The ryukin is a short deep-bodied fancy goldfish with a characteristic hump in the shoulder region. The ryukin is a hardy and attractive variety of goldfish with a pointed head and has a pronounced hump on the back behind the head, it may be short-finned with either a triple or quadruple tail. The dorsal fin is high while the caudal fin is twice as long as the body; the caudal fin may have three or four lobes. Ryukins come in deep-red, red-and-white, silver, black, lavender grey and calico coloration; the ryukin is a fine aquarium fish. Some ryukins are reported to grow up to 10 inches in commercial ponds; the Ryukin is Chinese in origin. It is unknown when the ryukin was bred but it is thought to come from the Wakin, it has been so named because it was said to have arrived in Japan through the Ryukyu Islands, now Okinawa Prefecture, which lies between Taiwan and Japan. There were historical references that the existence of ryukins dates back to 1833, but it is said to have arrived in Japan in the 1770s.
Early Japanese literature refers to the ryukin as the nagasaki goldfish. In English texts, they are referred to as the Japanese ribbontail, the fringetail, the fantail or the veiltail. Yamagata kingyo or sabao or tamasaba - a hardy single-tailed variety of the ryukin, developed in the Yamagata Prefecture of Northern Japan. Tetsu onaga - a rare iron-colored variety of the ryukin. ChinaGoldfish.com Bristol-Aquarists.org Varieties of Goldfish -About Ryukin The Ryukin, Koko's Goldfish World, KokosGoldfish.com, retrieved on: 4 June 2007. Types of Goldfish, Koko's Goldfish World, KokosGoldfish.com, retrieved on: 4 June 2007
Anatomical terms of location
Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans. All vertebrates have the same basic body plan – they are bilaterally symmetrical in early embryonic stages and bilaterally symmetrical in adulthood; that is, they have mirror-image left and right halves if divided down the middle. For these reasons, the basic directional terms can be considered to be those used in vertebrates. By extension, the same terms are used for many other organisms as well. While these terms are standardized within specific fields of biology, there are unavoidable, sometimes dramatic, differences between some disciplines. For example, differences in terminology remain a problem that, to some extent, still separates the terminology of human anatomy from that used in the study of various other zoological categories. Standardized anatomical and zoological terms of location have been developed based on Latin and Greek words, to enable all biological and medical scientists to delineate and communicate information about animal bodies and their component organs though the meaning of some of the terms is context-sensitive.
The vertebrates and Craniata share a substantial heritage and common structure, so many of the same terms are used for location. To avoid ambiguities this terminology is based on the anatomy of each animal in a standard way. For humans, one type of vertebrate, anatomical terms may differ from other forms of vertebrates. For one reason, this is because humans have a different neuraxis and, unlike animals that rest on four limbs, humans are considered when describing anatomy as being in the standard anatomical position, thus what is on "top" of a human is the head, whereas the "top" of a dog may be its back, the "top" of a flounder could refer to either its left or its right side. For invertebrates, standard application of locational terminology becomes difficult or debatable at best when the differences in morphology are so radical that common concepts are not homologous and do not refer to common concepts. For example, many species are not bilaterally symmetrical. In these species, terminology depends on their type of symmetry.
Because animals can change orientation with respect to their environment, because appendages like limbs and tentacles can change position with respect to the main body, positional descriptive terms need to refer to the animal as in its standard anatomical position. All descriptions are with respect to the organism in its standard anatomical position when the organism in question has appendages in another position; this helps avoid confusion in terminology. In humans, this refers to the body in a standing position with arms at the side and palms facing forward. While the universal vertebrate terminology used in veterinary medicine would work in human medicine, the human terms are thought to be too well established to be worth changing. Many anatomical terms can be combined, either to indicate a position in two axes or to indicate the direction of a movement relative to the body. For example, "anterolateral" indicates a position, both anterior and lateral to the body axis. In radiology, an X-ray image may be said to be "anteroposterior", indicating that the beam of X-rays pass from their source to patient's anterior body wall through the body to exit through posterior body wall.
There is no definite limit to the contexts in which terms may be modified to qualify each other in such combinations. The modifier term is truncated and an "o" or an "i" is added in prefixing it to the qualified term. For example, a view of an animal from an aspect at once dorsal and lateral might be called a "dorsolateral" view. Again, in describing the morphology of an organ or habitus of an animal such as many of the Platyhelminthes, one might speak of it as "dorsiventrally" flattened as opposed to bilaterally flattened animals such as ocean sunfish. Where desirable three or more terms may be agglutinated or concatenated, as in "anteriodorsolateral"; such terms sometimes used to be hyphenated. There is however little basis for any strict rule to interfere with choice of convenience in such usage. Three basic reference planes are used to describe location; the sagittal plane is a plane parallel to the sagittal suture. All other sagittal planes are parallel to it, it is known as a "longitudinal plane".
The plane is perpendicular to the ground. The median plane or midsagittal plane is in the midline of the body, divides the body into left and right portions; this passes through the head, spinal cord, and, in many animals, the tail. The term "median plane" can refer to the midsagittal plane of other structures, such as a digit; the frontal plane or coronal plane divides the body into ventral portions. For post-embryonic humans a coronal plane is vertical and a transverse plane is horizontal, but for embryos and quadrupeds a coronal plane is horizontal and a transverse plane is vertical. A longitudinal plane is any plane perpendicular to the transverse plane; the coronal plane and the sagittal plane are examples of longitudinal planes. A transverse plane known as a cross-section, divides the body into cranial and caudal portions. In human anatomy: A transverse plane is an X-Z plane, parallel to the ground, which s
The Bubble Eye is a small variety of fancy goldfish with upward pointing eyes that are accompanied by two large fluid-filled sacs. It is a dorsal-less fish -- good specimens will have a clean back and eye bubbles that match in color and size, their bubbles are quite delicate, so the fish should be kept separately from boisterous types, as well as sharp tank decor. Although the bubbles will regrow if punctured, injury could leave the fish prone to infections; the bubbles can disadvantage the fish as it is not a strong swimmer, with a low bobbing head at times. The Bubble Eye has an evenly curved back that lacks a dorsal fin; the pair of large pouches of skin attached under its eyes jiggle. Bubble Eyes have metallic scales and they are similar to the celestial eye goldfish; the eyes of the Bubble Eye goldfish are normal in the young fry, but will start to develop eye bladders three months after hatching. Like ranchu, the bubble eye goldfish has a double tail, they grow up to 3 to 4 inches in length.
If one of their "Bubbles" pop due to pressure or collision with a sharp object, there is a risk of infection where the inside of the sac has been exposed. The precursor to the Bubble Eye, known as the Toadhead or hama-tou, had upturned eyes and small, bladder like sacs. Through selective breeding, the bubble eye is available with either a long or more rounded body, the choice between matte, metallic or nacreous scales. A recent development of the bubble eye has four eye sacs rather than the usual two. Desirable colors for these fish include red, orange and white, the rare black. Due to the delicate eye sacs, enthusiasts must ensure that their bubble eye is kept in aquariums free from sharp objects; the water must be changed three times a month to prevent infection, the gravel filter vacuumed if the aquarium lacks aquatic plants. Some inexperienced owners keep a single fish to minimise the risk of collisions, but the majority of experts consider this unnecessary. However, due to the fish's visual impairment, it is recommended that they are kept with other bubble eyes, black moors and celestial goldfish to ensure fair competition for food.
Researchers in Japan have theorized that the liquid in the bubble eye's sacs could be a stimulant to cell growth. Due to the eye sac's ability to regenerate and refill itself, scientists can milk the same fish every few months with a syringe. Celestial Eye Bristol Aquarist's Society - Describes the appearance of the standard, show-quality Bubble Eye Goldfish, Part 2 - An excellent article on keeping Bubble Eyes, as well as fancy goldfish in general Happy bubble fish video! - A video showing some Bubble Eye fish in action. Varieties of Goldfish - About Bubble Eye
An oranda is a breed of goldfish characterized by a prominent bubble-like "hood" on the head. The headgrowth or hood may be a prominent growth on the top of the head or may encase the entire face except for the eyes and mouth; when it was first imported from China to Japan it was mistakenly thought to be native to the Netherlands, was therefore dubbed the "Holland Lionmask", Dutch Lionhead, "Netherlands Lion Head", from which its English name "oranda" derives. Due to the fleshy outgrowth on the upper half of its head and sides of its face, the oranda has become one of the most popular goldfish; the headgrowth is described as a'wen' by Chinese aquarists. The mass comes from selective breeding; the oranda is a metallic or matte scaled goldfish, similar in appearance to the veiltail. It has a large and deep body accompanied by a long quadruple tail; this four-lobed and contracted tail spreads out broadly when the oranda stops swimming. The back does not rise up to form a ryukin-like hump. Orandas are available in a variety of colors, most orange, red-and-white, red-and-black, blue, bronze, white or silver, black-and-white, red-black-and-white, calico colors.
The headgrowth of young fry may take one to two years to develop. The oranda can reach 20 to 31 centimeters in length. Sometimes the wen grows enormously covering the eyes of the goldfish. Due to this, the eyesight may become limited or blind. Special care should be given to the wen; the Oranda can tolerate temperatures from 17-28°C. More blue scale oranda have been developed but these fish are rare. Oranda goldfish are sensitive to cold temperatures, more so than other goldfish; the azuma nishiki is an attractive nacreous-colored form of the oranda. The red-cap oranda has a silver body with a prominent red headgrowth on the forehead. Chinese breeders have developed telescope eyed orandas, a cross-breeding of the telescope eye and oranda goldfish; the hana fusa or pompom oranda is an elegant pompom with a dorsal headgrowth like an oranda. Its a cross between the oranda and a dorsal formed pom-pom; the nagate oranda is a long body oranda developed in Shikoku, south west area of Japan. The Apache oranda, is a form of oranda that bares both black together.
Apaches can not be named. The panda oranda is a variety of oranda, bi-colored or tri-colored, most identifiable by the black-and-white coloration for which it is named; the Ingot oranda known as the Yuan-Bao oranda, is a new Chinese variety of oranda, crossed from a ryukin with a Ranchu. Its large, short round body has a characteristics of a Ranchu, with its box shaped face containing wen, its tail is somewhat equal as to the ryukin, though short-finned ingots are popular and produced today. The Chakin named as the chocolate oranda, is a colored varient of an oranda, it has brownish scales with a color like that of chocolate. The Seibungyo or Seibun is a blue oranda, named for its bluish grey silver coloration; the "blue" is combined with both black areas on the outside skin, black from the inside layers, to form a blue-like sheen. The black oranda is a developed color variety, crossed from the black moor; the jade seal oranda is a type of color pattern that consist of a white, clear cap on its head, the rest of the body is red or orange.
Orandas can be kept with other goldfish. If their wen grows too much, it may hinder vision, so it is advised to keep them with other goldfish with poor vision in order to make sure that they do not starve because of the able-sighted competition; some aquarists prefer to trim the wen off of the goldfish by using a scissor to prevent blindness and doused with peroxide to prevent from damaging essential areas around the face or body. Their wen is susceptible to injury from rough objects placed in their residence. Varieties of Goldfish -About Oranda Varieties of Goldfish -About Calico Oranda Varieties of Goldfish -About Blue Oranda Varieties of Goldfish -About Chocolate Oranda Varieties of Goldfish -About Redcap Oranda
Pompoms or pompon or hana fusa are a type of fancy goldfish that have bundles of loose fleshy outgrowths between the nostrils, on each side of the head. The pompom has a similar body shape and finnage to the lionhead or Oranda but instead of supporting a headgrowth it has nasal outgrowths; the extent of the nasal outgrowths, which are enlargements of the nasal septum, vary in pompom goldfish. In some, the outgrowths hang down past the mouth; these skin outgrowths around the nostrils of pompoms are developed through selective breeding. Pompoms may have either metallic or nacreous scalation, can occur with or without a dorsal fin, it will be best if the lionhead variety of these fishes are engaged with the same variety or other dorsal fin less fishes. The Chinese submit this variety as the "Velvet ball". There are records for the existence of this fish being seen as far back as 1898; the first importation of these fish into the United Kingdom was in 1936 when the original fish were exported from Shanghai and others were displayed at an aquarium in Paris.
It was quite popular in the early days of the fancy goldfish, but is now rarely seen for sale or on display. The hana fusa or white pompom oranda is an elegant pompom with a dorsal fin. Varieties of Goldfish -About Pompom
A postage stamp is a small piece of paper issued by a post office, postal administration, or other authorized vendors to customers who pay postage, who affix the stamp to the face or address-side of any item of mail—an envelope or other postal cover —that they wish to send. The item is processed by the postal system, where a postmark or cancellation mark—in modern usage indicating date and point of origin of mailing—is applied to the stamp and its left and right sides to prevent its reuse; the item is delivered to its addressee. Always featuring the name of the issuing nation, a denomination of its value, an illustration of persons, institutions, or natural realities that symbolize the nation's traditions and values, every stamp is printed on a piece of rectangular, but sometimes triangular or otherwise shaped special custom-made paper whose back is either glazed with an adhesive gum or self-adhesive; because governments issue stamps of different denominations in unequal numbers and discontinue some lines and introduce others, because of their illustrations and association with the social and political realities of the time of their issue, they are prized for their beauty and historical significance by stamp collectors whose study of their history and of mailing systems is called philately.
Because collectors buy stamps from an issuing agency with no intention to use them for postage, the revenues from such purchases and payments of postage can make them a source of net profit to that agency. Throughout modern history, numerous methods were used to indicate that postage had been paid on a mailed item, so several different men have received credit for inventing the postage stamp. William DockwraIn 1680, William Dockwra, an English merchant in London, his partner Robert Murray established the London Penny Post, a mail system that delivered letters and small parcels inside the city of London for the sum of one penny. Confirmation of paid postage was indicated by the use of a hand stamp to frank the mailed item. Though this'stamp' was applied to the letter or parcel itself, rather than to a separate piece of paper, it is considered by many historians to be the world's first postage stamp. Lovrenc KoširIn 1835, the Slovene civil servant Lovrenc Košir from Ljubljana in Austria-Hungary, suggested the use of "artificially affixed postal tax stamps" using "gepresste papieroblate", but although civil bureaucrats considered the suggestion in detail, it was not adopted.
Rowland HillIn 1836, a Member of Parliament, Robert Wallace, gave Sir Rowland Hill numerous books and documents about the postal service, which Hill described as a "half hundred weight of material". After a detailed study, on 4 January 1837 Hill submitted a pamphlet entitled Post Office Reform: Its Importance and Practicability, marked "private and confidential," and not released to the general public, to the Chancellor of the Exchequer, Thomas Spring Rice; the Chancellor summoned Hill to a meeting at which he suggested improvements and changes to be presented in a supplement, which Hill duly produced and submitted on 28 January 1837. Summoned to give evidence before the Commission for Post Office Enquiry on 13 February 1837, Hill read from the letter he wrote to the Chancellor that included a statement saying that the notation of paid postage could be created "...by using a bit of paper just large enough to bear the stamp, covered at the back with a glutinous wash...". This would become the first unambiguous description of a modern adhesive postage stamp.
Shortly afterward, Hill's revision of the booklet, dated 22 February 1837, containing some 28,000 words, incorporating the supplement given to the Chancellor and statements he made to the Commission, was published and made available to the general public. Hansard records that on 15 December 1837, Benjamin Hawes asked the Chancellor of the Exchequer "whether it was the intention of the Government to give effect to the recommendation of the Commissioners of the Post-office, contained in their ninth report relating to the reduction of the rates of postage, the issuing of penny stamps?"Hill’s ideas for postage stamps and charging paid-postage based on weight soon took hold, were adopted in many countries throughout the world. With the new policy of charging by weight, using envelopes for mailing documents became the norm. Hill’s brother Edwin invented a prototype envelope-making machine that folded paper into envelopes enough to match the pace of the growing demand for postage stamps. Rowland Hill and the reforms he introduced to the United Kingdom postal system appear on several of its commemorative stamps.
James ChalmersIn the 1881 book The Penny Postage Scheme of 1837, Scotsman Patrick Chalmers claimed that his father, James Chalmers, published an essay in August 1834 describing and advocating a postage stamp, but submitted no evidence of the essay's existence. Until he died in 1891, Patrick Chalmers campaigned to have his father recognized as the inventor of the postage stamp; the first independent evidence for Chalmers' claim is an essay, dated 8 February 1838 and received by the Post Office on 17 February 1838, in which he proposed adhesive postage stamps to the General Post Office. In this 800-word document concerning methods of indicating that postage had been paid on mail he states: "Therefore, of Mr Hill’s plan of a uniform rate of postage... I conceive that the most simple and economical mode... would be by Slips... in the hope that Mr Hill’s plan may soon be carried into operation I would sugg
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word