plateau to Point Lookout and drains 14,679 square miles.
The length of the river from the junction of its North and South Branches to Point Lookout is 302 miles, the average flow is 10,800 ft³/s. The largest flow recorded on the Potomac at Washington, D. C. was in March 1936 when it reached 425,000 ft³/s. The lowest flow recorded at the same location was 600 ft³/s in September,1966. The source of the North Branch is at the Fairfax Stone located at the junction of Grant, the source of the South Branch is located near Hightown in northern Highland County, Virginia. The rivers two branches converge just east of Green Spring in Hampshire County, West Virginia, to form the Potomac. Once the Potomac drops from the Piedmont to the Coastal Plain at Little Falls, tides further influence the river as it passes through Washington, D. C. salinity in the Potomac River Estuary increases thereafter with distance downstream. The estuary widens, reaching 11 statute miles wide at its mouth, Potomac is a European spelling of Patowmeck, the Algonquian name of a Native American village, perhaps meaning something brought.
Native Americans had different names for different parts of the river, calling the river above Great Falls Cohongarooton, meaning honking geese and Patawomke below the fall, meaning river of swans. The spelling of the name has many forms over the years from Patawomeke to Patawomeck, Patowmack. The rivers name was decided upon as Potomac by the Board on Geographic Names in 1931. The river itself is at least two years old, likely extending back ten to twenty million years before present when the Atlantic Ocean lowered and exposed coastal sediments along the fall line
North River (Cacapon River)
The North River is a tributary of the Cacapon River, belonging to the Potomac River and Chesapeake Bay watersheds. The river is located in Hampshire and Hardy counties in the U. S. state of West Virginias Eastern Panhandle, the mouth of the North River into the Cacapon is located at Forks of Cacapon. From its headwaters to its mouth, the North River spans 52.4 miles in length, the North Rivers headwaters comprise two streams that converge in the southeastern hollows of South Branch Mountain in Hardy County. From its source, the river flows east through the communities of Inkerman, the North River continues to flow east as a shallow stony stream and after it passes through a gap in Short Mountain, it acts as the border between Hardy and Hampshire counties. It is in this stretch that the river is home to the Rio Turtle, the river enters exclusively into Hampshire County where it meets the community of Rio and Sperry Run, which flows in from the south. At Rio, the North River makes a bend and flows north into the wide fertile North River Valley along North River Mountain.
Also beginning at Rio, the North River parallels West Virginia Route 29, on its journey northward, the river is fed from the west by Deep Run and Mick Run, which drain off of Short Mountain. Further north along WV29, the passes through the communities of Delray. Departing from Sedan, the North River flows under the Northwestern Turnpike at Hanging Rock, Pine Draft Run and Tearcoat Creek join the river south of Hoy before the river bends yet again and joins Gibbons Run. Flowing through the village of North River Mills, the river is joined by Hietts Run. After North River Mills, the river makes a linear curve around the Devils Backbone. Since the early settlement of Hampshire County, the North River had been considered unnavigable by locals and his group of men, who hailed from nearby New Creek, began their journey at RiverBend Farms and made it to the rivers confluence with the Cacapon. Wonderful scenery, very little development, Ice Mountain nature preserve borders the river for about a mile, tributary streams are listed in order from south to north
The states largest city is Baltimore, and its capital is Annapolis. Among its occasional nicknames are Old Line State, the Free State, the state is named after Henrietta Maria of France, the wife of Charles I of England. George Calvert was the first Lord of Baltimore and the first English proprietor of the colonial grant. Maryland was the state to ratify the United States Constitution. Maryland is one of the smallest U. S. states in terms of area, as well as one of the most densely populated, Maryland has an area of 12,406.68 square miles and is comparable in overall area with Belgium. It is the 42nd largest and 9th smallest state and is closest in size to the state of Hawaii, the next largest state, its neighbor West Virginia, is almost twice the size of Maryland. Maryland possesses a variety of topography within its borders, contributing to its nickname America in Miniature. The mid-portion of this border is interrupted by Washington, D. C. which sits on land that was part of Montgomery and Prince Georges counties and including the town of Georgetown.
This land was ceded to the United States Federal Government in 1790 to form the District of Columbia, the Chesapeake Bay nearly bisects the state and the counties east of the bay are known collectively as the Eastern Shore. Close to the town of Hancock, in western Maryland, about two-thirds of the way across the state. This geographical curiosity makes Maryland the narrowest state, bordered by the Mason–Dixon line to the north, portions of Maryland are included in various official and unofficial geographic regions. Much of the Baltimore–Washington corridor lies just south of the Piedmont in the Coastal Plain, earthquakes in Maryland are infrequent and small due to the states distance from seismic/earthquake zones. The M5.8 Virginia earthquake in 2011 was felt moderately throughout Maryland, buildings in the state are not well-designed for earthquakes and can suffer damage easily. The lack of any glacial history accounts for the scarcity of Marylands natural lakes, laurel Oxbow Lake is an over one-hundred-year-old 55-acre natural lake two miles north of Maryland City and adjacent to Russett.
Chews Lake is a natural lake two miles south-southeast of Upper Marlboro. There are numerous lakes, the largest of them being the Deep Creek Lake. Maryland has shale formations containing natural gas, where fracking is theoretically possible, as is typical of states on the East Coast, Marylands plant life is abundant and healthy. Middle Atlantic coastal forests, typical of the southeastern Atlantic coastal plain, grow around Chesapeake Bay, moving west, a mixture of Northeastern coastal forests and Southeastern mixed forests cover the central part of the state
Shenandoah County, Virginia
Shenandoah County is a county located in the Commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 41,993 and it is part of the Shenandoah Valley region of Virginia. The Senedos, possibly an Iroquoian group, are thought to have occupied the area at one time, the name of both the Valley and of the County is most likely connected with this Native American group. Colonial Governor Gooch formally purchased the entire Shenandoah Valley from the Six Nations of the Iroquois by the Treaty of Lancaster in 1744, the Iroquois controlled the valley as a hunting ground. European settlement had begun by that time. During Pontiacs War, Shawnee attacks reached as far east as the current county, Shenandoah County was established in 1772. It was originally named Dunmore County for Virginia Governor John Murray, Dunmore was Virginias last royal governor, and was forced from office during the American Revolution. During the war, in 1778 rebels renamed the county as Shenandoah, during the Civil War, the Battle of New Market took place May 15,1864.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 512 square miles. The Fort Valley and western slopes of the Massanutten Mountain are located within the county. 93. 0% were White,1. 7% Black or African American,0. 5% Asian,0. 2% Native American,2. 8% of some other race and 1. 6% of two or more races. 26. 4% were of American,22. 0% German,10. 3% English and 7. 6% Irish ancestry, as of the census of 2000, there were 35,075 people,14,296 households, and 10,064 families residing in the county. The population density was 68 people per square mile, there were 16,709 housing units at an average density of 33 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 95. 60% White,1. 17% Black or African American,0. 18% Native American,0. 35% Asian,0. 02% Pacific Islander,1. 79% from other races, and 0. 89% from two or more races. 3. 40% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race,25. 10% of all households were made up of individuals and 11. 30% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.42 and the family size was 2.86. In the county, the population was out with 22. 30% under the age of 18,6. 60% from 18 to 24,27. 60% from 25 to 44,26. 20% from 45 to 64. The median age was 41 years, for every 100 females there were 94.90 males
The Cacapon River, located in the Appalachian Mountains of West Virginias Eastern Panhandle region, is an 81. 0-mile-long river known for its fishing, boating and scenery. As part of the Potomac River watershed, it is an American Heritage River, the Cacapon River Watershed is made up of three major river segments and many smaller stream watersheds. The headwaters of the Cacapon River, known as the Lost River, is 31.1 miles long, the largest tributary of the Cacapon is the North River, which drains 206 square miles, an area comparable to that of the Lost River. Overall, the Cacapon River watershed includes the Lost and North River watersheds, the Cacapon watershed is itself part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed. In recent years the Cacapon River and its watershed have become threatened by development, concern about these issues led to the establishment of the Cacapon Institute in 1985. The Cacapon River emerges from underground in a gap in Sandy Ridge west of Wardensville and it is actually the reemergence of the Lost River, which sinks into an underground channel east of McCauley near the entrance to Camp Pinnacle.
From its emergence, the Cacapon River creates a horseshoe bend shaped gap through Sandy Ridge, at Wardensville, the river is joined by Trout Run and curves northeastward where it meanders through an expansive valley plain. Here, it is fed by Slate Rock Run and Moores Run further north, waites Run, a tributary draining some of the western slopes of Great North Mountain enters the Cacapon River near the bridge on Rt. Shortly after its confluence with Sine Run, the Cacapon River continues north into Hampshire County, from the county line, the river is bounded to its east by the George Washington National Forest and to its west by Baker Mountain. Throughout this stretch, the Cacapon River is joined by sections of the old Winchester and it continues its meandering course northeastward, flowing past the community of Intermont and Hebron Church. At Capon Lake, the river is joined by Capon Springs Run and is the site of the historic Capon Lake Whipple Truss Bridge. West Virginia Route 259 parallels the Cacapon River to its west along the flank of Baker Mountain until the road turns east across the Kenneth Seldon Bridge at Yellow Spring.
From Yellow Spring Gap, the river is fed by a run whose source is the Yellow Spring, the Cacapon River moves north along the eastern flank of Cacapon Mountain with Cacapon River Road paralleling it to its west. From Yellow Spring, the river flows by Camps Rim Rock, after another immense horseshoe bend, the Cacapon River moves past the communities of Hooks Mills and Bubbling Spring and is joined by Old Man Run and Kale Hollows run. The rivers stretch through Bubbling Spring is a location for summer river camps which consist of cottages, trailers. This stretch of the Cacapon River is the scene for numerous old houses including the Captain David Pugh House at Hooks Mills. North of Kale Hollow, the Cacapon River is joined to its west by Dillons Mountain, to its east, the river is paralleled by Christian Church Road, on which is located the 18th century Capon Chapel. After its confluence with Mill Branch, the Cacapon River bends through the historic town of Capon Bridge