The 200 metres is a sprint running event. On an outdoor 400 m track, the race begins on the curve and ends on the home straight, a slightly shorter race, called the stadion and run on a straight track, was the first recorded event at the ancient Olympic Games. The 200 m places more emphasis on speed endurance than shorter sprint distances as athletes rely on different energy systems during the longer sprint, in the United States and elsewhere, athletes previously ran the 220-yard dash instead of the 200 m, though the distance is now obsolete. The standard adjustment used for the conversion from times recorded over 220 yards to 200 m times is to subtract 0.1 seconds, another obsolete version of this race is the 200 metres straight, which was run on tracks that contained such a straight. Initially, when the International Amateur Athletic Association started to ratify world records in 1912, in 1951, the IAAF started to recognise records set on a curved track. In 1976, the record was discarded.
The race attracts runners from other events, primarily the 100 metres, wishing to double up, marion Jones finished first in both races in 2000 but was disqualified and stripped of her medals after admitting to taking performance-enhancing drugs. An Olympic double of 200 m and 400 m was first achieved by Valerie Brisco-Hooks in 1984, Usain Bolt is the only man to repeat as Olympic champion, Bärbel Wöckel and Veronica Campbell-Brown are the two women who have repeated as Olympic champion. The mens world record holder is Usain Bolt of Jamaica, who ran 19. 19s at the 2009 World Championships, the womens world record holder is Florence Griffith-Joyner of the United States, who ran 21. 34s at the 1988 Summer Olympics. The reigning Olympic champions are Usain Bolt and Elaine Thompson, the reigning World Champions are Bolt and Dafne Schippers. Races run with an aiding wind measured over 2.0 metres per second are not acceptable for record purposes, only the fastest time for each athlete is listed. A = Altitude Correct as of January 2017.
Below is a list of all other legal times inside 19.60, yohan Blake ran 19.44,19.54. Below is a list of all other legal times inside 21.80, merlene Ottey ran 21.66,21.77. Marita Koch ran 21.76,21.78. Below is a list of all other legal times inside 22.45, merlene Ottey ran 22.24,22.34,22.37. A Known as the World Indoor Games IAAF list of 200-metres records in XML All time 200m men records
Atlanta is the capital of and the most populous city in the U. S. state of Georgia, with an estimated 2015 population of 463,878. Atlanta is the cultural and economic center of the Atlanta metropolitan area, home to 5,710,795 people, Atlanta is the county seat of Fulton County, and a small portion of the city extends eastward into DeKalb County. In 1837, Atlanta was founded at the intersection of two lines, and the city rose from the ashes of the American Civil War to become a national center of commerce. Atlantas economy is considered diverse, with dominant sectors that include logistics and business services, media operations, Atlanta has topographic features that include rolling hills and dense tree coverage. Revitalization of Atlantas neighborhoods, initially spurred by the 1996 Olympics in Atlanta, has intensified in the 21st century, altering the demographics, politics. Prior to the arrival of European settlers in north Georgia, Creek Indians inhabited the area, standing Peachtree, a Creek village located where Peachtree Creek flows into the Chattahoochee River, was the closest Indian settlement to what is now Atlanta.
As part of the removal of Native Americans from northern Georgia from 1802 to 1825, the Creek ceded the area in 1821. In 1836, the Georgia General Assembly voted to build the Western, the initial route was to run southward from Chattanooga to a terminus east of the Chattahoochee River, which would be linked to Savannah. After engineers surveyed various possible locations for the terminus, the zero milepost was driven into the ground in what is now Five Points. A year later, the area around the milepost had developed into a settlement, first known as Terminus, and as Thrasherville after a merchant who built homes. By 1842, the town had six buildings and 30 residents and was renamed Marthasville to honor the Governors daughter, later, J. Edgar Thomson, Chief Engineer of the Georgia Railroad, suggested the town be renamed Atlantica-Pacifica, which was shortened to Atlanta. The residents approved, and the town was incorporated as Atlanta on December 29,1847, by 1860, Atlantas population had grown to 9,554.
During the American Civil War, the nexus of multiple railroads in Atlanta made the city a hub for the distribution of military supplies, in 1864, the Union Army moved southward following the capture of Chattanooga and began its invasion of north Georgia. On the next day, Mayor James Calhoun surrendered Atlanta to the Union Army, on November 11,1864, Sherman prepared for the Union Armys March to the Sea by ordering Atlanta to be burned to the ground, sparing only the citys churches and hospitals. After the Civil War ended in 1865, Atlanta was gradually rebuilt, due to the citys superior rail transportation network, the state capital was moved from Milledgeville to Atlanta in 1868. In the 1880 Census, Atlanta surpassed Savannah as Georgias largest city, by 1885, the founding of the Georgia School of Technology and the citys black colleges had established Atlanta as a center for higher education. In 1895, Atlanta hosted the Cotton States and International Exposition, during the first decades of the 20th century, Atlanta experienced a period of unprecedented growth.
In three decades time, Atlantas population tripled as the city expanded to include nearby streetcar suburbs
Provo /ˈproʊvoʊ/ is the third-largest city in the U. S. state of Utah, located 43 miles south of Salt Lake City along the Wasatch Front. Provo is the largest city and county seat of Utah County and it lies between the cities of Orem to the north and Springville to the south. With a population at the 2010 census of 112,488, Provo is the city in the Provo-Orem metropolitan area. It is the third-largest metropolitan area in Utah after Salt Lake City, the city is the location of Brigham Young University, a private higher education institution, which is operated by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Provo has the largest Missionary Training Center for the LDS Church, the city is a focus area for technology development in Utah, with several billion dollar startups operating in Provo. Provo was the city in the United States to work with Google Fiber. The citys Peaks Ice Arena was a venue for the Salt Lake City Winter Olympics in 2002, Sundance Resort is located 13 miles northeast at Provo Canyon.
In 2015, Provo was cited among the Best Small And Medium-Size Cities For Jobs, and Utah County, in 2013, Forbes ranked Provo the No.2 city on its list of Best Places for Business and Careers. Provo was ranked first for community optimism, first for volunteerism and its metropolitan area was projected to have the greatest population increase in the 2010 United States Census. The area was originally called Timpanogots and was inhabited by the Timpanogos and it was the largest and most settled area in modern-day Utah. The ample food from the Provo River made the Timpanogos a peaceful people, the area served as the traditional meeting place for the Ute and Shoshone tribes and as a spot to worship their creator. Father Silvestre Velez de Escalante, a Spanish Franciscan missionary-explorer, is considered the first European explorer to have visited the area and he was guided by two Timpanogos Utes, whom he called Silvestre and Joaquin. Escalante chronicled this first European exploration across the Great Basin desert, the Europeans did not build a permanent settlement, but traded with the Timpanogos whom they called Lagunas or Come Pescado.
In 1847, the Mormon Pioneers arrived in the Salt Lake Valley, at first, they were friendly with the Mormons. But, as relations deteriorated with the Shoshoni and Utes because of land claims and stealing of livestock by the Indians, tensions rose. Because of the stolen goods of settlers by the Utes, Brigham Young gave a small militia orders to take such measures as would put a final end to their depredations in future. ”This ended in what is known as the Battle Creek Massacre, in modern-day Pleasant Grove. The Mormons continued pushing into Timpanog lands, in 1849,33 Mormon families from Salt Lake City established Fort Utah. In 1850, Brigham Young sent an army from Salt Lake to drive out the Timpanogos in what is called the Provo War, the ruthlessness of the Mormon invaders angered the Timpanog, which contributed to the Walker War and Black Hawk War
The 100 metres, or 100-metre dash, is a sprint race in track and field competitions. The shortest common outdoor running distance, it is one of the most popular and it has been contested at the Summer Olympics since 1896 for men and since 1928 for women. The reigning 100 m Olympic champion is named the fastest runner in the world. The World Championships 100 metres has been contested since 1983, jamaicans Usain Bolt and Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce are the reigning world champions and Elaine Thompson are the Olympic champions in the mens and womens 100 metres, respectively. On an outdoor 400 metres running track, the 100 m is run on the home straight, runners begin in the starting blocks and the race begins when an official fires the starters pistol. Sprinters typically reach top speed after somewhere between 50–60 m and their speed slows towards the finish line. The 10-second barrier has historically been a barometer of fast mens performances, the current mens world record is 9.58 seconds, set by Jamaicas Usain Bolt in 2009, while the womens world record of 10.49 seconds set by American Florence Griffith-Joyner in 1988 remains unbroken.
The 100 m emerged from the metrication of the 100 yards, the event is largely held outdoors as few indoor facilities have a 100 m straight. US athletes have won the mens Olympic 100 metres title more times than any country,16 out of the 28 times that it has been run. US women have dominated the event winning 9 out of 21 times. At the start, some athletes play psychological games such as trying to be last to the starting blocks, at high level meets, the time between the gun and first kick against the starting block is measured electronically, via sensors built in the gun and the blocks. A reaction time less than 0.1 s is considered a false start, the 0. 2-second interval accounts for the sum of the time it takes for the sound of the starters pistol to reach the runners ears, and the time they take to react to it. For many years a sprinter was disqualified if responsible for two false starts individually, this rule allowed some major races to be restarted so many times that the sprinters started to lose focus.
The next iteration of the rule, introduced in February 2003, meant that one false start was allowed among the field, but anyone responsible for a subsequent false start was disqualified. To avoid such abuse and to improve spectator enjoyment, the IAAF implemented a change in the 2010 season – a false starting athlete now receives immediate disqualification. This proposal was met with objections when first raised in 2005, justin Gatlin commented, Just a flinch or a leg cramp could cost you a years worth of work. The rule had an impact at the 2011 World Championships. Runners normally reach their top speed just past the point of the race
Sport of athletics
Athletics is a collection of sporting events that involve competitive running, jumping and walking. The most common types of competitions are track and field, road running, cross country running. The results of racing events are decided by finishing position, while the jumps, the simplicity of the competitions, and the lack of a need for expensive equipment, makes athletics one of the most commonly competed sports in the world. Athletics is mostly an individual sport, with the exception of relay races and competitions which combine athletes performances for a team score, organized athletics are traced back to the Ancient Olympic Games from 776 BCE. The rules and format of the events in athletics were defined in Western Europe and North America in the 19th and early 20th century. Most modern top level meetings are conducted by the International Association of Athletics Federations, the athletics meeting forms the backbone of the Summer Olympics. The foremost international athletics meeting is the IAAF World Championships in Athletics, other top level competitions in athletics include the IAAF World Cross Country Championships and the IAAF World Half Marathon Championships.
Athletes with a disability compete at the Summer Paralympics and the IPC Athletics World Championships. The word athletics is derived from the Ancient Greek ἀθλητής from ἆθλον or ἆθλος, the term was used to describe athletic contests in general – i. e. sporting competition based primarily on human physical feats. In the 19th century, the term acquired a more narrow definition in Europe. This definition continues to be the most prominent one in the United Kingdom, foreign words in many German and Roman languages which are related to the term athletics have a similar meaning. In much of North America, athletics is synonymous with sports in general, the word athletics is rarely used to refer to the sport of athletics in this region. Track and field is preferred, and is used in the United States and Canada to refer to most athletics events, including racewalking, Athletic contests in running, walking and throwing are among the oldest of all sports and their roots are prehistoric. Athletics events were depicted in the Ancient Egyptian tombs in Saqqara, with illustrations of running at the Heb Sed festival, the Tailteann Games were an ancient Celtic festival in Ireland, founded around 1800 BCE, and the thirty-day meeting included running and stone-throwing among its sporting events.
The original and only event at the first Olympics in 776 BCE was a running event known as the stadion. This expanded to include throwing and jumping events within the ancient pentathlon, Athletics competitions took place at other Panhellenic Games, which were founded around 500 BCE. The Cotswold Olimpick Games, a festival which emerged in 17th century England. Annually, from 1796 to 1798, LOlympiade de la République was held in revolutionary France, the premier event of this competition was a running event, but various ancient Greek disciplines were on display
1995 World Championships in Athletics
The 5th World Championships in Athletics, under the auspices of the International Association of Athletics Federations, were held at the Ullevi Stadium, Sweden on 5–13 August 1995. This edition featured 1804 athletes from 191 nations and this competition saw the women run the 5000 m event at the World Championships for the first time. The race replaced the 3000 m event which had run at all previous World Championships. This fate Sweden shares only with Canada and South Korea
International Association of Athletics Federations
The International Association of Athletics Federations is the international governing body for the sport of athletics. It was founded on 17 July 1912 as the International Amateur Athletic Federation by representatives from 17 national athletics federations at the organizations first congress in Stockholm, since October 1993, it has been headquartered in Monaco. Beginning in 1982, the IAAF passed several amendments to its rules to allow athletes to receive compensation for participating in international competitions. However, the organization retained the word amateur in its name until its 2001 congress, the IAAFs president is Sebastian Coe of the United Kingdom. He was elected at the 2015 congress before the 2015 World Championships in Athletics in Beijing, the process to found the IAAF was started at a meeting in Stockholm, Sweden on July 17,1912 soon after the completion of the 1912 Summer Olympics in that city. The congress that started on August 20,1913 in Berlin is when the foundation of the IAAF was formally completed, in 2015, a whistleblower leaked IAAFs blood test records from major competitions.
After reviewing the results, Robin Parisotto, a scientist and leading anti-doping expert, said, so many athletes appear to have doped with impunity, and it is damning that the IAAF appears to have idly sat by and let this happen. Craig Reedie, president of the World Anti-Doping Agency, said his organisation was very disturbed by these new allegations, which will, once again, shake the foundation of clean athletes worldwide, and that its independent commission will investigate the claims. On 1 November 2015, former IAAF president Lamine Diack was arrested in France and is under investigation on suspicion of corruption, Diack allegedly accepted $1.2 million from the Russian athletics federation to cover up the positive doping tests of at least six Russian athletes in 2011. The report continued that the IAAF allowed the conduct to occur and must accept its responsibility and that corruption was embedded in the organization. In January 2016, as a result of the scandal and WADAs report. The BBC reported that as a result the IAAF would lose $33 million worth of revenue, the 11-year sponsorship deal with Adidas was due to run until 2019.
World-record holding sprinter, Michael Johnson, described the scandal as more serious than that faced by FIFA, in February,2016, Nestle announced that it was ending its IAAF sponsorship. In June 2016, following a meeting of the IAAFs ruling council, in Ferbuary 2017, All-Russia Athletic Federation disqualified by decision of the IAAF Council for 8 years for the creation of a doping system. Since the establishment of the IAAF, it has had six presidents, The IAAF has a total of 215 member federations divided into 6 area associations