Strabo was a Greek geographer and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire. Strabo was born to an affluent family from Amaseia in Pontus, Strabos life was characterized by extensive travels. He journeyed to Egypt and Kush, as far west as coastal Tuscany and as far south as Ethiopia in addition to his travels in Asia Minor and the time he spent in Rome. Travel throughout the Mediterranean and Near East, especially for scholarly purposes, was popular during this era and was facilitated by the relative peace enjoyed throughout the reign of Augustus. He moved to Rome in 44 BC, and stayed there and writing, in 29 BC, on his way to Corinth, he visited the island of Gyaros in the Aegean Sea. Around 25 BC, he sailed up the Nile until reaching Philae and it is not known precisely when Strabos Geography was written, though comments within the work itself place the finished version within the reign of Emperor Tiberius. Some place its first drafts around 7 BC, others around 17 or 18 AD, the latest passage to which a date can be assigned is his reference to the death in AD23 of Juba II, king of Maurousia, who is said to have died just recently.
He probably worked on the Geography for many years and revised it steadily, on the presumption that recently means within a year, Strabo stopped writing that year or the next, when he died. The first of Strabos major works, Historical Sketches, written while he was in Rome, is completely lost. Strabo studied under several prominent teachers of various specialties throughout his life at different stops along his Mediterranean travels. His first chapter of education took place in Nysa under the master of rhetoric Aristodemus, Strabo was an admirer of Homers poetry, perhaps a consequence of his time spent in Nysa with Aristodemus. At around the age of 21, Strabo moved to Rome, where he studied philosophy with the Peripatetic Xenarchus, despite Xenarchuss Aristotelian leanings, Strabo gives evidence to have formed his own Stoic inclinations. In Rome, he learned grammar under the rich and famous scholar Tyrannion of Amisus. Although Tyrannion was a Peripatetic, he was more relevantly a respected authority on geography, the final noteworthy mentor to Strabo was Athenodorus Cananites, a philosopher who had spent his life since 44 BC in Rome forging relationships with the Roman elite.
Athenodorus endowed to Strabo three important items, his philosophy, his knowledge, and his contacts, from his own first-hand experience, Athenodorus provided Strabo with information about regions of the empire which he would not otherwise have known. Strabo is most notable for his work Geographica, which presented a history of people. Although the Geographica was rarely utilized in its antiquity, a multitude of copies survived throughout the Byzantine Empire. It first appeared in Western Europe in Rome as a Latin translation issued around 1469, the first Greek edition was published in 1516 in Venice
Though living in Gaul, they were described as being both Belgae, and Germani. The Eburones played a role in Julius Caesars account of his Gallic Wars, as the most important tribe within the Germani cisrhenani group of tribes. Germani living west of the Rhine amongst the Belgae, Caesar claimed that the name of the Eburones was wiped out after their failed revolt against his forces during the Gallic Wars. Whether any significant part of the population lived on in the area as Tungri, Caesar is the primary source for the location of the Eburones. In the early medieval church this evolved into the church province of Cologne. This large area included parts of what are now the southern Netherlands, eastern Belgium. At one point Caesar reported that the greatest part of the Eburones settled between the Mosa and the Rhine, and on this basis German scholars place them in the northern Eifel. More generally Caesars description of a narrow defile to its west, suitable for ambush, is a type of landscape less common as one goes north in this region, towards the low-lying Campine.
In the same passage, Caesar describes the Segni and Condrusi as being south of the Eburones, between them and the Treviri, who lived near the Moselle. This is difficult to reconcile with a territory near the Eifel because the Condrusi are the origin of the name of the Condroz region in the Ardennes, south of the Meuse, and west of the Eifel. No cultural groupings can be isolated to suit the Eburones in the north Eifel according to Edith Mary Wightman, in contrast, she writes that Belgian archaeologists identify them with the cultural group in northern Limburg and Kempen which showed such strong continuity in Urnfield times. This would certainly account for the propinquity of Eburones and Menapii mentioned by Caesar and this is seen to indicate that at least part of the Eburones lived west of the Maas, closer to the river deltas. Neighbouring both the Nervii and the Eburones, possibly between them, were the Aduatuci. Caesar reported that Ambiorix had been forced to pay tribute to them before the Romans came, and it was with these two tribes, that the Eburones could quickly form a military alliance against Caesars forces.
Caesar reports that during his conflict with them, the Eburones had some sort of alliance, organized via their allies the Treveri, linguist Maurits Gysseling proposed that placenames such as Avendoren, Averdoingt and Avernas may be derived from the Eburones. Caesars forces clashed with an alliance of Belgic tribes in 57 BCE in the Battle of the Sabis, before that battle, information from the Remi, a tribe allied with Rome, stated that the Germani had collectively promised, they thought, about 40,000 men. The whole force was led by Galba, king of the Suessiones, the alliance did not work. The Suessiones and Bellovaci surrendered after the Romans defended the Remi, and after this the Ambiani offered no further resistance and the Nervii, along with the Atrebates and Viromandui, formed the most important force on the day of the battle
Castro Verde is a town and a municipality of the Alentejo region of Portugal. The population in 2011 was 7,276, in an area of 569.44 km2, Castro Verde is situated in the Baixo Alentejo subregion, within a territory known locally as the Campo Branco. The pre-History of the Baixo Alentejo Subregion dates back to 200,000 B. C. when the territory was crossed by migratory Neanderthal peoples from the north of Europe in the Lower Paleolithic period, until their extinction, around 28,000 B. C. Neanderthal man hunted and forged in present-day Portugal, the area was home to several cultures due to the abundance of minerals and its commercial and strategic place along the Mediterranean. The earliest settlements began with Celtiberians, from the central Iberian Peninsula around the 6th Century B. C. and were followed by the Celts, the Tartessian culture was the precursors of the Turdetani peoples of the Roman period. Growth of settlements during the period were likely associated with the strategic importance of the Iberian Pyrite zone.
Castro Verde lies along a route linking the mines of Aljustrel with the port city of Mértola situated on tributaries of the Guadiana river. Along with mining activities, the became a vast area of grain production. The richness and abundance of these combined base economies grew to such extent that Castro Verde became a centre of commerce. The name origin of Castro Verde dates back to early period. One postulates that the name was derived from the Roman Castra Castrorum, the term castro derived from the Latin castrum refers to a small military encampment or fortification, built of large rocks. Roman occupation spanned four centuries and was followed by the migration of the Visigoths their expulsion by the Moors, as the legend of the Battle describes, the battle lasted two days and was so excessively bloody that the waters of Ribeira de Cobres flowed the color of red. Afonso Henriques who was declared Prince of Portugal, after the Battle of São Mamede, defeated the Moorish kings, and was proclaimed King upon the victory.
But, although King Afonso was able to triumph, the region was never secured by the Portuguese until the regin of King Sancho II, around 1234. The region of Castro Verde passed into the possession of the priory of the Comenda de Santiago, and its donatários, Castro Verde continued to operate as the central administrative centre and municipal seat, while Casével and Entradas won administrative autonomy. While mineral extraction continued to drive the economy, herding assumed a fundamental part of the economy as well. The municipality of Castro Verde developed its own cultural identity based on millenniums of interchange between cultural groups. From roots in mining and agricultural, the community has transformed into a city, with future plans focused on the integration of Roman, cultural tourism has resurged to keep alive traditional art and poetry indigenous to the territory
Province of Huelva
Huelva is a province of southern Spain, in the western part of the autonomous community of Andalusia. It is bordered by Portugal, the provinces of Badajoz, and Cádiz, and its population is 483,792, of whom about 30% live in the capital, and its population density is 47. 67/km². The economy is based on agriculture and mining, the famous Rio Tinto mines have been worked since before 1000 BC, and were the major source of copper for the Roman Empire. As an indication of the scope of ancient mining, sixteen million tons of Roman slag have been identified at the Roman mines, british companies resumed large-scale mining in 1873, the district is the namesake of the Rio Tinto Group. The province contains Palos de la Frontera, and Moguer, where Christopher Columbus sailed out of on his first voyage in 1492, the delayed tourist development of the province has allowed better city planning than in other regions on the Spanish coast. The nuclei of Islantilla and Isla Canela are an example of this attempt to plan in a coherent form.
Although in a scale in comparison to other regions, urban pressure continues. Previous developments that had little planning until recent time are El Rompido, El Portil, Mazagón, present development would not endure without tourist activity and its vacation housing. Other tourist areas are Nuevo Umbría, Nuevo Portil, Punta del Moral, La Antilla, the marismas de Isla Cristina, next to the towns of Ayamonte and Isla Cristina, are a protected nature reserve. Of note is Huelva‘s recent classification of “rural tourism” for its mountain range. Huelva has 388 MegaWatts of wind power,68 MW biomass power, a 220 kiloVolt transmission line has been constructed to send power to the main grid as well as improving connections between Spain and Portugal. List of municipalities in Huelva Official website Natural Park Doñana Natural Park Sierra de Aracena and Picos de Aroche
The Sierra Morena is one of the main systems of mountain ranges in Spain. Its highest summit is 1,332 m high Bañuela, other notable peaks are Corral de Borros 1,312 m and Cerro de la Estrella 1,298 m. The name Sierra Morena has a legendary reputation in Spanish culture and tradition, with myths about bandits, a giant snake. This range is mentioned in the famous Mexican song Cielito Lindo and in one of the most well known traditional Spanish songs, Soy Minero. The Sierra Morena stretches for 450 km in an E-W direction from the course of the Guadalmena River in the Sierra del Relumbrar until northwestern Huelva Province. The system is the result of the produced by the pressure of the northward-moving African Plate. It is made up of hard Paleozoic rocks such as granite and quartzite, as well as materials such as slate. Its name, roughly meaning dark range, is derived from the dark color of some of the rocks. It is mentioned as Sierra Mariánica in some documents, formerly it was a border area, a vast wilderness with little population, and its mountain passes were important for the communication between Andalusia and Central Spain.
The peaks of the ranges are not very high on average and they are, very consistent in altitude, averaging between 600 and 1,300 m all along the system. Since they form the edge of the Meseta Central, the Iberian Central Plateau. Nevertheless, the Sierra Morena looks like a mountain range seen from the Baetic Depression in the south with impressive southward-facing slopes and gorges. The ancient Iberians used the passes as a passage between the high plateau in the north and the Guadalquivir basin. The bleak Sierra Morena mountains were notorious in former times for being a haunt of bandits, the Nuevas Poblaciones de Andalucía y Sierra Morena administrative division was started in 1767 during the reign of Charles III of Spain in order to populate the mountainous zone. As a consequence the area around La Carolina was settled with farmers that included German, one of the goals of the project was to have safe stopover points for carriages in the desolate region that would be within reasonable distance from each other.
Marcos Rodríguez Pantoja was a born in Añora who lived by himself in the middle of the Sierra Morena in the area that is now the Sierra de Cardeña y Montoro Natural Park. The film “Entre lobos” by the Cordovan director Gerardo Olivares was based on his experience, the Sierra Morena was the scenario of many battles and skirmishes throughout the Spanish Civil War. The Sierra Morena appears in the novel Don Quixote, after Sancho Panza suggests the mountains as a refuge from the Holy Brotherhood after Don Quixote frees a group of galley slaves, the two escape into the Sierra Morena
The Arevaci or Aravaci, were a Celtic people who settled in the Meseta Central of northern Hispania and which dominated most of Celtiberia from the 4th to late 2nd centuries BC. The Arevaci were of Celtic origin and part of the Celtiberians, there is an overwhelming amount of evidence that the ancestors of the Celtiberian groups were installed in the Meseta area of the Iberian peninsula from at least 1000 BC and probably much earlier. This led some historians to state that the Arevaci were actually an off-shot of the latter. They founded or seized several important city-states in northern Celtiberia, namely Clunia, Voluce/Veluka, Uxama Argelae, Termantia named Termes or Termesos and Numantia. Other towns often mentioned in the sources, such as Segovia, Comfluenta, Lutia, Mallia and Colenda have not yet been located. In the late 4th-early 3rd centuries BC however, the Arevaci shifted the direction of their expansion to the east, towards the upper Duero and south into the central Iberian system mountains.
In around the mid-3rd century BC, the Arevaci founded with their neighbours the Lusones and Titii a tribal federation designated the Celtiberian confederacy, with Numantia as federal capital. During the Second Punic War the confederacy kept itself neutral, though Celtiberian mercenaries are mentioned fighting for both sides on a number of occasions, the Arevaci and the Belli revolted against Roman rule in the Celtiberian War. However, not only were the Arevacians ruthlessly quashed by Proconsul Titus Didius in 92 BC, in spite of being technically submitted and finally aggregated to Hispania Citerior after 93 BC, the Arevacians’ own relationship with Rome remained uneasy. During the Sertorian Wars, the Arevaci sided with Quintus Sertorius, the Romanization of Central Spain, Complexity and Change in a Provincial Hinterland. Esteban, J. Koch, Celtic Culture, A Historical Encyclopedia, ABC-CLIO Inc
The Vaccaei or Vaccei were a pre-Roman Celtic people of Spain, who inhabited the sedimentary plains of the central Duero valley, in the Meseta Central of northern Hispania. The Vaccaei were probably largely of Celtic descent and probably related to the Celtiberians and their name may be derived from the Celtic word vacos, meaning a slayer, since they were celebrated fighters. They often acted in consort with their neighbours, the Celtiberi and they had a strict egalitarian society practising land reform and communal food distribution. It is believed that it was from the Vaccei that the warlike Arevaci stemmed from around the late 4th Century BC to conquer the eastern meseta. This is confirmed by the study of their settlements, where have been found elements of the Vaccean culture on top of the remains of earlier cultures. For example, at Pintia, there is evidence of human settlement since Eneolithic times to the Iron Age. The Vaccean homeland extended throughout the center of the northern Meseta, to the east, the Pisuerga and Arlanza rivers marked the frontier with the Turmodigi, and a little farther south, the Arevaci were their neighbors and allies.
It is likely there was some contact with the latter to the west of Zamora. Traditionally aggressive, the Vaccei were far from being the “harmless and they participated in the 5th century BC Celtici migrations alongside off-shots of the Arevaci and Lusones to settle in the west and southwest regions of the Iberian Peninsula. In the early 3rd Century BC they aided the smaller Turmodigi people in their liberation from the rule of the Autrigones, alongside the Lusitani, they were again beaten by the Praetor of Hispania Ulterior Lucius Postumius Albinus during its first incursion into the central Meseta in 179 BC. In 76 BC, Sertorius’ sent one of its commanders, Gaius Insteius. The backlash came in 74 BC when Proconsul Pompey besieged the vacceian capital Pallantia, setting on fire its adobe brick walls and stormed Cauca. Pressured by Astures and Cantabri raids, the Vaccei rebelled a last time in 29 BC, just prior to the Astur-Cantabrian wars, the Vaccei were aggregated to the new Hispania Terraconensis province created in 27 BC by Emperor Augustus.
The Basques came to be called mistakenly Vaccaei and Vacceti by several medieval chronicles. LXIX, Enero-Junio 2012, Ediciones Universidad Salamanca, pp. 129–147, ISSN 0514-7336 Collins, The Vaccaei, the Vaceti, and the rise of Vasconia, Studia Historica VI. Reprinted in Roger Collins, Law and Regionalism in Early Medieval Spain, Aedeen, The Celts in Europe, Australia, Sydney Series in Celtic Studies 2, Centre for Celtic Studies, University of Sydney ISBN 0-86758-624-9. Barcelona ISBN 84-7423-891-9 Leonard A Curchin, the Romanization of Central Spain, Complexity and Change in a Provincial Hinterland. Madrid Detailed map of the Pre-Roman Peoples of Iberia Álvarez-Sanchís, Jesús R. Oppida, e-Keltoi, Journal of Interdisciplinary Celtic Studies 6, 255-285 http, //www. celtiberia. net
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic, is a country on the Iberian Peninsula in Southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost country of mainland Europe, to the west and south it is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and to the east and north by Spain. The Portugal–Spain border is 1,214 kilometres long and considered the longest uninterrupted border within the European Union, the republic includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments. The territory of modern Portugal has been settled, invaded. The Pre-Celts, Celts and the Romans were followed by the invasions of the Visigothic, in 711 the Iberian Peninsula was invaded by the Moors, making Portugal part of Muslim Al Andalus. Portugal was born as result of the Christian Reconquista, and in 1139, Afonso Henriques was proclaimed King of Portugal, in the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal established the first global empire, becoming one of the worlds major economic and military powers.
Portugal monopolized the trade during this time, and the Portuguese Empire expanded with military campaigns led in Asia. After the 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, the democratic but unstable Portuguese First Republic was established, democracy was restored after the Portuguese Colonial War and the Carnation Revolution in 1974. Shortly after, independence was granted to almost all its overseas territories, Portugal has left a profound cultural and architectural influence across the globe and a legacy of over 250 million Portuguese speakers today. Portugal is a country with a high-income advanced economy and a high living standard. It is the 5th most peaceful country in the world, maintaining a unitary semi-presidential republican form of government and it has the 18th highest Social Progress in the world, putting it ahead of other Western European countries like France and Italy. Portugal is a pioneer when it comes to drug decriminalization, as the nation decriminalized the possession of all drugs for use in 2001.
The early history of Portugal is shared with the rest of the Iberian Peninsula located in South Western Europe, the name of Portugal derives from the joined Romano-Celtic name Portus Cale. Other influences include some 5th-century vestiges of Alan settlements, which were found in Alenquer, the region of present-day Portugal was inhabited by Neanderthals and by Homo sapiens, who roamed the border-less region of the northern Iberian peninsula. These were subsistence societies that, although they did not establish prosperous settlements, neolithic Portugal experimented with domestication of herding animals, the raising of some cereal crops and fluvial or marine fishing. Chief among these tribes were the Calaicians or Gallaeci of Northern Portugal, the Lusitanians of central Portugal, the Celtici of Alentejo, a few small, semi-permanent, commercial coastal settlements were founded in the Algarve region by Phoenicians-Carthaginians. Romans first invaded the Iberian Peninsula in 219 BC, during the last days of Julius Caesar, almost the entire peninsula had been annexed to the Roman Republic.
The Carthaginians, Romes adversary in the Punic Wars, were expelled from their coastal colonies and it suffered a severe setback in 150 BC, when a rebellion began in the north
The Guadiana River, or Odiana, is an international river defining a long stretch of the Portugal-Spain border, separating Extremadura and Andalucia from Alentejo and Algarve. With a course that covers a distance of 829 kilometres, it is the fourth-longest in the Iberian peninsula, the Romans referred to the river as the Flumen Anas, the river of ducks. During the Moorish occupation and settlement, the name was extended and referred to as Wadi Ana, passed on to Portuguese and Spanish settlers as the Ouadiana, and just Odiana. It is 818 kilometres long, of which 578 kilometres are within Spanish territory,140 kilometres within Portugal, about 82 percent,55,444 square kilometres, of its basin is in Spain, while about 17 percent,11,560 square kilometres is in Portugal. This legend developed from a belief that the river appeared and disappeared over time. In fact, no subterranean course exists, and the belief that the Lagunas de Ruidera is the source is controversial and traditionally the Upper Guadiana, which runs from Viveros until Argamasilla de Alba had been identified as the main branch of the Guadiana.
But even hydro-geological characteristics indicate that the Upper Guadiana may not be the river within the system. Another of the theories, postulated that the Cigüela and Záncara rivers were the sources of the Guadiana. Today, they are considered parts of the rivers headwaters and important tributaries. The Ciguelas source is in Altos de Cabreras and pertains to the Sistema Ibérico and its course is 225 kilometres long, receiving contributions from the rivers Jualón, Torrejón, Riánsares, Amarguillo and Záncara. From its origin/spring runs from the southern Iberian plain in a direction east to west, to near the town of Badajoz, where it begins to track south leading to the Gulf of Cádiz. The Guadiana marks the border of Spain and Portugal twice as it runs to the ocean, for the most part, the Guadiana is navigable from the Atlantic ocean until Mértola, a distance of 68 kilometres. North of Mértola on the Guadiana is the highest waterfall is Southern Portugal called Pulo do Lobo, the ecosystem has Mediterranean hydrological characteristics, including high variation in intra- and inter-annual discharge, large floods and severe droughts.
This variability is a consequence of variation in rainwater supply averaging around an annual mean of 400 to 600 millimetres. The climate is semiarid with an annual temperature of 14 to 16 °C. The estuary has a width of 550 metres, and its depth ranges from 5 to 17 metres. Tides are semi-diurnal, ranging from 0.8 to 3.5 metres, in Spain, three autonomous communities, Castilla-La Mancha and Andalusia) are crossed by the Guadiana. Meanwhile, in Portugal the river crosses the regions of Alentejo and Algarve, there are over 30 dams on the river basin
The Celtiberians were a group of Celts inhabiting the central-eastern Iberian Peninsula during the final centuries BC. They were explicitely mentioned as being Celts by several classic authors and these tribes spoke the Celtiberian language and wrote it by adapting the Iberian alphabet. Archaeologically, many elements link Celtiberians with Celts in Central Europe, there is no complete agreement on the exact definition of Celtiberians among classical authors, nor modern scholars. The Ebro river clearly divides the Celtiberian areas from non-Indoeuropean speaking peoples, on the other directions, the demarcation is less clear. Most scholars include the Arevaci, Belli and Lusones as Celtiberian tribes, strabo just saw the Celtiberians as a branch of the Celti. Settlements of circular huts survived until Roman times across the north of Iberia, from Northern Portugal and Galicia through Cantabria and northern Leon to the Ebro River. Celtic presence in Iberia likely dates to as early as the 6th century BC, archaeological finds identify the culture as continuous with the culture reported by Classical writers from the late 3rd century onwards.
There, when Greek and Roman geographers and historians encountered them, the dominant tribe were the Arevaci, who dominated their neighbors from powerful strongholds at Okilis and who rallied the long Celtiberian resistance to Rome. Other Celtiberians were the Belli and Titti in the Jalón valley, many late Celtiberian oppida are still occupied by modern towns, inhibiting archaeology. Metalwork stands out in Celtiberian archaeological finds, partly from its nature, emphasizing Celtiberian articles of warlike uses, horse trappings. The two-edged sword adopted by the Romans was previously in use among the Celtiberians, and Latin lancea, Celtiberian culture was increasingly influenced by Rome in the two final centuries BC. These civitates as the Roman historians called them, could make and break alliances, as surviving inscribed hospitality pacts attest, the old clan structures lasted in the formation of the Celtiberian armies, organized along clan-structure lines, with consequent losses of strategic and tactical control.
The Celtiberians were the most influential group in Iberia when the Mediterranean powers started its conquest. In 220 BC, the Punic army was attacked when preparing to cross the Tagus river by a coalition of Vaccei and Olcades. After the conflict, Rome took possession of the Punic empire in Spain, tiberius Sempronius Gracchus spent the years 182 to 179 pacifying the Celtiberians, conflicts between various semi-independent bands of Celtiberians continued. The Sertorian War,80 –72 BC, marked the last formal resistance of the Celtiberian cities to Roman domination, the Celtiberian presence remains on the map of Spain in hundreds of Celtic place-names. The archaeological recovery of Celtiberian culture commenced with the excavations of Numantia, a Roman army auxiliary unit, the Cohors I Celtiberorum, is known from Britain, attested by 2nd century AD discharge diplomas. Center for Celtic Studies, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee,6, The Celts in the Iberian Peninsula, 571–605