In botany, a drupe is an indehiscent fruit in which an outer fleshy part surrounds a single shell of hardened endocarp with a seed inside. These fruits develop from a single carpel, from flowers with superior ovaries; the definitive characteristic of a drupe is that the hard, "lignified" stone is derived from the ovary wall of the flower—in an aggregate fruit composed of small, individual drupes, each individual is termed a drupelet and may together form a botanic berry. Other fleshy fruits may have a stony enclosure that comes from the seed coat surrounding the seed, but such fruits are not drupes; some flowering plants that produce drupes are: coffee, mango, most palms, white sapote and all members of the genus Prunus, including the almond, cherry, nectarine and plum. The term drupaceous is applied to a fruit which has the structure and texture of a drupe, but which does not fit the definition of a drupe; the boundary between a drupe and a berry is not always clear. Thus, some sources describe the fruit of species of the genus Persea, which includes the avocado, as a "drupe", others describe avocado fruit as a "berry".
One definition of "berry" requires the endocarp to be less than 2 mm thick, other fruits with a stony endocarp being "drupes". In marginal cases, terms such as "drupaceous" or "drupe-like" may be used; the term stone fruit can be a synonym for drupe or, more it can mean just the fruit of the genus Prunus. Freestone refers to a drupe having a stone with ease; the flesh does not need to be cut to free the stone. Freestone varieties of fruits are preferred for uses that require careful removal of the stone if removal will be done by hand. Freestone plums are preferred for making homegrown prunes, freestone sour cherries are preferred for making pies and cherry soup. Clingstone refers to a drupe having a stone which cannot be removed from the flesh; the flesh is attached to the stone and must be cut to free the stone. Clingstone varieties of fruits in the genus Prunus are preferred as table fruit and for jams, because the flesh of clingstone fruits tends to be more tender and juicy throughout. Tryma is a specialized term for such nut-like drupes.
Hickory nuts and walnuts in the Juglandaceae family grow within an outer husk. Many drupes, with their sweet, fleshy outer layer, attract the attention of animals as a food, the plant population benefits from the resulting dispersal of its seeds; the endocarp is sometimes dropped after the fleshy part is eaten, but is swallowed, passing through the digestive tract, returned to the soil in feces with the seed inside unharmed. This passage through the digestive tract can reduce the thickness of the endocarp, thus can aid in germination rates; the process is known as scarification. Typical drupes include apricots, peaches, cherries and amlas. Other examples include ivy; the coconut is a drupe, but the mesocarp is fibrous or dry, so this type of fruit is classified as a simple dry, fibrous drupe. Unlike other drupes, the coconut seed is unlikely to be dispersed by being swallowed by fauna, due to its large size, it can, float long distances across oceans. Bramble fruits are aggregates of drupelets; the fruit of blackberries and raspberries comes from a single flower whose pistil is made up of a number of free carpels.
However, which resemble blackberries, are not aggregate fruit, but are multiple fruits derived from bunches of catkins, each drupelet thus belonging to a different flower. Certain drupes occur in large clusters, as in the case of palm species, where a sizable array of drupes is found in a cluster. Examples of such large drupe clusters include dates, Jubaea chilensis in central Chile and Washingtonia filifera in the Sonoran Desert of North America. Pome Identification Of Major Fruit Types Fruits Called Nuts "Drupe". New International Encyclopedia. 1905
Plants are multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. Plants were treated as one of two kingdoms including all living things that were not animals, all algae and fungi were treated as plants. However, all current definitions of Plantae exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes. By one definition, plants form the clade Viridiplantae, a group that includes the flowering plants and other gymnosperms and their allies, liverworts and the green algae, but excludes the red and brown algae. Green plants obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts that are derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria, their chloroplasts contain b, which gives them their green color. Some plants are parasitic or mycotrophic and have lost the ability to produce normal amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize. Plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations, although asexual reproduction is common.
There are about 320 thousand species of plants, of which the great majority, some 260–290 thousand, are seed plants. Green plants provide a substantial proportion of the world's molecular oxygen and are the basis of most of Earth's ecosystems on land. Plants that produce grain and vegetables form humankind's basic foods, have been domesticated for millennia. Plants have many cultural and other uses, as ornaments, building materials, writing material and, in great variety, they have been the source of medicines and psychoactive drugs; the scientific study of plants is known as a branch of biology. All living things were traditionally placed into one of two groups and animals; this classification may date from Aristotle, who made the distincton between plants, which do not move, animals, which are mobile to catch their food. Much when Linnaeus created the basis of the modern system of scientific classification, these two groups became the kingdoms Vegetabilia and Animalia. Since it has become clear that the plant kingdom as defined included several unrelated groups, the fungi and several groups of algae were removed to new kingdoms.
However, these organisms are still considered plants in popular contexts. The term "plant" implies the possession of the following traits multicellularity, possession of cell walls containing cellulose and the ability to carry out photosynthesis with primary chloroplasts; when the name Plantae or plant is applied to a specific group of organisms or taxon, it refers to one of four concepts. From least to most inclusive, these four groupings are: Another way of looking at the relationships between the different groups that have been called "plants" is through a cladogram, which shows their evolutionary relationships; these are not yet settled, but one accepted relationship between the three groups described above is shown below. Those which have been called "plants" are in bold; the way in which the groups of green algae are combined and named varies between authors. Algae comprise several different groups of organisms which produce food by photosynthesis and thus have traditionally been included in the plant kingdom.
The seaweeds range from large multicellular algae to single-celled organisms and are classified into three groups, the green algae, red algae and brown algae. There is good evidence that the brown algae evolved independently from the others, from non-photosynthetic ancestors that formed endosymbiotic relationships with red algae rather than from cyanobacteria, they are no longer classified as plants as defined here; the Viridiplantae, the green plants – green algae and land plants – form a clade, a group consisting of all the descendants of a common ancestor. With a few exceptions, the green plants have the following features in common, they undergo closed mitosis without centrioles, have mitochondria with flat cristae. The chloroplasts of green plants are surrounded by two membranes, suggesting they originated directly from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria. Two additional groups, the Rhodophyta and Glaucophyta have primary chloroplasts that appear to be derived directly from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria, although they differ from Viridiplantae in the pigments which are used in photosynthesis and so are different in colour.
These groups differ from green plants in that the storage polysaccharide is floridean starch and is stored in the cytoplasm rather than in the plastids. They appear to have had a common origin with Viridiplantae and the three groups form the clade Archaeplastida, whose name implies that their chloroplasts were derived from a single ancient endosymbiotic event; this is the broadest modern definition of the term'plant'. In contrast, most other algae not only have different pigments but have chloroplasts with three or four surrounding membranes, they are not close relatives of the Archaeplastida having acquired chloroplasts separately from ingested or symbiotic green and red algae. They are thus not included in the broadest modern definition of the plant kingdom, although they were in the past; the green plants or Viridiplantae were traditionally divided into the green algae (including
Fox-Amphoux is a commune in the Var department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in south-eastern France. As with many smaller villages off the beaten track and closer to the coast, the village perché of Fox-Amphoux lives a quiet life; the old church tower behind the town square offers a 360° panorama of the surrounding countryside including a view of Mont Sainte Victoire to the west. The former hotel in the centre of the village offers breakfast. Paul Barras, president of the Directory and a major figure of the French Revolution, was born in Fox-Amphoux in 1755. Another notable resident was the artist René Lacroix who had a gallery in the far end of the village, he exhibited works both in France and abroad. A huge nettle tree, or'micocoulier', Celtis australis, planted in 1550, stands in front of the church. In front of the nettle tree is an old field elm, Ulmus minor, which has escaped Dutch elm disease. Communes of the Var department INSEE
Celtis is a genus of about 60–70 species of deciduous trees known as hackberries or nettle trees, widespread in warm temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, in southern Europe and eastern Asia, southern and central North America, south to central Africa, northern and central South America. The genus is present in the fossil record at least since the Miocene of Europe, Paleocene of North America and eastern Asia. Included either in the elm family or a separate family, the APG III system places Celtis in an expanded hemp family; the generic name originated in Latin and was applied by Pliny the Elder to the unrelated Ziziphus lotus. Celtis species are medium-sized trees, reaching 10–25 m tall up to 40 m tall; the leaves are alternate, simple, 3–15 cm long, ovate-acuminate, evenly serrated margins. Diagnostically, Celtis can be similar to trees in the Rosaceae and other rose motif families. Small flowers of this monoecious plant appear in early spring. Male flowers are fuzzy. Female flowers are more rounded.
The fruit is a small drupe 6–10 mm in diameter, edible in many species, with a dryish but sweet, sugary consistency, reminiscent of a date. Celtis africana Burm.f. – white stinkwood Celtis australis L. – European hackberry, European nettle tree, or lote tree Celtis balansae Planch. Celtis biondii Pamp. Celtis brasiliensis Planch. Celtis bungeana L. – Bunge's hackberry Celtis caucasica L. – Caucasian hackberry Celtis conferta Planch. – cottonwood Celtis conferta subsp. Conferta – New Caledonia Celtis conferta subsp. Amblyphylla – Lord Howe Island Celtis durandii Engl. Celtis ehrenbergiana Liebm. – spiny hackberry, granjeno Celtis hypoleuca Planch. Celtis iguanaea Sarg. – iguana hackberry Celtis integrifolia L. – African hackberry Celtis jessoensis Koidz. – Japanese hackberry Celtis koraiensis L. – Korean hackberry Celtis labilis L. – Hubei hackberry Celtis laevigata Willd. – southern or sugar hackberry, sugarberry Celtis lindheimeri Engelm. Ex K. Koch – Lindheimer's hackberry Celtis loxensis C. C. Berg Celtis luzonica Warb.
Celtis mildbraedii Engl. Celtis occidentalis L. – common or northern hackberry, false elm Celtis pallida Torr. – desert or shiny hackberry Celtis paniculata Planch. – whitewood Celtis philippensis Planch. Celtis planchoniana K. I. Chr. Celtis reticulata Torr. – netleaf hackberry Celtis schippii Standl. Celtis sinensis Pers. – Chinese or Japanese hackberry, Chinese nettle tree Celtis tala Gillet ex Planch. – tala Celtis tenuifolia Nutt. – dwarf hackberry Celtis tetranda Roxb. Celtis timorensis Span. – kayu busok Celtis tournefortii L. – Oriental hackberry Celtis trinervia Lam. – almex Trema cannabina Lour. Trema lamarckiana Blume Trema orientalis Blume Trema tomentosa H. Hara Several species are grown as ornamental trees, valued for their drought tolerance, they are a regular feature of arboreta and botanical gardens in North America. Chinese hackberry is suited for bonsai culture, while a magnificent specimen in Daegu-myeon is one of the natural monuments of South Korea. Some, including common hackberry and C. brasiliensis, are honey plants and pollen source for honeybees of lesser importance.
Hackberry wood is sometimes used in woodworking. The berries are eaten locally; the Korean tea gamro cha contains. Celtis species are used as food plants by the caterpillars of certain Lepidoptera; these include brush-footed butterflies, most the distinct genus Libythea and some Apaturinae: Acytolepis puspa – common hedge blue, recorded on Chinese hackberry Automeris io – Io moth, recorded on southern hackberry Asterocampa celtis – hackberry butterfly or hackberry emperor Libythea celtis – European beak Libythea labdaca – African beak Libythea lepita – common beak Libythea myrrha – club beak, recorded on C. tetrandra Libytheana carinenta – American snout or common snout butterfly Nymphalis xanthomelas – scarce tortoiseshell, recorded on European hackberry Sasakia charonda – great purple emperor, recorded on C. jessoensis and C. japonica A putative new taxon of the two-barred flasher cryptic species complex, provisionally called "CELT," has hitherto only been found on C. iguanaea. The plant pathogenic basidiomycete fungus Perenniporia celtis was first described from a Celtis host plant.
Some species of Celtis are threatened by habitat destruction. Media related to Celtis at Wikimedia Commons "Nettle Tree". Encyclopædia Britannica. 19. 1911. P. 422
A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers, with less than 40 mm of precipitation for at least three summer months. While the climate receives its name from the Mediterranean Basin, these are located on the western coasts of continents, between 30 and 45 degrees north and south of the equator between oceanic climates towards the poles, semi-arid and arid climates towards the equator. In essence, due to the seasonal shift of the subtropical high-pressure belts with the apparent movement of the Sun, a Mediterranean climate is an intermediate type between these other climates, with winters warmer and drier than oceanic climates and summers imitating sunny weather in semi-arid and arid climates; the resulting vegetation of Mediterranean climates are the garrigue or maquis in the Mediterranean Basin, the chaparral in California, the fynbos in South Africa, the mallee in Australia, the matorral in Chile. Areas with this climate are where the so-called "Mediterranean trinity" of agricultural products have traditionally developed: wheat and olive.
Most large, historic cities of the Mediterranean basin lie within Mediterranean climatic zones, including Algiers, Beirut, İzmir, Marseille, Rome and Valencia. Examples of major cities with Mediterranean climates that lie outside of the historic Mediterranean basin include major examples as Adelaide, Cape Town, Dushanbe, Los Angeles, Perth, San Francisco and Victoria. Under the Köppen climate classification, "hot dry-summer" climates and "cool dry-summer" climates are referred to as "Mediterranean". Under the Köppen climate system, the first letter indicates the climate group. Temperate climates or "C" zones have an average temperature above 0 °C, but below 18 °C, in their coolest months; the second letter indicates the precipitation pattern. Köppen has defined a dry summer month as a month with less than 30 mm of precipitation and with less than one-third that of the wettest winter month. Some, use a 40 mm level; the third letter indicates the degree of summer heat: "a" represents an average temperature in the warmest month above 22 °C, while "b" indicates the average temperature in the warmest month below 22 °C.
Under the Köppen classification, dry-summer climates occur on the western sides of continents. Csb zones in the Köppen system include areas not associated with Mediterranean climates but with Oceanic climates, such as much of the Pacific Northwest, much of southern Chile, parts of west-central Argentina, parts of New Zealand. Additional highland areas in the subtropics meet Cs requirements, though they, are not associated with Mediterranean climates, as do a number of oceanic islands such as Madeira, the Juan Fernández Islands, the western part of the Canary Islands, the eastern part of the Azores. Under Trewartha's modified Köppen climate classification, the two major requirements for a Cs climate are revised. Under Trewartha's system, at least eight months must have average temperatures of 10 °C or higher, the average annual precipitation must not exceed 900 mm. Thus, under this system, many Csb zones in the Köppen system become Do, the rare Csc zones become Eo, with only the classic dry-summer to warm winter, low annual rainfall locations included in the Mediterranean type climate.
During summer, regions of Mediterranean climate are influenced by cold ocean currents which keep the weather in the region dry and pleasant. Similar to desert climates, in many Mediterranean climates there is a strong diurnal character to daily temperatures in the warm summer months due to strong heating during the day from sunlight and rapid cooling at night. In winter, Mediterranean climate zones are no longer influenced by the cold ocean currents and therefore warmer water settles near land and causes clouds to form and rainfall becomes much more likely; as a result, areas with this climate receive all of their precipitation during their winter and spring seasons, may go anywhere from 3 to 6 months during the summer without having any significant precipitation. In the lower latitudes, precipitation decreases in both the winter and summer because they are closer to the Horse latitudes, thus bringing smaller amounts of rain. Toward the polar latitudes, total moisture increases; the rainfall tends to be more evenly distributed throughout the year in Southern Europe, while in the Eastern Mediterranean and in Southern California the summer is nearly or dry.
In places where evapotranspiration is higher, steppe climates tend to prevail, but still follow the weather pattern of the Mediterranean climate. The majority of the regions with Mediterranean climates have mild winters and warm summers; however winter and summer temperatures can vary between different regions with a Mediterranean climate. For instance, in the case of winters and Los Angeles experience mild temperatures in the winter, with frost and snowfall unknown, whereas Tashkent has colder winters with annual frosts and snowfall. Or to consider summer, Athens experiences rather high temperatures in that season. In contrast, San Francisco has cool summers with daily highs around 21 °C due to
Decoction is a method of extraction by boiling herbal or plant material to dissolve the chemicals of the material, which may include stems, roots and rhizomes. Decoction involves first mashing the plant material to allow for maximum dissolution, boiling in water to extract oils, volatile organic compounds and other various chemical substances. Decoction can be used to make herbal teas, leaf teas, coffees and similar solutions. Decoctions and infusions may produce liquids with differing chemical properties as the temperature and/or preparation difference may result in more oil-soluble chemicals in decoctions versus infusions; the process can be applied to meats and vegetables to prepare bouillon or stock, though the term is only used to describe boiled plant extracts for medicinal or scientific purposes. Decoction is the name for the resulting liquid. Although this method of extraction differs from infusion and percolation, the resultant liquids can sometimes be similar in their effects, or general appearance and taste.
The term dates back to 1350–1400 from present participle stem of Latin decoquere, de "from" + coquere "to cook". In brewing, decoction mashing is the traditional method where a portion of the mash is removed to a separate vessel, boiled for a time and returned to the main mash, raising the mash to the next temperature step. In herbalism, decoctions are made to extract fluids from hard plant materials such as roots and bark. To achieve this, the plant material is boiled for 1–2 hours in 1-5 liters of water, it is strained. Ayurveda utilizes this method to create Kashayam type of herbal medicines. For teas, decoction involves boiling the same amount of the herb and water that would be used for an infusion for about five to ten minutes. Concoction Percolation Infusion Maceration Tincture Herbalism How To Make a Herbal Decoction from unexplainable.net
A village perché is a village perched at the top of a relief, most found in France. Difficult to access with ramparts,'villages perchés' are for the most part fortified settlements dating from the Middle Ages. Many are located in the south-east of France in the present Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region, this type of habitat considered typical of Provence; the villages, situated on their "rocky acropolis", have retained their medieval appearance, from the orientation of the facades of their houses - towards the valley or the road of communication - a true front of fortification. Fernand Benoit emphasizes their occasional prehistoric origin by pointing out that Cicero, in reference to the Ligurians who inhabited the region, called them castellani, inhabitants of the castellas.'Villages perchés' are found in hilly areas where soil is poor and water scarce. This is case in Provence except in the lower Rhone valley and in the Durance valley, where alluvial land abounds and water is accessible from a well dug in the courtyard of the house.
Moreover, this grouping in a community closed in on itself corresponds to regions of small properties, where the only fertile lands are situated at the bottom of a few valleys, this aggregation has facilitated the existence of rural handicraft indispensable to the villagers. Conversely, the dispersed habitat implies larger, wealthier estates, hence the aphorism penned by Fernand Benoit: "Poverty concentrates the habitat, wealth disperses it". There is a specific habitat type, linked to the village perché: the'high house'. Benoit explains that "its originality consists in placing the beasts below, man above." The building is subdivided into a barn on the ground floor, housing on one or two floors, an attic. It was the type of house reserved for the peasant villagers, it is still found today in a number of mountainous massifs of western Provence, including the Alps valleys of Bléone and Haut Verdon, in the mountain of Lure where it is common in Banon, Saint-Étienne-les-Orgues and Sigonce. Most of these houses date from the 16th century, when the religious wars forced the populace to hide behind the village fortifications.
When the wars were over, there was a drift to the periphery of the agglomeration and "houses on land", more able to accommodate annexed buildings. Indeed, this type of dwelling, gathering people and animals in a village, could only remain frozen in time, any extension being impossible except vertically, their architecture is therefore characteristic: a narrow facade with one or two windows, an elevation not exceeding four to five floors, including attic with its outer pulley to hoist the forage. The only possible transformations - these houses having lost their agricultural status - are to install a garage on the ground floor and create new rooms in the attic. For those houses restored with taste, the floor of the habitation is reached by a staircase joined to the facade; the presence of terrace or balcony was constant. The terrace was used for the drying of fruit and vegetables suspended from a wire called a'trihard' when forming a trellis that covered a rustic pergola. Where it formed a loggia, columns supporting a canopy covered with tiles, it was called a'galarié' or'soulerie'