The tree species Aesculus glabra is commonly known as Ohio buckeye, American buckeye, or fetid buckeye. Glabra is one of 13–19 species of Aesculus called horse chestnuts and it is native primarily to the Midwestern and lower Great Plains regions of the United States, extending southeast into the Nashville Basin. It is locally in the extreme southwest of Ontario, on Walpole Island in Lake St. Clair. It is a deciduous tree growing to 15 to 25 metres tall. The leaves are compound with five leaflets, 8–16 cm long. The flowers are produced in panicles in spring, yellow to yellow-green, the fruit is a round or oblong spiny capsule 4–5 cm diameter, containing 1 to 3 nut-like seeds, 2–3 cm in diameter, brown with a whitish basal scar. The foliage and fruits contain tannic acid and are poisonous to cattle, the Ohio buckeye is the state tree of Ohio, and its name is an original term of endearment for the pioneers on the Ohio frontier, with specific association with William Henry Harrison. Capt. Daniel Davis of the Ohio Company of Associates, under Gen.
Rufus Putnam, traversed the wilderness in the spring of 1788, Davis was said to be the second man ashore at Point Harmar, on April 7,1788. He declared that he cut the first tree felled by a settler west of the Ohio River, buckeye came to be used as the nickname and colloquial name for people from the state of Ohio and The Ohio State Universitys sports teams. Ohio State adopted Buckeyes officially as its nickname in 1950, native Americans would blanch buckeye nuts, extracting the tannic acid for use in making leather. The nuts can be dried, turning dark as they harden with exposure to the air, buckeye candy, made to resemble the trees nut, is made by dipping a ball of peanut butter fudge in milk chocolate, leaving a circle of the peanut butter exposed. These are a treat in Ohio, especially during the Christmas. Notes Darbyshire, S. J. & Oldham, M. J. Ohio buckeye, Aesculus glabra, on Walpole Island, Lambton County, fitzhenry & Whiteside Ltd. and the Canadian Forest Service
A typical cache is a small waterproof container containing a logbook and sometimes a pen or pencil. The geocacher enters the date they found it and signs it with their code name. After signing the log, the cache must be placed exactly where the person found it. Larger containers such as storage containers or ammunition boxes can contain items for trading, such as toys or trinkets. Geocaching shares many aspects with benchmarking, orienteering, treasure-hunting, Geocaching was originally similar to the 160-year-old game letterboxing, which uses clues and references to landmarks embedded in stories. The first documented placement of a GPS-located cache took place on May 3,2000, by Dave Ulmer of Beavercreek, the location was posted on the Usenet newsgroup sci. geo. satellite-nav as 45°17. 460′N 122°24. 800′W. By May 6,2000, it had been found twice, according to Dave Ulmers message, this cache was a black plastic bucket that was partially buried and contained software, books, money, and a slingshot.
A geocache and plaque called the Original Stash Tribute Plaque now sit at the site, the activity was originally referred to as GPS stash hunt or gpsstashing. This was changed shortly after the original hide when it was suggested in the gpsstash eGroup that stash could have negative connotations, for the traditional geocache, a geocacher will place a waterproof container containing a log book and trade items or trackables, record the caches coordinates. These coordinates, along with details of the location, are posted on a listing site. Other geocachers obtain the coordinates from that site and seek out the cache using their GPS handheld receivers. The finding geocachers record their exploits in the logbook and online, geocachers are free to take objects from the cache in exchange for leaving something of similar or higher value. Typical cache treasures, known in the world as swag, are not high in monetary value. Aside from the logbook, common cache contents are unusual coins or currency, small toys, ornamental buttons, CDs, or books.
Although not required, many geocachers decide to leave behind items, such as personal Geocoins, pins, or craft items. Disposable cameras are popular as they allow for anyone who found the cache to take a picture which can be developed and uploaded to a Geocaching web site listed below. Also common are objects that are moved from cache to cache called hitchhikers, such as Travel Bugs or Geocoins, cachers who initially place a Travel Bug or Geocoins often assign specific goals for their trackable items. Examples of goals are to be placed in a cache a long distance from home, or to travel to a certain country
Lactarius is a genus of mushroom-producing, ectomycorrhizal fungi, containing several edible species. The species of the genus, commonly known as milk-caps, are characterized by the fluid they exude when cut or damaged. Like the closely related genus Russula, their flesh has a distinctive brittle consistency and it is a large genus with roughly 450 known species, mainly distributed in the Northern hemisphere. Recently, the genus Lactifluus has been separated from Lactarius based on phylogenetic evidence. The genus Lactarius was described by Christian Hendrik Persoon in 1797 with L. piperatus as the type species. In 2011, L. torminosus was accepted as the new type of the genus after the splitting-off of Lactifluus as separate genus, the name Lactarius is derived from the Latin lac, milk. Furcatus was moved to the new genus Multifurca, together with some former Russula species, Multifurca represents the likely sister group of Lactarius. Phylogenetic analyses have revealed that Lactarius, in the strict sense, contains some species with closed fruitbodies.
The angiocarpous genera Arcangeliella and Zelleromyces are phylogenetically part of Lactarius, systematics within Lactarius is a subject of ongoing research. Three subgenera are accepted and supported by molecular phylogenetics, Northern temperate region. Russularia, Northern temperate region and tropical Asia, Northern temperate region, tropical Africa, and tropical Asia. Some more species, all tropical, do not seem to fall into these subgenera and this includes for example L. chromospermus from tropical Africa with an odd brown spore color. It is estimated that a significant number of Lactarius species remain to be described, the eponymous milk and the brittle consistency of the flesh are the most prominent field characters of milk-cap fruitbodies. The milk or latex emerging from bruised flesh is white or cream. Fruitbodies are small to large, rather fleshy, without veil. Cap surface can be glabrous, velvety or pilose, several species have pits on the cap or pileus surface. Dull colors prevail, but some more colorful species exist, e. g.
the blue Lactarius indigo or the species of section Deliciosi. Spore print color is white to ocher or, in some cases, some species have angiocarpous, i. e. closed fruitbodies
Gypsum is a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O. It is widely mined and is used as a fertilizer, and as the constituent in many forms of plaster, blackboard chalk. Mohs scale of hardness, based on scratch Hardness comparison. It forms as a mineral and as a hydration product of anhydrite. The word gypsum is derived from the Greek word γύψος, because the quarries of the Montmartre district of Paris have long furnished burnt gypsum used for various purposes, this dehydrated gypsum became known as plaster of Paris. Upon addition of water, after a few tens of minutes plaster of Paris becomes regular gypsum again, causing the material to harden or set in ways that are useful for casting, Gypsum was known in Old English as spærstān, spear stone, referring to its crystalline projections. Gypsum may act as a source of sulfur for plant growth, which was discovered by J. M. Mayer, american farmers were so anxious to acquire it that a lively smuggling trade with Nova Scotia evolved, resulting in the so-called Plaster War of 1820.
In the 19th century, it was known as lime sulfate or sulfate of lime. Gypsum is moderately water-soluble and, in contrast to most other salts, it exhibits retrograde solubility, when gypsum is heated in air it loses water and converts first to calcium sulfate hemihydrate, and, if heated further, to anhydrous calcium sulfate. As for anhydrite, its solubility in saline solutions and in brines is dependent on NaCl concentration. Gypsum crystals are found to contain water and hydrogen bonding. Gypsum occurs in nature as flattened and often twinned crystals, and transparent, selenite contains no significant selenium, both substances were named for the ancient Greek word for the Moon. Selenite may occur in a silky, fibrous form, in case it is commonly called satin spar. Finally, it may be granular or quite compact, in hand-sized samples, it can be anywhere from transparent to opaque. A very fine-grained white or lightly tinted variety of gypsum, called alabaster, is prized for ornamental work of various sorts, in arid areas, gypsum can occur in a flower-like form, typically opaque, with embedded sand grains called desert rose.
It forms some of the largest crystals found in nature, up to 12 m long, Gypsum is a common mineral, with thick and extensive evaporite beds in association with sedimentary rocks. Deposits are known to occur in strata from as far back as the Archaean eon, Gypsum is deposited from lake and sea water, as well as in hot springs, from volcanic vapors, and sulfate solutions in veins. Hydrothermal anhydrite in veins is commonly hydrated to gypsum by groundwater in near-surface exposures and it is often associated with the minerals halite and sulfur
Other common names include red elm, gray elm, soft elm, moose elm, and Indian elm. The tree was first named as part of Ulmus americana in 1753, the slightly name U. fulva, published by French botanist André Michaux in 1803, is still widely used in dietary-supplement and alternative-medicine information. U. rubra was introduced to Europe in 1830, Ulmus rubra is a medium-sized deciduous tree with a spreading head of branches, commonly growing to 12–19 m, very occasionally <30 m in height. Its heartwood is reddish-brown, giving the tree its common name red elm. The species is distinguished from American elm by its downy twigs, chestnut brown or reddish hairy buds. The broad oblong to obovate leaves are 10–20 cm long, rough above but velvety below, with coarse double-serrate margins, acuminate apices and oblique bases, the petioles are 6–12mm long. The reddish-brown fruit is a winged samara, orbicular to obovate, slightly notched at the top, 12–18 mm long. The tree is less susceptible to Dutch elm disease than other species of American elms.
The species has not been planted for ornament in its native country. Introduced to Europe and Australasia, it has never thrived in the UK, Elwes & Henry knew of not one good specimen, and the last tree planted at Kew attained a height of only 12 m in 60 years. Specimens supplied by the Späth nursery to the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh in 1902 as U. fulva may survive in Edinburgh as it was the practice of the Garden to distribute trees about the city, a specimen at RBGE was felled c.1990. The current list of Living Accessions held in the Garden per se does not list the plant, a tree in Westmount, Canada, measured 4.27 m in girth in 2011. The USA National Champion, measuring 38 m high in 2011, grows in Daviess County, another tall specimen grows in the Bronx, New York City, at 710 West 246th Street, measuring 31 m high in 2002. In the UK, there is no designated TROBI champion, however several mature trees survive in Brighton, there are no known cultivars, however the hybrid U. rubra × U. pumila cultivar Lincoln is occasionally listed as Ulmus rubra Lincoln in error. U.
rubra had limited success as a parent in the 1960s, resulting in the cultivars Coolshade, Improved Coolshade, Rosehill. In years, it was used in the Wisconsin elm breeding program to produce Repura and Revera although neither is known to have been released to commerce. The specific epithet alludes to the trees reddish wood, whilst the common name slippery elm alludes to the mucilaginous inner bark. Ulmus rubra has various traditional medicinal uses. S, sometimes leaves are dried and ground into a powder, made into a tea
Sugar maple is best known for its bright fall foliage and for being the primary source of maple syrup. Acer saccharum is a tree normally reaching heights of 25–35 m. A 10-year-old tree is typically about 5 m tall, when healthy, the sugar maple can live for over 400 years. The leaves are deciduous, up to 20 cm long and equally wide, the basal lobes are relatively small, while the upper lobes are larger and deeply notched. In contrast with the angular notching of the maple, however. The fall color is often spectacular, ranging from yellow through orange to fluorescent red-orange. Sugar maples have a tendency to color unevenly in fall, in some trees, all colors above can be seen at the same time. They share a tendency with red maples for certain parts of a tree to change color weeks ahead of or behind the remainder of the tree. The leaf buds are pointy and brown-colored, the recent years growth twigs are green, and turn dark brown. The flowers are in panicles of five to 10 together, yellow-green and without petals, the sugar maple will generally begin flowering when it is between 10 and 15 years old.
The fruit is a pair of samaras, the seeds are globose, 7–10 mm in diameter, the wing 2–3 cm long. The seeds fall from the tree in autumn, where they must be exposed to 90 days of temperatures below −18 °C to break their coating down. Germination of A. saccharum is slow, not taking place until the spring when the soil has warmed. It is closely related to the maple, which is sometimes included in this species. The western American bigtooth maple is treated as a variety or subspecies of sugar maple by some botanists, the sugar maple is often confused with the Norway maple, though they are not closely related within the genus. The sugar maple is most easily identified by clear sap in the petiole, sharp-tipped buds. Also, the lobes of the sugar maple have a more triangular shape. The sugar maple is an important species to the ecology of many forests in the northern United States
Ruellia is a genus of flowering plants commonly known as ruellias or wild petunias. They are not closely related to petunias although both belong to the same euasterid clade. The genus was named in honor of Jean Ruelle and physician to Francis I of France, apart from the numerous formerly independent genera nowadays considered synonymous with Ruellia, the segregate genera Blechum, Eusiphon and Ulleria are often included in Ruellia. Acanthopale, however, is considered a distinct genus, some are used as medicinal plants, but many are known or suspected to be poisonous. Their leaves are food for the caterpillars of several Lepidoptera, typically Nymphalinae, numerous plants, mainly Acanthaceae, are former members of Ruellia. Some examples are, Asystasia gangetica subsp, gangetica Blepharis ciliaris B. L. Burtt Dyschoriste oblongifolia Kuntze Hemigraphis repanda Hallier f. Hygrophila difformis Blume Hygrophila lacustris Nees Hygrophila ringens R. Br. ex Steud, lepidagathis alopecuroidea R. Br. ex Griseb
Carya cordiformis, the bitternut hickory, called bitternut or swamp hickory, is a large pecan hickory with commercial stands located mostly north of the other pecan hickories. Bitternut hickory is cut and sold in mixture with the true hickories and it is the shortest-lived of the hickories, living to about 200 years. It is a deciduous tree, growing up to 35 m tall. The leaves are 15–30 cm long, with 7–11 leaflets, each leaflet lanceolate, 7–13 cm long, with the leaflets the largest. The flowers are small wind-pollinated catkins, produced in spring, the fruit is a very bitter nut, 2–3 cm long with a green four-valved cover which splits off at maturity in the fall, and a hard, bony shell. Another identifying characteristic is its bright sulfur-yellow winter buds, no other hickory has this distinguishing feature. It is closely related to the pecan, sharing similar leaf shape, but unlike the pecan, it does not have edible nuts. It is most readily distinguished from the pecan by the number of leaflets.
Hybrids with the pecan are known, and named Carya × brownii, a hybrid between the shagbark hickory is recognized, and is known as Laneys hickory. Bitternut hickory grows in moist mountain valleys along streambanks and in swamps, although it is usually found on wet bottom lands, it grows on dry sites and grows well on poor soils low in nutrients. The species is not included as a species in the Society of American Foresters forest cover types because it does not grow in sufficient numbers. It is most common, from southern New England west to Iowa and it is probably the most abundant and most uniformly distributed of all the hickories. Bitternut is used for lumber and pulpwood, because bitternut hickory wood is hard and durable, it is used for furniture, dowels, tool handles and ladders. Like other hickories, the wood is used for smoking meat, Bitternut hickory seeds and its bark are eaten by wildlife. Media related to Carya cordiformis at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Carya cordiformis at Wikispecies Carya cordiformis images at bioimages. vanderbilt.
edu* Ontario Tree Atlas, Bitternut Hickory
Quercus muehlenbergii, the chinkapin oak, is an oak in the white oak group. The species was often called Quercus acuminata in older literature, the trees scientific name honors Gotthilf Heinrich Ernst Muhlenberg, a Lutheran pastor and amateur botanist in Pennsylvania. Under the modern rules of nomenclature, umlauts are transliterated, with ü becoming ue. The low-growing, cloning Q. prinoides is similar to Q. muehlenbergii and has been confused with it in the past, Q. prinoides was named and described by the German botanist Karl Ludwig Willdenow in 1801, in a German journal article by Muhlenberg. Key characteristics of Quercus muehlenbergii, The leaf base is more rounded. The veins and sinuses are regular, acorns with no stalks or with short stalks less than 8 mm long. The acorns turn chestnut brown in the fall, the leaves have sharp teeth but no bristles, as a member of the white oak subgenus of Quercus. Chinkapin oak is monoecious in flowering habit, flowers emerge in April to late May or early June, the staminate flowers are borne in catkins that develop from the leaf axils of the previous year, and the pistillate flowers develop from the axils of the current years leaves.
The fruit, an acorn or nut, is borne singly or in pairs, matures in 1 year, about half of the acorn is enclosed in a thin cup and is chestnut brown to nearly black. Chinkapin oak is closely related to the smaller but generally similar dwarf chinkapin oak, Chinkapin oak is usually a tree, but occasionally shrubby, while dwarf chinkapin oak is a low-growing, clone-forming shrub. Chinkapin oak is sometimes confused with the related chestnut oak. However, unlike the teeth on the leaves of the chinkapin oak. The chinkapin oak has smaller acorns than the chestnut oak or another species, the swamp chestnut oak. Chinkapin oak is found on well-drained upland soils derived from limestone or where limestone outcrops occur. Occasionally it is found on well-drained limestone soils along streams, the Chinkapin oak is generally found on soils that are weakly acid to alkaline. It grows on both northerly and southerly aspects but is common on the warmer southerly aspects. It is absent or rare at elevations in the Appalachians.
It is rarely a predominant tree, but it grows in association with other species
A cantilever is a rigid structural element, such as a beam or a plate, anchored at only one end to a support from which it is protruding. Cantilevers can be constructed with trusses or slabs, when subjected to a structural load, the cantilever carries the load to the support where it is forced against by a moment and shear stress. Cantilevers are widely found in construction, notably in cantilever bridges and balconies, in cantilever bridges the cantilevers are usually built as pairs, with each cantilever used to support one end of a central section. The Forth Bridge in Scotland is an example of a truss bridge. A cantilever in a timber framed building is called a jetty or forebay. In the southern United States a historic barn type is the barn of log construction. Temporary cantilevers are used in construction. The partially constructed structure creates a cantilever, but the structure does not act as a cantilever. This is very helpful when temporary supports, or falsework, cannot be used to support the structure while it is being built.
So some truss arch bridges are built each side as cantilevers until the spans reach each other and are jacked apart to stress them in compression before final joining. Nearly all cable-stayed bridges are built using cantilevers as this is one of their chief advantages, many box girder bridges are built segmentally, or in short pieces. This type of construction lends itself well to balanced cantilever construction where the bridge is built in both directions from a single support and these structures are highly based on torque and rotational equilibrium. In an architectural application, Frank Lloyd Wrights Fallingwater used cantilevers to project large balconies, the East Stand at Elland Road Stadium in Leeds was, when completed, the largest cantilever stand in the world holding 17,000 spectators. The roof built over the stands at Old Trafford Football Ground uses a cantilever so that no supports will block views of the field, the old, now demolished Miami Stadium had a similar roof over the spectator area.
The largest cantilever in Europe is located at St James Park in Newcastle-Upon-Tyne, less obvious examples of cantilevers are free-standing radio towers without guy-wires, and chimneys, which resist being blown over by the wind through cantilever action at their base. Another use of the cantilever is in fixed-wing aircraft design, pioneered by Hugo Junkers in 1915, early aircraft wings typically bore their loads by using two wings in a biplane configuration braced with wires and struts. They were similar to bridges, having been developed by Octave Chanute. The wings were braced with crossed wires so they would stay parallel, the cables and struts generated considerable drag, and there was constant experimentation for ways to eliminate them
Lindera is a genus of about 80-100 species of flowering plants in the family Lauraceae, mostly native to eastern Asia but with three species in eastern North America. The species are shrubs and small trees, common names include spicewood, the Latin name Lindera commemorates the Swedish botanist Johan Linder. Lindera are evergreen or deciduous trees or shrubs, the leaves are alternate, entire or three-lobed, and strongly spicy-aromatic. Lindera are dioecious, with male and female flowers on separate trees, the inflorescences are composed of 3 to 15 small flowers existing as pseudo-umbels. They are sessile or on short shoots, the flowers are from greenish to white, greenish-yellow, or yellowish, with six tepals arranged in a star shape. The male flowers have 9 to 15 fertile stamens, the innermost circle of stamens can be found at the base of the stamen glands, usually the stamens are longer than the anthers, which in turn consist of two chambers and are directed inwards or sideways. The vestigial ovary is negligible or absent, the base of the flower is small and flat.
The female flowers have a number of staminodes. Pollination is done by bees and other insects, Lindera fruit have a hypocarpium at the base of the fruit, which in some cases forms a cup that encloses the bottom part of the fruit. The fruit is a red, purple or black drupe containing a single seed, dispersed mostly by birds. Many species reproduce vegetatively by stolons, the genus appears to be able to occupy widely different habitats as long as its requirements for water are met. Habitat fragmentation severely affects dioecious species like Lindera melissifolia, because populations with plants of a single sex can only vegetatively reproduce, with significant habitat loss, plants become ever more isolated, lessening the likelihood that pollinators will travel from male to female plants. Most are found on the bottoms and edges of shallow ponds in old dune fields. Most Lindera colonies occur in light shade beneath a forest canopy, in warmer areas they occur in bottomland hardwood forests. The North American species of Lindera are relicts that originally were more common when the climate of North America was more humid, the hermit thrush has been identified as a dispersal agent of seeds of L. melissifolia.
Lindera species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including The Engrailed and the Spicebush Swallowtail
Tipularia discolor, the crippled cranefly or crane-fly orchid, is a perennial terrestrial woodland orchid, a member of the Orchidaceae family. It is the species of the genus Tipularia found in North America. It occurs in the southeastern United States from Texas to Florida, there are isolated populations in Massachusetts and in the Great Lakes region. Tipularia discolor grows a single leaf in September that disappears in the spring, the leaf top is green, often with dark purple spots. The leaf underside is a purple color. The flower blooms in mid-July to late August, the roots are a connected series of edible corms. They are starchy and almost potato-like, the plant is pollinated by noctuid moths, by means of flowers which incline slightly to the right or left, so the pollinaria can attach to one of the moths compound eyes. Crane-fly orchids are endangered, threatened, or rare in several states