Cabo San Lucas
Cabo San Lucas, or Cabo, is a resort city at the southern tip of the Baja California Peninsula, in the Mexican state of Baja California Sur. As of 2015, the population of the city was 81,111 inhabitants. Cabo San Lucas together with San José del Cabo is known as Los Cabos. Together they form a metropolitan area of 305,983 inhabitants. Cabo has been rated as one of Mexico's top 5 tourist destinations; the Los Cabos Corridor has become a trafficked vacation destination for tourists, with numerous resorts and timeshares along the coast between Cabo San Lucas and San José del Cabo. Cabo houses a range of wildlife, including rays, birds, a range of fish, such as mahi-mahi, striped marlin. Archaeological excavations have shown evidence of continual human habitation in the area for at least 10,000 years; when the first Europeans arrived, they encountered the Pericú people, who survived on a subsistence diet based on hunting and gathering seeds, roots and other marine resources. They called the location Yenecamú.
According to the narrative of Hatsutaro, a Japanese castaway, in the book Kaigai Ibun, when he arrived at Cabo San Lucas in May 1842, there were only two houses and about 20 inhabitants. However, American authors such as Henry Edwards and John Ross Browne claim that Cabo San Lucas's founder was an Englishman named Thomas "Old Tom" Ritchie. John Ross Browne says Ritchie arrived there about 1828, while Edwards says that he died in October 1874; the actual founder of Cabo San Lucas was Cipriano Ceseña in 1788 who arrived from Hermosillo, Sonora. Per The book by Pablo L. Martinez, Guia Familiar de Baja California 1700-1900. A fishing village began growing in the area. In 1917, an American company built a floating platform to catch tuna, ten years founded Compañía de Productos Marinos S. A; the plant operated for several years. Cabo San Lucas has become a prominent vacation and spa destination, with a variety of sites of interest and timeshares that have been built on the coast between San Lucas and San José del Cabo.
The distinctive Arco de Cabo San Lucas is a local landmark. Cabo San Lucas has the highest paying marlin tournament in the world called the "Bisbee's Los Cabos Offshore"; this tournament takes place every year in the month of October. In the winter, pods of whales can be observed in the area, they bear their calves in the warm waters of the Gulf of California after completing their 6000-mile migration from Alaska and Siberia. The beaches and sport fishing opportunities in Cabo San Lucas have attracted a great number of Mexican natives and foreigners to spend their vacations in large-scale tourist developments there; the development of Cabo's tourism industry was prompted by the Mexican government's development of infrastructure to turn Cabo San Lucas into a major center for tourism in Mexico, beginning in 1974. Upon completion of the Transpeninsular Highway known as the Mexican Federal Highway 1, tourist developments in Los Cabos proceeded unchecked; until recently, the unique and fragile environment of this part of Mexico was unprotected by law, therefore was subjected to developers acting in concert with government agencies interested only in low-end tourist bonanzas.
There is, however, a growing collection of activists and attorneys now involved in preserving many of Baja's desert habitats, marine mammals, stretches of coastline. A number of agencies including the Gulf of California Conservation Fund and the Center for Environmental Law in La Paz are challenging the destruction of wetlands and other ecosystems from Los Cabos to Ensenada. In the face of a growing international public demand for corporate-driven ecological stewardship, higher-end resorts in the Los Cabos area are sensitive to their environmental impact, are taking initial steps to institute sustainable practices such as reducing water usage and non-recyclable trash output. In 2017 Los Cabos is projected to be one of the leaders in travel in Latin America, many of the developments owed to its increased accessibility with added plane routes from the US and Canada, it is expected that by 2018 4,000 new sleeping rooms will come online in Cabo, the increase in tourism will contribute to its growth as a leader in leisure.
Cabo San Lucas and San José del Cabo are served by Los Cabos International Airport. The town is a popular port of call for many cruise ships. Cabo San Lucas has a small international airfield, which handles air traffic for general aviation flights and air taxi service. Many tourists get around the area through the numerous local taxis that service the primary parts of Cabo, as well as the Corridor and the airport. Alternatively, there is a system of small buses that are used by locals but available to tourists, costing a few pesos tend to be much less expensive than the taxis. Clubs in Cabo include the Cabo Wabo Cantina, a nightclub owned by rock star Sammy Hagar, founded by himself and other members of Van Halen, named after their hit single Cabo Wabo. There is the Baja Brewing Company, Pink Kitty Nightclub, Mandala, El Squid Roe, Giggling Marlin, Nowhere Bar, Tiki Bar, the Usual Suspects and the Jungle Bar. Restaurants in downtown Cabo include Edith's, Hacienda Cocina y Cantina, Sunset da Mona Lisa.
Tourists can ride horses through the desert, charter a boat for fishing and parasail on the beach. The English-language newspaper for Cabo San Lucas, the biweekly "Gringo Gazette", has news on tourist activities in Cabo San Lu
Chantiers de l'Atlantique
Chantiers de l'Atlantique, is a shipyard in Saint-Nazaire, France. It is one of the world's largest shipyards, constructing a wide range of commercial and passenger ships, it is located near Nantes, at the mouth of the Loire river and the deep waters of the Atlantic which make the sailing of large ships in and out of the shipyards easy. The shipyard was owned by Alstom from 1976 onwards, became Alstom-Atlantique and was part of Aker Yards when Aker Group acquired the Alstom Marine business in 2006. In 2008, the South Korean company STX Corporation acquired Aker Yards, the shipyard became part of STX Europe. A plan exists and is under review by the EU's Competition Bureau for Italy's Fincantieri to acquire a 50% stake in the shipyard. After the bankruptcy of STX Corporation, the shipyard reverted to its original Chantiers de l'Atlantique name. Ateliers et Chantiers de la Loire and Ateliers et Chantiers de Penhoët merged in 1955 to form Chantiers de l'Atlantique; the yard started by building ships for the French transatlantic line Compagnie Générale Transatlantique.
In 1961, it built the trans-Atlantic superliner SS France the world's longest passenger vessel. After the construction of the last Compagnie Générale Transatlantique liner and the closure of the Suez Canal, the yard began building large tankers, including Batillus, Pierre Guillaumat and Prairial. A new dry dock was built for this purpose and would have allowed the construction of tankers over 1,000,000 tonnes, but it remained unused between the 1970s and the construction of two cruise ships for Holland America Line and Niuwe Amsterdam in 1983 and 1984. From 1985 to end of 1998 it was a series of cruise ships for RCCL starting with the Sovereign of the Seas delivered in 87, the first of the Mega cruise ship in the world. Followed Monarch of the Seas and Majesty of the Seas RCCl. Nordic Empress in 1990. In 1995 leveres Legend of the Seas, the first of 4 Vision class ships to be built at CA, she is followed by Splendour in 1996, Rhapsody in 1997 and Vision in 1998. The "Queen Mary 2" in 2003, Chantiers de l'Atlantique delivered the luxury cruise ship, Crystal Serenity of Crystal Cruises in July 2003.
The yard built built the superliner RMS Queen Mary 2 for the Cunard Line in 2003. Near the end of the construction period a gangway to the dry-docked ship collapsed killing 16 people. Aker Yards and Alstom announced on 4 January 2006 their intention to join forces in shipbuilding and create together one of the world leaders in this industry, focused on high-value-added ships, including world-class cruise ships. Aker ASA sold its interest in the Chantiers de l'Atlantique shipyard to the South Korean company STX Corporation in 2008, the shipyard became part of STX Europe; the same year, the French government took a 33.34% stake in the shipyard. After the bankruptcy of STX Corporation in 2016, STX France was put up for sale and the Italian state-owned shipyard Fincantieri showed interest in acquiring STX France. After difficult negotiations and a brief nationalisation by the French government, the involved parties reached an agreement in September 2017, with Fincantieri Fincantieri acquiring 50% of the share capital and the remainder being held by the French Naval Group and the French government.
In October 2017, it was announced that the Saint-Nazaire shipyard would regain its original name: Chantiers de l'Atlantique. Ships built by Chantiers de l'Atlantique include: SS Normandie, Entered service in 1935, world's largest ship until Cunard's Queen Elizabeth, held Blue Riband. Capsized in New York Harbor, 1942. Scrapped in NJ, 1946. Sans Souci class 4 sloops, designed as seaplane tenders, but built as escorts, all launched in 1940; the BELLE ABETO Built 1952 as LAENNEC 66 BELLE ABETO Passenger/cargo Ship. SS France, launched in 1961, the world's longest passenger ship from 1961 to 2004, became the SS Norway. MS Ancerville, a former passenger ship built in 1962, integrated as part of Sea World, a multi-purpose complex in Shenzhen, China since 1983. SS Shalom ZIM Israel flagship 1964 MS Renaissance, a French cruiseliner that entered service in 1966 for service on the Marseilles-Haifa route. Batillus class supertankers, 4 ships launched 1976-9 MV Gastor and MV Nestor: two LNG carriers built in 1976-1977 for the Dutch NSU and Ocean Group now owned by Bonny Gas Transport.
The large drydock, used for the Queen Mary 2, was specially built for the building of supertankers in the 1970s, among which these two ships. The drydock was never used again; the MS Thomson Spirit the MS Nieuw Amsterdam was finished by Chantiers de l'Atlantique in 1983, for the Holland America Line. MV Bretagne, Brittany Ferries ship that operates between Portsmouth and St Malo, was launched in 1989. Royal Caribbean International's MS Sovereign of the Seas, the largest cruise ship in the world from 1988 to 1990, its sister ships, MS Monarch of the Seas and MS Majesty of the Seas. MS Dreamward entered service in 1992. MS Windward entered service in 1993. MS Paul Gauguin sailing in French Polynesia. Grand Mistral entered service in 1999. Nowadays, it is operated by Ibero Cruceros. Ocean Princess Tahitian Princess, was launched in 1999. Pacific Princess is a sister ship to Ocean Princess. GTS Millennium sailed by Celebrity Cruises. MV Adonia Royal Princess R8, was launched in 2001. Seven Seas Mariner operated by Regent Seven Seas Cruises.
This is the world's first all balcony luxury cruise ship. Coral Princess launched in 2002 by Princess Cruises Island Princess launched in 2003 by Pr
RMS Olympic was a British transatlantic crossing ocean liner, the lead ship of the White Star Line's trio of Olympic-class liners. Unlike the other ships in the class, Olympic had a long career spanning 24 years from 1911 to 1935; this included service as a troopship during the First World War, which gained her the nickname "Old Reliable". She returned to civilian service after the war and served as an ocean liner throughout the 1920s and into the first half of the 1930s, although increased competition, the slump in trade during the Great Depression after 1930, made her operation unprofitable. Olympic was the largest ocean liner in the world for two periods during 1911–13, interrupted only by the brief tenure of the larger Titanic, before she was surpassed by SS Imperator. Olympic retained the title of the largest British-built liner until RMS Queen Mary was launched in 1934, interrupted only by the short careers of her larger sister ships; the Olympic was withdrawn from service and sold for scrap in 1935.
Decorative elements of Olympic were removed and sold at auction before she was scrapped, now adorn buildings and a cruise ship. By contrast with Olympic, the other two ships in the class and Britannic, did not have long service lives. Titanic collided with an iceberg in the North Atlantic on her maiden voyage and sank, while Britannic struck a mine and sank in the Kea Channel in Greece in 1916. Britannic never served her intended role as a passenger ship. Built in Belfast, Olympic was the first of the three Olympic-class ocean liners – the others were Titanic and Britannic, they were by far the largest vessels of the British shipping company White Star Line's fleet, which comprised 29 steamers and tenders in 1912. The three ships had their genesis in a discussion in mid-1907 between the White Star Line's chairman, J. Bruce Ismay, the American financier J. Pierpont Morgan, who controlled the White Star Line's parent corporation, the International Mercantile Marine Co; the White Star Line faced a growing challenge from its main rivals Cunard, which had just launched Lusitania and Mauretania – the fastest passenger ships in service – and the German lines Hamburg America and Norddeutscher Lloyd.
Ismay preferred to compete on size and economics rather than speed and proposed to commission a new class of liners that would be bigger than anything that had gone before as well as being the last word in comfort and luxury. The company sought an upgrade in their fleet in response to the Cunard giants but to replace their largest and now outclassed ships from 1890, RMS Teutonic and RMS Majestic; the former was replaced by Olympic. Majestic would be brought back into her old spot on White Star's New York service after Titanic's loss; the ships were constructed by the Belfast shipbuilders Harland and Wolff, who had a long established relationship with the White Star Line dating back to 1867. Harland and Wolff were given a great deal of latitude in designing ships for the White Star Line. Cost considerations were low on the agenda and Harland and Wolff was authorised to spend what it needed on the ships, plus a five percent profit margin. In the case of the Olympic-class ships, a cost of £3 million for the first two ships was agreed plus "extras to contract" and the usual five percent fee.
Harland and Wolff put their leading designers to work designing the Olympic-class vessels. It was overseen by a director of both Harland and Wolff and the White Star Line. Carlisle's responsibilities included the decorations and all general arrangements, including the implementation of an efficient lifeboat davit design. On 29 July 1908, Harland and Wolff presented the drawings to Bruce Ismay and other White Star Line executives. Ismay approved the design and signed three "letters of agreement" two days authorising the start of construction. At this point the first ship –, to become Olympic – had no name, but was referred to as "Number 400", as it was Harland and Wolff's four hundredth hull. Titanic was based on a revised version of the same design and was given the number 401. Bruce Ismay's father Thomas Henry Ismay had planned to build a ship named Olympic as a sister ship to Oceanic; the senior Ismay died in 1899 and the order for the ship was cancelled. Construction of Olympic began three months before Titanic to ease pressures on the shipyard.
Several years would pass. In order to accommodate the construction of the class and Wolff upgraded their facility in Belfast. Olympic and Titanic were constructed side by side. Olympic's keel was laid on 16 December 1908 and she was launched on 20 October 1910, without having been christened beforehand. For her launch, the hull was painted in a light grey colour for photographic purposes, her hull was repainted black following the launch. The ship was dry-docked for her fitting out (at the moment of the launching, the ship was an empty shell, without mac
Athens is the capital and largest city of Greece. Athens dominates the Attica region and is one of the world's oldest cities, with its recorded history spanning over 3,400 years and its earliest human presence starting somewhere between the 11th and 7th millennium BC. Classical Athens was a powerful city-state that emerged in conjunction with the seagoing development of the port of Piraeus, a distinct city prior to its 5th century BC incorporation with Athens. A center for the arts and philosophy, home of Plato's Academy and Aristotle's Lyceum, it is referred to as the cradle of Western civilization and the birthplace of democracy because of its cultural and political impact on the European continent, in particular the Romans. In modern times, Athens is a large cosmopolitan metropolis and central to economic, industrial, maritime and cultural life in Greece. In 2012, Athens was ranked the world's 39th richest city by purchasing power and the 67th most expensive in a UBS study. Athens is a global one of the biggest economic centres in southeastern Europe.
It has a large financial sector, its port Piraeus is both the largest passenger port in Europe, the second largest in the world. While at the same time being the sixth busiest passenger port in Europe; the Municipality of Athens had a population of 664,046 within its administrative limits, a land area of 38.96 km2. The urban area of Athens extends beyond its administrative municipal city limits, with a population of 3,090,508 over an area of 412 km2. According to Eurostat in 2011, the functional urban area of Athens was the 9th most populous FUA in the European Union, with a population of 3.8 million people. Athens is the southernmost capital on the European mainland; the heritage of the classical era is still evident in the city, represented by ancient monuments and works of art, the most famous of all being the Parthenon, considered a key landmark of early Western civilization. The city retains Roman and Byzantine monuments, as well as a smaller number of Ottoman monuments. Athens is home to two UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the Acropolis of Athens and the medieval Daphni Monastery.
Landmarks of the modern era, dating back to the establishment of Athens as the capital of the independent Greek state in 1834, include the Hellenic Parliament and the so-called "architectural trilogy of Athens", consisting of the National Library of Greece, the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens and the Academy of Athens. Athens is home to several museums and cultural institutions, such as the National Archeological Museum, featuring the world's largest collection of ancient Greek antiquities, the Acropolis Museum, the Museum of Cycladic Art, the Benaki Museum and the Byzantine and Christian Museum. Athens was the host city of the first modern-day Olympic Games in 1896, 108 years it welcomed home the 2004 Summer Olympics, making it one of only a handful of cities to have hosted the Olympics more than once. In Ancient Greek, the name of the city was Ἀθῆναι a plural. In earlier Greek, such as Homeric Greek, the name had been current in the singular form though, as Ἀθήνη, it was rendered in the plural on, like those of Θῆβαι and Μυκῆναι.
The root of the word is not of Greek or Indo-European origin, is a remnant of the Pre-Greek substrate of Attica. In antiquity, it was debated whether Athens took its name from its patron goddess Athena or Athena took her name from the city. Modern scholars now agree that the goddess takes her name from the city, because the ending -ene is common in names of locations, but rare for personal names. During the medieval period, the name of the city was rendered once again in the singular as Ἀθήνα. However, after the establishment of the modern Greek state, due to the conservatism of the written language, Ἀθῆναι became again the official name of the city and remained so until the abandonment of Katharevousa in the 1970s, when Ἀθήνα, Athína, became the official name. According to the ancient Athenian founding myth, the goddess of wisdom, competed against Poseidon, the god of the seas, for patronage of the yet-unnamed city. According to the account given by Pseudo-Apollodorus, Poseidon struck the ground with his trident and a salt water spring welled up.
In an alternative version of the myth from Vergil's Georgics, Poseidon instead gave the Athenians the first horse. In both versions, Athena offered the Athenians the first domesticated olive tree. Cecrops declared Athena the patron goddess of Athens. Different etymologies, now rejected, were proposed during the 19th century. Christian Lobeck proposed as the root of the name the word ἄθος or ἄνθος meaning "flower", to denote Athens as the "flowering city". Ludwig von Döderlein proposed the stem of the verb θάω, stem θη- to denote Athens as having fertile soil. In classical literature, the city was sometimes referred to as the City of the Violet Crown, first documented in Pindar's ἰοστέφανοι Ἀθᾶναι, or as τὸ κλεινὸν ἄστυ. In medieval texts, variant names include Setines and Astines, all derivations involving false splitting of p
Turbo-electric transmission uses electric generators to convert the mechanical energy of a turbine into electric energy and electric motors to convert it back into mechanical energy to power the driveshafts. Turbo-electric drives are used in some rail ships. An advantage of turbo-electric transmission is that it allows the adaptation of high-speed turning turbines to the turning propellers or wheels without the need of a heavy and complex gearbox, it has the advantage of being able to provide electricity for the ship or train's other electrical systems, such as lighting, computers and communications equipment. Colorado-class USS New Mexico Tennessee-class USS Langley Lexington-class Buckley-class Rudderow-class Admiral W. S. Benson-class transports Gilliam-class attack transports USS Glenard P. Lipscomb USS Tullibee Triomphant-class submarines Columbia-class submarines Suamico-class oilers Tampa-class cutters USCGC Haida, USCGC Modoc, USCGC Mojave and USCGC Tampa. California and Virginia Canberra – the most powerful steam turbo-electric units in a passenger ship, 42,500 shp per shaft, 2 shafts RMS Mooltan Morro Castle and Oriente Normandie – most powerful steam turbo-electric passenger ship 40,000 shp per shaft, 4 shafts Potsdam and Scharnhorst President Cleveland and President Wilson President Hoover and President Coolidge RMS Queen Mary 2 – powered by General Electric gas turbines as well as her diesel generators to generate the current for her four Rolls-Royce electric podded azimuth thrusters Santa Clara Strath-class ocean liners RMS Strathnaver and RMS Strathaird RMS Viceroy of India Cuba, converted to turbo-electric transmission in 1920 Princess Marguerite and Princess Patricia TEV Wahine TEV Rangatira – the World's last steam-powered turbo-electric merchant ship.
"Turboelectric drive in American Capital Ships". The Naval Technical Board. NavWeaps. Draper, John L. "The Paddle Wheel to Electric Drive". Popular Mechanics: 898–902. — detailed article with drawing and charts on turbo-electric drive for ships and the advantages
Vancouver is a coastal seaport city in western Canada, located in the Lower Mainland region of British Columbia. As the most populous city in the province, the 2016 census recorded 631,486 people in the city, up from 603,502 in 2011; the Greater Vancouver area had a population of 2,463,431 in 2016, making it the third-largest metropolitan area in Canada. Vancouver has the highest population density in Canada with over 5,400 people per square kilometre, which makes it the fifth-most densely populated city with over 250,000 residents in North America behind New York City, San Francisco, Mexico City according to the 2011 census. Vancouver is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse cities in Canada according to that census. 30% of the city's inhabitants are of Chinese heritage. Vancouver is classed as a Beta global city. Vancouver is named as one of the top five worldwide cities for livability and quality of life, the Economist Intelligence Unit acknowledged it as the first city ranked among the top-ten of the world's most well-living cities for five consecutive years.
Vancouver has hosted many international conferences and events, including the 1954 British Empire and Commonwealth Games, UN Habitat I, Expo 86, the World Police and Fire Games in 1989 and 2009. In 2014, following thirty years in California, the TED conference made Vancouver its indefinite home. Several matches of the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup were played in Vancouver, including the final at BC Place; the original settlement, named Gastown, grew up on clearcuts on the west edge of the Hastings Mill logging sawmill's property, where a makeshift tavern had been set up on a plank between two stumps and the proprietor, Gassy Jack, persuaded the curious millworkers to build him a tavern, on July 1, 1867. From that first enterprise, other stores and some hotels appeared along the waterfront to the west. Gastown became formally laid out as a registered townsite dubbed Granville, B. I.. As part of the land and political deal whereby the area of the townsite was made the railhead of the Canadian Pacific Railway, it was renamed "Vancouver" and incorporated shortly thereafter as a city, in 1886.
By 1887, the Canadian Pacific transcontinental railway was extended westward to the city to take advantage of its large natural seaport to the Pacific Ocean, which soon became a vital link in a trade route between the Orient / East Asia, Eastern Canada, Europe. As of 2014, Port Metro Vancouver is the third-largest port by tonnage in the Americas, 27th in the world, the busiest and largest in Canada, the most diversified port in North America. While forestry remains its largest industry, Vancouver is well known as an urban centre surrounded by nature, making tourism its second-largest industry. Major film production studios in Vancouver and nearby Burnaby have turned Greater Vancouver and nearby areas into one of the largest film production centres in North America, earning it the nickname "Hollywood North"; the city takes its name from George Vancouver, who explored the inner harbour of Burrard Inlet in 1792 and gave various places British names. The family name "Vancouver" itself originates from the Dutch "Van Coevorden", denoting somebody from the city of Coevorden, Netherlands.
The explorer's ancestors came to England "from Coevorden", the origin of the name that became "Vancouver". Archaeological records indicate that Aboriginal people were living in the "Vancouver" area from 8,000 to 10,000 years ago; the city is located in the traditional and presently unceded territories of the Squamish and Tseil-Waututh peoples of the Coast Salish group. They had villages in various parts of present-day Vancouver, such as Stanley Park, False Creek, Point Grey and near the mouth of the Fraser River. Europeans became acquainted with the area of the future Vancouver when José María Narváez of Spain explored the coast of present-day Point Grey and parts of Burrard Inlet in 1791—although one author contends that Francis Drake may have visited the area in 1579; the explorer and North West Company trader Simon Fraser and his crew became the first-known Europeans to set foot on the site of the present-day city. In 1808, they travelled from the east down the Fraser River as far as Point Grey.
The Fraser Gold Rush of 1858 brought over 25,000 men from California, to nearby New Westminster on the Fraser River, on their way to the Fraser Canyon, bypassing what would become Vancouver. Vancouver is among British Columbia's youngest cities. A sawmill established at Moodyville in 1863, began the city's long relationship with logging, it was followed by mills owned by Captain Edward Stamp on the south shore of the inlet. Stamp, who had begun logging in the Port Alberni area, first attempted to run a mill at Brockton Point, but difficult currents and reefs forced the relocation of the operation in 1867 to a point near the foot of Dunlevy Street; this mill, known as the Hastings Mill, became the nucleus. The mill's central role in the city waned after the arrival of the Canadian Pacific Railway in the 1880s, it remained important to the local economy until it closed in the 1920s. The settlement which came to be called Gastown grew around
Alaska is a U. S. state in the northwest extremity of North America, just across the Bering Strait from Asia. The Canadian province of British Columbia and territory of Yukon border the state to the east and southeast, its most extreme western part is Attu Island, it has a maritime border with Russia to the west across the Bering Strait. To the north are the Chukchi and Beaufort seas—southern parts of the Arctic Ocean; the Pacific Ocean lies to southwest. It is the largest U. S. state by the seventh largest subnational division in the world. In addition, it is the most sparsely populated of the 50 United States. Half of Alaska's residents live within the Anchorage metropolitan area. Alaska's economy is dominated by the fishing, natural gas, oil industries, resources which it has in abundance. Military bases and tourism are a significant part of the economy; the United States purchased Alaska from the Russian Empire on March 30, 1867, for 7.2 million U. S. dollars at two cents per acre. The area went through several administrative changes before becoming organized as a territory on May 11, 1912.
It was admitted as the 49th state of the U. S. on January 3, 1959. The name "Alaska" was introduced in the Russian colonial period when it was used to refer to the Alaska Peninsula, it was derived from an Aleut-language idiom. It means object to which the action of the sea is directed. Alaska is the northernmost and westernmost state in the United States and has the most easterly longitude in the United States because the Aleutian Islands extend into the Eastern Hemisphere. Alaska is the only non-contiguous U. S. state on continental North America. It is technically part of the continental U. S. but is sometimes not included in colloquial use. S. called "the Lower 48". The capital city, Juneau, is situated on the mainland of the North American continent but is not connected by road to the rest of the North American highway system; the state is bordered by Yukon and British Columbia in Canada, to the east, the Gulf of Alaska and the Pacific Ocean to the south and southwest, the Bering Sea, Bering Strait, Chukchi Sea to the west and the Arctic Ocean to the north.
Alaska's territorial waters touch Russia's territorial waters in the Bering Strait, as the Russian Big Diomede Island and Alaskan Little Diomede Island are only 3 miles apart. Alaska has a longer coastline than all the other U. S. states combined. Alaska is the largest state in the United States by total area at 663,268 square miles, over twice the size of Texas, the next largest state. Alaska is larger than all but 18 sovereign countries. Counting territorial waters, Alaska is larger than the combined area of the next three largest states: Texas and Montana, it is larger than the combined area of the 22 smallest U. S. states. There are no defined borders demarcating the various regions of Alaska, but there are six accepted regions: The most populous region of Alaska, containing Anchorage, the Matanuska-Susitna Valley and the Kenai Peninsula. Rural unpopulated areas south of the Alaska Range and west of the Wrangell Mountains fall within the definition of South Central, as do the Prince William Sound area and the communities of Cordova and Valdez.
Referred to as the Panhandle or Inside Passage, this is the region of Alaska closest to the rest of the United States. As such, this was where most of the initial non-indigenous settlement occurred in the years following the Alaska Purchase; the region is dominated by the Alexander Archipelago as well as the Tongass National Forest, the largest national forest in the United States. It contains the state capital Juneau, the former capital Sitka, Ketchikan, at one time Alaska's largest city; the Alaska Marine Highway provides a vital surface transportation link throughout the area, as only three communities enjoy direct connections to the contiguous North American road system. Designated in 1963; the Interior is the largest region of Alaska. Fairbanks is the only large city in the region. Denali National Park and Preserve is located here. Denali is the highest mountain in North America. Southwest Alaska is a sparsely inhabited region stretching some 500 miles inland from the Bering Sea. Most of the population lives along the coast.
Kodiak Island is located in Southwest. The massive Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta, one of the largest river deltas in the world, is here. Portions of the Alaska Peninsula are considered part of Southwest, with the remaining portions included with the Aleutian Islands; the North Slope is tundra peppered with small villages. The area is known for its massive reserves of crude oil, contains both the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska and the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field; the city of Utqiagvik known as Barrow, is the northernmost city in the United States and is located here. The Northwest Arctic area, anchored by Kotzebue and containing the Kobuk River valley, is regarded as being part of this region. However, the respective Inupiat of the No