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The Irish War of Independence or Anglo-Irish War was a guerrilla war fought in Ireland from 1919 to 1921 between the Irish Republican Army and British forces: the British Army, along with the quasi-military Royal Irish Constabulary and its paramilitary forces the Auxiliaries and Ulster Special Constabulary. It was an escalation of the Irish revolutionary period into warfare. In April 1916, Irish republicans launched the Easter Rising against British rule and proclaimed an Irish Republic. Although it was crushed after a week of fighting, the Easter Rising and the British response led to greater popular support for Irish independence. In the December 1918 election, the republican party Sinn Féin won a landslide victory in Ireland. On 21 January 1919 they declared Irish independence; that day, two RIC officers were shot dead in the Soloheadbeg ambush by IRA volunteers acting on their own initiative. The conflict developed gradually. For much of 1919, IRA activity involved capturing weaponry and freeing republican prisoners, while the Dáil set about building a state.
In September, the British government outlawed the conflict intensified. The IRA began ambushing RIC and British Army patrols, attacking their barracks and forcing isolated barracks to be abandoned; the British government bolstered the RIC with recruits from Britain—the Black and Tans and Auxiliaries—who became notorious for ill-discipline and reprisal attacks on civilians, some of which were authorized by the British government. Thus the conflict is sometimes called the Tan War; the conflict involved civil disobedience, notably the refusal of Irish railwaymen to transport British forces or military supplies. In mid-1920, republicans won control of most county councils, British authority collapsed in most of the south and west, forcing the British government to introduce emergency powers. About 300 people had been killed by late 1920. On Bloody Sunday in Dublin, 21 November 1920, fourteen British intelligence operatives were assassinated in the morning. A week seventeen Auxiliaries were killed by the IRA in the Kilmichael Ambush in County Cork.
The British government declared martial law in much of southern Ireland. The centre of Cork city was burnt out by British forces in December 1920. Violence continued to escalate over the next seven months, when 1,000 people were killed and 4,500 republicans were interned. Much of the fighting took place in Munster and Belfast, which together saw over 75 percent of the conflict deaths; the conflict in north-east Ulster had a sectarian aspect. While the Catholic minority there backed Irish independence, the Protestant majority were unionist/loyalist. A Special Constabulary was formed, made up of Protestants, loyalist paramilitaries were active, they attacked Catholics in reprisal for IRA actions, in Belfast a sectarian conflict raged in which 500 were killed, most of them Catholics. In May 1921, Ireland was partitioned under British law by the Government of Ireland Act, which created Northern Ireland. Both sides agreed to a ceasefire on 11 July 1921; the post-ceasefire talks led to the signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty on 6 December 1921.
This ended British rule in most of Ireland and, after a ten-month transitional period overseen by a provisional government, the Irish Free State was created as a self-governing Dominion on 6 December 1922. Northern Ireland remained within the United Kingdom. After the ceasefire, violence in Belfast and fighting in border areas of Northern Ireland continued, the IRA launched a failed Northern offensive in May 1922. In June 1922, disagreement among republicans over the Anglo-Irish Treaty led to the ten-month Irish Civil War; the Irish Free State awarded 62,868 medals for service during the War of Independence, of which 15,224 were issued to IRA fighters of the flying columns. Since the 1880s, Irish nationalists in the Irish Parliamentary Party had been demanding Home Rule, or self-government, from Britain. Fringe organisations, such as Arthur Griffith's Sinn Féin, instead argued for some form of Irish independence, but they were in a small minority; the demand for Home Rule was granted by the British Government in 1912 prompting a prolonged crisis within the United Kingdom as Ulster unionists formed an armed organisation – the Ulster Volunteers – to resist this measure of devolution, at least in territory they could control.
In turn, nationalists formed the Irish Volunteers. The British Parliament passed the Third Home Rule Act on 18 September 1914 with an amending Bill for the partition of Ireland introduced by Ulster Unionist MPs, but the Act's implementation was postponed by the Suspensory Act 1914 due to the outbreak of the First World War in the previous month; the majority of nationalists followed their IPP leaders and John Redmond's call to support Britain and the Allied war effort in Irish regiments of the New British Army, the intention being to ensure the commencement of Home Rule after the war. But a significant minority of the Irish Volunteers opposed Ireland's involvement in the war; the Volunteer movement split, a majority leaving to form the National Volunteers under Redmond. The remaining Irish Volunteers, under Eoin MacNeill, held that they would maintain their organisation until Home Rule had been granted. Within this Volunteer movement, another faction, led by the separatist Irish Republican Brotherhood, began to prepare for a revolt a
The prehistory of Ireland has been pieced together from archaeological evidence, which has grown at an increasing rate over the last decades. It begins with the first evidence of humans in Ireland around 10,500 BC, finishes with the start of the historical record around 400 AD. Both of these dates are than for much of Europe and all of the Near East; the prehistoric period covers the Palaeolithic, Neolithic, Bronze Age and Iron Age societies of Ireland. For much of Europe, the historical record begins; the two periods that have left the most spectacular groups of remains are the Neolithic, with its megalithic tombs, the gold jewellery of the Bronze Age, when Ireland was a major centre of gold mining. Ireland has many areas of bogland, a great number of archaeological finds have been recovered from these; the anaerobic conditions sometimes preserve organic materials exceptionally well, as with a number of bog bodies, a Mesolithic wicker fish-trap, a Bronze Age textile with delicate tassels of horse hair.
During the most recent Quaternary glaciation, ice sheets more than 3,000 m thick scoured the landscape of Ireland, pulverising rock and bone, eradicating any possible evidence of early human settlements during the Glenavian warm period. During the Last Glacial Maximum, Ireland was tundra; the Midland General Glaciation was thought to have covered two thirds of the island with ice. Subsequent evidence from the past 50 years has shown this to be untrue and recent publications suggest that ice went off the southern coast of Ireland; the early part of the Holocene had a climate, inhospitable to most European animals and plants. Human occupation was unlikely. During the period between 17,500 and 12,000 years ago, a warmer period, the Bølling-Allerød, allowed the rehabitation of northern areas of Europe by roaming hunter-gatherers. Genetic evidence suggests this reoccupation began in southwestern Europe and faunal remains suggest a refugium in Iberia that extended up into southern France; the original attraction to the north during the pre-boreal period would be species like reindeer and aurochs.
Some sites as far north as Sweden inhabited earlier than 10,000 years ago suggest that humans might have used glacial termini as places from which they hunted migratory game. These factors and ecological changes brought humans to the edge of the northernmost ice-free zones of Europe by the onset of the Holocene and this included regions close to Ireland. Britain and Ireland may have been joined by a land bridge, but because this link, if existed, was cut by rising sea-levels so early into the warm period by 16,000 BC, few temperate terrestrial flora or fauna crossed into Ireland. Snakes and most other reptiles could not repopulate Ireland because any land bridge disappeared before temperatures became warm enough for them; the lowered sea level joined Britain to continental Europe. The date for the earliest known modern humans in Ireland was pushed back some 2,500 years, into the late Palaeolithic, by a radiocarbon dating performed in 2016 on a bear bone excavated in 1903 in the "Alice and Gwendoline Cave", County Clare.
This has cut marks showing it was butchered when fresh and gave a date of around 10,500 BC, showing humans were in Ireland. In contrast, a flint worked by a human found in 1968 at Mell, much older well pre-dating 70,000 BC, is regarded as having been carried to Ireland on an ice sheet from what is now the bottom of the Irish Sea. A British site on the eastern coast of the Irish Sea, dated to 11,000 BC, indicated people were in the area eating a marine diet including shellfish; these modern humans may have colonised Ireland after crossing a southern, now ice-free, land bridge that linked south-east Ireland and Cornwall, if it existed, or more by boat. In the south the Irish Sea facing South Wales, was at the least a good deal narrower than today until 12,000 BC; these people may have found few resources outside of coastal shellfishing and acorns and so may not have continually occupied the region. The early coastline of Ireland is now entirely under the sea, so evidence of coastal populations is lost, though ways of investigating undersea sites are being explored.
The return of freezing conditions in the Younger Dryas, that lasted from 10,900 BC to 9700 BC, may have depopulated Ireland. During the Younger Dryas, sea-levels continued to rise and no ice-free land bridge between Great Britain and Ireland returned; the last ice age came to an end in Ireland about 8000 BC. Until the single 2016 Palaeolithic dating described above, the earliest evidence of human occupation after the retreat of the ice was dated to the Mesolithic, around 7000 BC. Although sea levels were still lower than they are today, Ireland was probably an island by the time the first settlers arrived by boat likely from Britain; the earliest inhabitants of the island were seafarers who depended for much of their livelihood upon the sea, inland settlements or camps were close to water. Evidence for Mesolithic hunter-gatherers has been found throughout the island: a number of the key e
The Cromwellian conquest of Ireland or Cromwellian war in Ireland refers to the conquest of Ireland by the forces of the English Parliament, led by Oliver Cromwell, during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. Cromwell invaded Ireland with his New Model Army on behalf of England's Rump Parliament in August 1649. Following the Irish Rebellion of 1641, most of Ireland came under the control of the Irish Catholic Confederation. In early 1649, the Confederates allied with the English Royalists, defeated by the Parliamentarians in the English Civil War. By May 1652, Cromwell's Parliamentarian army had defeated the Confederate and Royalist coalition in Ireland and occupied the country—bringing to an end the Irish Confederate Wars. However, guerrilla warfare continued for a further year. Cromwell passed a series of Penal Laws against Roman Catholics and confiscated large amounts of their land; the Parliamentarian reconquest of Ireland was brutal, Cromwell is still a hated figure in Ireland. The extent to which Cromwell, in direct command for the first year of the campaign, was responsible for the atrocities is debated to this day.
Some historians argue that the actions of Cromwell were within the then-accepted rules of war, or were exaggerated or distorted by propagandists. The impact of the war on the Irish population was unquestionably severe, although there is no consensus as to the magnitude of the loss of life; the war resulted in famine, worsened by an outbreak of bubonic plague. Estimates of the drop in the Irish population resulting from the Parliamentarian campaign range from 15 to 83 percent; the Parliamentarians transported about 50,000 people as indentured labourers. Some estimates cover population losses over the course of the Conquest Period only, while others cover the period of the Conquest to 1653 and the period of the Cromwellian Settlement from August 1652 to 1659 together; the English Rump Parliament, victorious in the English Civil War, having executed King Charles in January 1649, had several reasons for sending the New Model Army to Ireland in 1649. The first and most pressing reason was an alliance signed in 1649 between the Irish Confederate Catholics, Charles II, the English Royalists.
This allowed for Royalist troops to be sent to Ireland and put the Irish Confederate Catholic troops under the command of Royalist officers led by James Butler, Earl of Ormonde. Their aim was to restore the monarchy there; this was a threat. Secondly, Parliament had a longstanding commitment to re-conquer Ireland dating back to the Irish Rebellion of 1641. If the Irish Confederates had not allied themselves with the Royalists, it is that the English Parliament would have tried to invade the country to crush Catholic power there, they had sent Parliamentary forces to Ireland throughout the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. They viewed Ireland as part of the territory governed by right by the Kingdom of England and only temporarily out of its control since the Rebellion of 1641. Many Parliamentarians wished to punish the Irish for atrocities against English Protestant settlers during the 1641 Uprising. Furthermore, some Irish towns had acted as bases from which privateers had attacked English shipping throughout the 1640s.
In addition, the English Parliament had a financial imperative to invade Ireland to confiscate land there in order to repay its creditors. The Parliament had raised loans of £10 million under the Adventurers Act to subdue Ireland since 1642, on the basis that its creditors would be repaid with land confiscated from Irish Catholic rebels. To repay these loans, it would be necessary to confiscate such land; the Parliamentarians had internal political reasons to send forces to Ireland. Army mutinies at Banbury and Bishopsgate in April and May 1649 were unsettling the New Model Army, the soldiers' demands would increase if they were left idle. For some Parliamentarians, the war in Ireland was a religious war. Cromwell and much of his army were Puritans who considered all Roman Catholics to be heretics, so for them the conquest was a crusade; the Irish Confederates had been supplied with arms and money by the Papacy and had welcomed the papal legate Pierfrancesco Scarampi and the Papal Nuncio Giovanni Battista Rinuccini in 1643–49.
By the end of the period, known as Confederate Ireland, in 1649 the only remaining Parliamentarian outpost in Ireland was in Dublin, under the command of Colonel Michael Jones. A combined Royalist and Confederate force under the Marquess of Ormonde gathered at Rathmines, south of Dublin, to take the city and deprive the Parliamentarians of a port in which they could land. Jones, launched a surprise attack on the Royalists while they were deploying on 2 August, putting them to flight. Jones claimed to have killed around 4,000 Royalist or Confederate soldiers and taken 2,517 prisoners. Oliver Cromwell called the battle "an astonishing mercy, so great and seasonable that we are like them that dreamed", as it meant that he had a secure port at which he could land his army in Ireland, that he retained the capital city. With Admiral Robert Blake blockading the remaining Royalist fleet under Prince Rupert of the Rhine in Kinsale, Cromwell landed on 15 August with thirty-five ships filled with troops and equipment.
Henry Ireton landed two days with a further seventy-seven ships. Ormonde's troops retreated from around Dublin in disarray, they were badly demoralised by their un
The Tudor conquest of Ireland took place under the Tudor dynasty, which held the Kingdom of England during the 16th century. Following a failed rebellion against the crown by Silken Thomas, the Earl of Kildare, in the 1530s, Henry VIII was declared King of Ireland in 1542 by statute of the Parliament of Ireland, with the aim of restoring such central authority as had been lost throughout the country during the previous two centuries. By conciliation and repression the conquest continued for sixty years, until 1603, when the entire country came under the nominal control of James I, exercised through his privy council at Dublin; this control was increased after the Flight of the Earls in 1607. The conquest was complicated by the imposition of English law and culture, as well as by the extension of Anglicanism as the state religion; the Spanish Empire intervened several times at the height of the Anglo-Spanish War, the Irish found themselves caught between their widespread acceptance of Papal authority and the requirements of allegiance demanded of them by the English monarchy.
Upon completion of the conquest, the polity of Gaelic Ireland had been destroyed and the Spanish were no longer willing to intervene directly. This left the way clear for extensive confiscation of land by English and Welsh colonists, culminating in the Plantation of Ulster. Ireland in 1500 was shaped by the Norman conquest, initiated by Anglo-Norman barons in the 12th century. Many of the native Gaelic Irish had been expelled from various parts of the country and replaced with English peasants and labourers. A large area on the east coast, extending from the Wicklow Mountains in the south to Dundalk in the north, became known as the Pale. Protected along much of its length by a ditch and rampart, the Pale was a defended area in which English language and culture predominated and where English law was enforced by a government in Dublin; the Gaelic Irish were, for the most part, outside English jurisdiction, maintaining their own language, social system and laws. The English referred to them as "His Majesty's Irish enemies".
In legal terms, they had never been admitted as subjects of the Crown. Ireland was not formally a realm, but rather a lordship; the rise of Gaelic influence resulted in the passing in 1366 of the Statutes of Kilkenny, which outlawed many social practices, developing apace. In the 15th century the Dublin government remained weak. Beyond the Pale, the authority of the Dublin government was tenuous; the Hiberno-Norman lords had been able to carve out fiefdoms for themselves but not to settle them with English tenants. As a result, in the 14th and 15th centuries, in the wake of Irish rebellion, Scottish invasion, the Black Death and a lack of interest on the part of the London government, the territories controlled by those lords achieved a high degree of independence; the Butlers and Burkes raised their own armed forces, enforced their own law, adopted Gaelic language and culture. Beyond those territories large areas of land held by authority of the English crown were taken by the resurgent Gaelic Irish in the north and midlands.
Among the most important septs were the O'Neills in central Ulster —flanked to their west by the O'Donnells—the O'Byrnes and O'Tooles in County Wicklow, the Kavanaghs in County Wexford, the MacCarthys and O'Sullivans in County Cork and County Kerry and the O'Brien lordship of Thomond in County Clare. By 1500, English monarchs had delegated government of Ireland to the most powerful of the Hiberno-Norman dynasties to keep the costs of running Ireland down and to protect the Pale; the King's Lord Deputy of Ireland was chief of the administration, based in Dublin Castle, but maintained no formal court and had a limited privy purse. In 1495 laws were passed during Poynings' parliament that imposed English statute law wholesale upon the lordship and compromised the independence of the Irish parliament; the head of the Kildare FitzGeralds held the position of lord deputy until 1534. The problem was that the House of Kildare had become unreliable for the English monarch, scheming with Yorkist pretenders to the English throne, signing private treaties with foreign powers, rebelling after the head of its hereditary rivals, the Butlers of Ormonde, was awarded the position of Lord Deputy.
The Reformation led to growing tension between England and Ireland as Protestantism gained sway within England. Thomas, Earl of Kildare, a fervent Catholic, offered control of Ireland to both the Pope and Emperor Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire. Henry put down the rebellion by executing the leader, along with several of his uncles, imprisoned Gearoid Og, the head of the family, but now the king had to find a replacement for the FitzGeralds to keep Ireland quiet. What was needed was a cost-effective new policy that protected the Pale and guaranteed the safety of England's vulnerable west flank from foreign invasion. With the assistance of Thomas Cromwell, the king implemented the policy of regrant; this extended Royal protection to all of Ireland's elite without regard to ethnicity. The keystone to the reform was in a statute passed by the Irish parliament in 1541
The Irish Confederate Wars called the Eleven Years' War, took place in Ireland between 1641 and 1653. It was the Irish theatre of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms – a series of civil wars in the kingdoms of Ireland and Scotland; the war in Ireland began with a rebellion in 1641 by Irish Catholics, who tried to seize control of the English administration in Ireland to force concessions for Catholics. This developed into an ethnic conflict between Gaelic Irish and old English Catholics on one side, English and Scottish Protestant colonists on the other. Catholic leaders formed the Irish Catholic Confederation in 1642, which controlled most of Ireland and was loosely aligned with the Royalists; the Confederates and Royalists fought against the English Parliamentarians and Scottish Covenanters. In 1649, a Parliamentarian army led by Oliver Cromwell invaded Ireland and by 1653 had conquered the island; the war was both a religious and an ethnic conflict – fought over who would govern Ireland, whether it would be governed from England, which ethnic and religious group would own most of the land, which religion would predominate in the country.
It was the most destructive conflict in Irish history. The war in Ireland began with the Rebellion of 1641 in Ulster in October, during which many Scots and English Protestant settlers were killed; the rebellion spread throughout the country and at Kilkenny in 1642 the Association of The Confederate Catholics of Ireland was formed to organise the Catholic war effort. The Confederation was an independent state and was a coalition of all shades of Irish Catholic society, both Gaelic and Old English; the Irish Confederates professed to side with the English Cavaliers during the ensuing civil wars, but fought their own war in defence of the Catholic landed class's interests. The Confederates ruled much of Ireland as a de facto sovereign state until 1649, proclaimed their loyalty to Charles I. From 1642 to 1649, the Confederates fought against Scottish Covenanter and English Parliamentarian armies in Ireland; the Confederates, in the context of the English Civil War, were loosely allied with the English Royalists, but were divided over whether to send military help to them in the war there.
They never sent troops to England, but did send an expedition to help the Scottish Royalists, sparking the Scottish Civil War. The wars produced an fractured array of forces in Ireland; the Protestant forces were split into three main factions as a result of the civil wars in England and Scotland. The Catholic Confederates themselves split on more than one occasion over the issue of whether their first loyalty was to the Catholic religion or to King Charles I; the wars ended in the defeat of the Confederates. They and their English Royalist allies were defeated during the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland by the New Model Army under Oliver Cromwell in 1649–53; the wars following the 1641 revolt caused massive loss of life in Ireland, comparable in the country's history only with the Great Famine of the 1840s. The ultimate winner, the English parliament, arranged for the mass confiscation of land owned by Irish Catholics as punishment for the rebellion and to pay for the war. Although some of this land was returned after 1660 on the Restoration of the monarchy in England, the period marked the effective end of the old Catholic landed class.
The rebellion was intended to be a swift and bloodless seizure of power in Ireland by a small group of conspirators led by Phelim O’Neill. Small bands of the plotter’s kin and dependents were mobilised in Dublin and Ulster, to take strategic buildings like Dublin Castle. Since there were only a small number of English soldiers stationed in Ireland, this had a reasonable chance of succeeding. Had it done so, the remaining English garrisons could well have surrendered, leaving Irish Catholics in a position of strength to negotiate their demands for civil reform, religious toleration and Irish self-government. However, the plot was betrayed at the last minute and as a result, the rebellion degenerated into chaotic violence. Following the outbreak of hostilities, the resentment of the native Irish Catholic population against the British Protestant settlers exploded into violence. Shortly after the outbreak of the rebellion, O'Neill issued the Proclamation of Dungannon which offered justification for the rising.
He claimed that he was acting on the orders of Charles I. From 1641 to early 1642, the fighting in Ireland was characterised by small bands, raised by local lords or among local people, attacking civilians of opposing ethnic and religious groups. At first, Irish Catholic bands from Ulster, took the opportunity given them by the collapse of law and order, to settle scores with Protestant settlers who had occupied Irish land in the plantations of Ireland; the Irish Catholic gentry raised militia forces to try and contain the violence but afterwards, when it was clear that the government in Dublin intended to punish all Catholics for the rebellion, participated in the attacks on Protestants and fought English troops sent to put down the rebellion. In areas where British settlers were concentrated, around Cork, Dublin and Derry, they raised their own militia in self-defence and managed to hold off the rebel forces. All sides displayed extreme cruelty in this phase of the war. Around 4,000 Protestants were massacred and a further 12,000 may have died of privation after being driven from their homes.
In one notorious incident, the Protestant inhabitants of Portadown were taken captive and massacred on the bridge in the to
The Irish Civil War was a conflict that followed the Irish War of Independence and accompanied the establishment of the Irish Free State, an entity independent from the United Kingdom but within the British Empire. The civil war was waged between two opposing groups, the pro-treaty Provisional Government and the anti-treaty IRA, over the Anglo-Irish Treaty; the forces of the Provisional Government supported the Treaty, while the Republican opposition saw it as a betrayal of the Irish Republic. Many of those who fought on both sides in the conflict had been members of the Irish Republican Army during the War of Independence; the Civil War was won by the Free State forces, who benefitted from substantial quantities of weapons provided by the British Government. The conflict may have claimed more lives than the War of Independence that preceded it, left Irish society divided and embittered for generations. Today, two of the main political parties in the Republic of Ireland, Fianna Fáil and Fine Gael, are direct descendants of the opposing sides of the war.
The Anglo-Irish Treaty was agreed to end the 1919–1921 Irish War of Independence between the Irish Republic and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. The treaty provided for a self-governing Irish state, having its own police; the Treaty allowed Northern Ireland to opt out of the new state and return to the United Kingdom – which it did immediately. However, rather than creating the independent republic favoured by most nationalists, the Irish Free State would be an autonomous dominion of the British Empire with the British monarch as head of state, in the same manner as Canada and Australia; the British suggested dominion status in secret correspondence before treaty negotiations began, but Sinn Féin leader Éamon de Valera rejected the dominion. The treaty stipulated that members of the new Irish Oireachtas would have to take the following "Oath of Allegiance" I... do solemnly swear true faith and allegiance to the Constitution of the Irish Free State as by law established, that I will be faithful to His Majesty King George V, his heirs and successors by law in virtue of the common citizenship of Ireland with Great Britain and her adherence to and membership of the group of nations forming the British Commonwealth of nations.
This oath was objectionable to many Irish Republicans. Furthermore, the partition of Ireland, decided by the Westminster parliament in the Government of Ireland Act 1920, was confirmed in the Anglo-Irish treaty; the most contentious areas of the Treaty for the IRA were the disestablishment of the Irish Republic declared in 1919, the abandonment of the First Dáil, the status of the Irish Free State as a dominion in the British Commonwealth and the British retention of the strategic Treaty Ports on Ireland's south western and north western coasts which were to remain occupied by the Royal Navy. All these issues were the cause of a split in the IRA and civil war. Michael Collins, the republican leader who had led the Irish negotiating team, argued that the treaty gave "not the ultimate freedom that all nations aspire and develop, but the freedom to achieve freedom". However, anti-treaty militants in 1922 believed that the treaty would never deliver full Irish independence; the split over the treaty was personal.
Many of the leaders on both sides had been close friends and comrades during the War of Independence. This made their disagreement over the treaty all the more bitter. Michael Collins said that Éamon de Valera had sent him as plenipotentiary to negotiate the treaty because he knew that the British would not concede an independent Irish republic and wanted Collins to take the blame for the compromise settlement, he said that he felt betrayed when de Valera refused to stand by the agreement that the plenipotentiaries had negotiated with David Lloyd George and Winston Churchill. De Valera, for his part, was furious that Collins and Arthur Griffith had signed the treaty without consulting him or the Irish cabinet as instructed. Dáil Éireann narrowly passed the Anglo-Irish Treaty by 64 votes to 57 on 7 January 1922. Following the Treaty's ratification, in accordance with article 17 of the Treaty, the British-recognised Provisional Government of the Irish Free State was established, its authority under the Treaty was to provide a "provisional arrangement for the administration of Southern Ireland during the interval" before the establishment of the Irish Free State.
In accordance with the Treaty, the British Government transferred "the powers and machinery requisite for the discharge of its duties". Before the British Government transferred such powers, the members of the Provisional Government each "signified in writing acceptance of ". Upon the Treaty's ratification, de Valera resigned as President of the Republic and failed to be re-elected by an closer vote of 60–58, he challenged the right of the Dáil to approve the treaty, saying that its members were breaking their oath to the Irish Republic. De Valera continued to promote a compromise whereby the new Irish Free State would be in "external association" with the British Commonwealth rather than be a member of it. In early March, he formed the "Cumann na Poblachta" party while remaining a member of Sinn Féin and commenced a s
Dublin is the capital and largest city of Ireland. It is on the east coast of Ireland, in the province of Leinster, at the mouth of the River Liffey, is bordered on the south by the Wicklow Mountains, it has an urban area population of 1,173,179, while the population of the Dublin Region, as of 2016, was 1,347,359, the population of the Greater Dublin area was 1,904,806. There is archaeological debate regarding where Dublin was established by the Gaels in or before the 7th century AD. Expanded as a Viking settlement, the Kingdom of Dublin, the city became Ireland's principal settlement following the Norman invasion; the city expanded from the 17th century and was the second largest city in the British Empire before the Acts of Union in 1800. Following the partition of Ireland in 1922, Dublin became the capital of the Irish Free State renamed Ireland. Dublin is a historical and contemporary centre for education, the arts and industry; as of 2018 the city was listed by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network as a global city, with a ranking of "Alpha −", which places it amongst the top thirty cities in the world.
The name Dublin comes from the Irish word Dubhlinn, early Classical Irish Dubhlind/Duibhlind, from dubh meaning "black, dark", lind "pool", referring to a dark tidal pool. This tidal pool was located where the River Poddle entered the Liffey, on the site of the castle gardens at the rear of Dublin Castle. In Modern Irish the name is Duibhlinn, Irish rhymes from County Dublin show that in Dublin Leinster Irish it was pronounced Duílinn; the original pronunciation is preserved in the names for the city in other languages such as Old English Difelin, Old Norse Dyflin, modern Icelandic Dyflinn and modern Manx Divlyn as well as Welsh Dulyn. Other localities in Ireland bear the name Duibhlinn, variously anglicized as Devlin and Difflin. Scribes using the Gaelic script wrote bh with a dot over the b, rendering Duḃlinn or Duiḃlinn; those without knowledge of Irish omitted the dot. Variations on the name are found in traditionally Gaelic-speaking areas of Scotland, such as An Linne Dhubh, part of Loch Linnhe.
It is now thought that the Viking settlement was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, from which Dyflin took its name. Beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements; the Viking settlement of about 841, a Gaelic settlement, Áth Cliath further up river, at the present day Father Mathew Bridge, at the bottom of Church Street. Baile Átha Cliath, meaning "town of the hurdled ford", is the common name for the city in modern Irish. Áth Cliath is a place name referring to a fording point of the River Liffey near Father Mathew Bridge. Baile Átha Cliath was an early Christian monastery, believed to have been in the area of Aungier Street occupied by Whitefriar Street Carmelite Church. There are other towns of the same name, such as Àth Cliath in East Ayrshire, Anglicised as Hurlford; the area of Dublin Bay has been inhabited by humans since prehistoric times, but the writings of Ptolemy in about AD 140 provide the earliest reference to a settlement there.
He called it Eblana polis. Dublin celebrated its'official' millennium in 1988, meaning the Irish government recognised 988 as the year in which the city was settled and that this first settlement would become the city of Dublin, it is now thought the Viking settlement of about 841 was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, from which Dyflin took its name. Beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements which became the modern Dublin; the subsequent Scandinavian settlement centred on the River Poddle, a tributary of the Liffey in an area now known as Wood Quay. The Dubhlinn was a pool on the lowest stretch of the Poddle, used to moor ships; this pool was fully infilled during the early 18th century, as the city grew. The Dubhlinn lay where the Castle Garden is now located, opposite the Chester Beatty Library within Dublin Castle. Táin Bó Cuailgne refers to Dublind rissa ratter Áth Cliath, meaning "Dublin, called Ath Cliath". Dublin was established as a Viking settlement in the 10th century and, despite a number of attacks by the native Irish, it remained under Viking control until the Norman invasion of Ireland was launched from Wales in 1169.
It was upon the death of Muirchertach Mac Lochlainn in early 1166 that Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair, King of Connacht, proceeded to Dublin and was inaugurated King of Ireland without opposition. According to some historians, part of the city's early economic growth is attributed to a trade in slaves. Slavery in Ireland and Dublin reached its pinnacle in the 10th centuries. Prisoners from slave raids and kidnappings, which captured men and children, brought revenue to the Gaelic Irish Sea raiders, as well as to the Vikings who had initiated the practice; the victims came from Wales, England and beyond. The King of Leinster, Diarmait Mac Murchada, after his exile by Ruaidhrí, enlisted the help of Strongbow, the Earl of Pembroke, to conquer Dublin. Following Mac Murrough's death, Strongbow declared himself King of Leinster after gaining control of the city. In response to Strongbow's successful invasion, King Henry II of England affirmed his ultimate sovereignty by mou