Otto Bache was a Danish Realist painter. Many of his works depict key events in Danish history, at the age of only eleven, he received a dispensation and was admitted into the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, studying under Wilhelm Marstrand, among others. In 1866, he received the Academys travel grant and went to Paris and his stay in Paris had a particularly deep impact on his work, turning it in a direction characterized by more freedom, more colour, stronger light, and broader scope. Upon his return in 1868, he was married and he was named a Commander in the Order of the Dannebrog and was awarded the Dannebrogordenens Hæderstegn. He received early recognition as a painter but he showed great interest in painting animal motifs, gradually turning to genre works. Media related to Otto Bache at Wikimedia Commons
Emma Gad, born Emma Halkier, was a Danish writer and socialite who wrote plays and books that were often satirical. Although she was a writer, many of her works fell into obscurity after her death. One work that remained popular was Takt og Tone, a book of etiquette she wrote in old age and she received a gold Medal of Merit in 1905. Today her plays are preserved in Denmarks Royal Library, Gad grew up in a relatively affluent home and received a good education for a woman at the time. She married Nicolas Urban Gad, an admiral, in 1872. They had two sons and Peter Urban Gad, who became a filmmaker. She was a member of trade unions and womens societies in Copenhagen. In 1886 she premiered as a dramatist at the Royal Danish Theatres Ny Scene, in 1898 she co-founded the Womens Trade and Clerical Association, which was the first professional organization of women in the office. Gads book Etiquette - About Dealing with People was published in 1918 and her oft-repeated point is that when visitation is between considerate people etiquette is not necessary.
It is the indifferent, selfish, or directly ruthless people that create the need for a formal etiquette, on Jan 21,2013 Google made a doodle for Emma Gads 161st birthday, in honor of her book of etiquette. Works by Emma Gad at LibriVox
Tar is a black mixture of hydrocarbons and free carbon obtained from a wide variety of organic materials through destructive distillation. Tar can be produced from coal, petroleum, or peat and trade in pine-derived tar was a major contributor in the economies of Northern Europe and Colonial America. Its main use was in preserving wooden vessels against rot, the largest user was the Royal Navy. Demand for tar declined with the advent of iron and steel ships, tar-like products can be produced from other forms of organic matter, such as peat. Mineral products resembling tar can be produced from hydrocarbons, such as petroleum. Coal tar is produced from coal as a byproduct of coke production, Bitumen is a term used for natural deposits of oil tar, such as at the La Brea Tar Pits. In Northern Europe, the word tar refers primarily to a substance that is derived from the wood, in earlier times it was often used as a water repellent coating for boats and roofs. It is still used as an additive in the flavoring of candy, producing tar from wood was known in ancient Greece and has probably been used in Scandinavia since the Iron Age.
For centuries, dating back at least to the 14th century, sweden exported 13,000 barrels of tar in 1615 and 227,000 barrels in the peak year of 1863. Production nearly stopped in the early 20th century, when other chemicals replaced tar, traditional wooden boats are still sometimes tarred. The heating of wood causes tar and pitch to drip away from the wood. Birch bark is used to make particularly fine tar, known as Russian oil, the by-products of wood tar are turpentine and charcoal. When deciduous tree woods are subjected to distillation, the products are methanol. Tar kilns are dry distillation ovens, historically used in Scandinavia for producing tar from wood and they were built close to the forest, from limestone or from more primitive holes in the ground. The bottom is sloped into a hole to allow the tar to pour out. The wood is split into dimensions of a finger, stacked densely, if oxygen can enter, the wood might catch fire, and the production would be ruined. On top of this, a fire is stacked and lit, after a few hours, the tar starts to pour out and continues to do so for a few days.
Tar was used as seal for roofing shingles and tar paper and to seal the hulls of ships, for millennia, wood tar was used to waterproof sails and boats, but today, sails made from inherently waterproof synthetic substances have reduced the demand for tar
Christian IV of Denmark
Christian IV, sometimes colloquially referred to as Christian Firtal in Denmark and Christian Kvart or Quart in Norway, was king of Denmark-Norway and Duke of Holstein and Schleswig from 1588 to 1648. His 59-year reign is the longest of Danish monarchs, and of Scandinavian monarchies, a member of the house of Oldenburg, Christian began his personal rule of Denmark in 1596 at the age of 19. He is frequently remembered as one of the most popular, Christian IV obtained for his kingdom a level of stability and wealth that was virtually unmatched elsewhere in Europe. He engaged Denmark in numerous wars, most notably the Thirty Years War, which devastated much of Germany, undermined the Danish economy and he renamed the Norwegian capital Oslo as Christiania after himself, a name used until 1925. Christian was born at Frederiksborg Castle in Denmark on 12 April 1577 as the child and eldest son of King Frederick II of Denmark–Norway. He was descended, through his mothers side, from king John of Denmark, at the time, Denmark was still an elective monarchy, so in spite of being the eldest son Christian was not automatically heir to the throne.
However, in 1580, at the age of 3, his father had him elected Prince-Elect, at the death of his father on 4 April 1588, Christian was 11 years old. He succeeded to the throne, but as he was still under-age a regency council was set up to serve as the trustees of the power while Christian was still growing up. It was led by chancellor Niels Kaas and consisted of the Rigsraadet council members Peder Munk, Jørgen Ottesen Rosenkrantz and his mother Queen Dowager Sophie,30 years old, had wished to play a role in the government, but was denied by the Council. At the death of Niels Kaas in 1594, Jørgen Rosenkrantz took over leadership of the regency council, Christian continued his studies at Sorø Academy and received a good education with a reputation as a headstrong and talented student. In 1595, the Council of the Realm decided that Christian would soon be old enough to assume control of the reins of government. On 17 August 1596, at the age of 19, Christian signed his haandfæstning, twelve days later, on 29 August 1596, Christian IV was crowned at the Church of Our Lady in Copenhagen by the Bishop of Zealand, Peder Jensen Vinstrup.
He was crowned with a new Danish Crown Regalia which had made for him by Dirich Fyring. On 30 November 1597, he married Anne Catherine of Brandenburg, Christian took an interest in many and varied matters, including a series of domestic reforms and improving Danish national armaments. New fortresses were constructed under the direction of Dutch engineers, the Danish navy, which in 1596 had consisted of but twenty-two vessels, in 1610 rose to sixty, some of them built after Christians own designs. The formation of a national army proved more difficult, up until the early 1620s, Denmarks economy profited from general boom conditions in Europe. This inspired Christian to initiate a policy of expanding Denmarks overseas trade and he founded a number of merchant cities, and supported the building of factories. He built a number of buildings in Dutch Renaissance style
Royal Danish Navy
The Royal Danish Navy is the sea-based branch of the Danish Defence force. The RDN is mainly responsible for defence and maintaining the sovereignty of Danish, Greenlandic. Other tasks include surveillance and rescue, oil recovery and prevention as well as contributions to international tasks. During the period 1509–1814, when Denmark was in a union with Norway, despite this, the navy is now equipped with a number of large state-of-the-art vessels commissioned since the end of the Cold War. This can be explained by its location as the NATO member controlling access to the Baltic. Danish Navy ships carry the prefix KDM in Danish, but this is translated to HDMS in English, Denmark is one of several NATO member states whose navies do not deploy submarines. The geographic layout of Denmark has a coastline to land area ratio of 1,5.9, by comparison, the figure for the Netherlands is 1,92.1 and for the United States,1,493.2. Denmark therefore naturally has long-standing maritime traditions, dating back to the 9th century when the Vikings had small, with time, the defence pacts gave rise to larger, more offensive fleets which the Vikings used for plundering coastal areas.
In the period after the Vikings, and up to the 15th century, indeed, it is said that king Valdemar Sejr had more than 1,000 ships during the conquest of Estonia in 1219. Together they carried more than 30,000 soldiers with horses and supplies, records exist of a unified Danish navy from the late 14th century. Queen Margaret I, who had just founded the Kalmar Union ordered the building of a navy — mainly to defend the union against the Hanseatic League. Earlier the national fleet had consisted of vessels owned and operated by the nobility, the earlier monarchs therefore had to rely on conscription from the nobility, which was not always easy as the monarchy itself often had enemies within the nobility. Queen Margaret I gave instructions for a navy to be constituted and maintained under the control of the monarchy, the nobility still had to provide crews for these ships, though the core crew-members could be employed by the monarch. There were education officers, mainly levied from the nobility, in the 15th century, especially during the reign of King Hans, Danish trade expanded appreciably, increasing the need for the delivery of merchandise.
As shipping was the means of transport at the time. King Hans is credited with establishing a joint Dano-Norwegian fleet in 1509 and they were mainly petty criminals, who had to choose between working in the king’s navy or imprisonment. They received basic training in seamanship and carpentry, enabling them to sail the ships, responsibility for weaponry and combat was still in the hands of conscripted farmers. For these, the country was divided into a number of counties — known in Danish as skipæn and it was during this period that dedicated naval bases and shipyards were founded
Exner originally intended on becoming a history painter, but quickly found his niche, however, in genre painting, the most popular and lucrative painting style of his era. The younger Exner was interested in drawing and painting from an age and was put in private training after his confirmation. He began to study at the Royal Danish Academy of Art April 1839 and he caught the attention of Professor J. L. Lund, from whom he learned history painting. He studied on with Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg, closely linked to the Golden Age of Danish Painting and he won the Academys little silver medallion in 1843, and the large silver medallion in 1845. In these early years he exhibited several paintings as well a number of portraits. One of these portraits, a portrait of his sister, won him the Academys Neuhausens prize in 1847, another painting from 1851, Marsk Stigs Døtre, was commissioned by Count Frederik Christian Julius Knuth to hang at Knuthenborg Palace. The Count was generous with Exner, not only paying him well, both of these painting depict an ancient Danish history and legend.
But even Exner admitted to having an irrational desire to become a history painter. This brought him to Amager, an island south of Copenhagen, where Dutch farmers had settled in 1521, there he painted his masterly, life-size En Amagerkone, der tæller sine Penge efter, which was exhibited in 1852, and was purchased by the National Collection. These themes focused on the folktypes in various areas of Denmark, especially those living in the country, in the visual arts a generation of artísts had been already exploring such themes as typical Danish landscapes, and the depiction of Danish and Nordic themes, mythological stories and history. Many of the artists in the generation were students of Eckersberg. They had been affected by Eckersbergs stress on attentive study and representation of Danish nature, a follow up painting to his first Amager painting was Et Besøg hos Bedstefaderen painted in 1853, which assured him a successful career with its wide popularity and many reproductions. He won a Thorvaldsens exhibition medallion for the work, and the painting was purchased for the National Collection and these paintings attracted an interested public, who was fascinated by this close-up look at the exotic foreigners living in Denmark side-by-side with them.
It was a chance to come into the home of strangers, Exner was skilled and portrayed his subjects with affection and gentle humour. He often traveled to the countryside during the summers to do studies from nature, as was common practice in these times. And he began seeking out themes in other locations on Sjælland. as well, one of his paintings Lille pige lader en gammel mand lugte til en blomst painted in 1856, proved to be the start of Heinrich Hirschsprungs collection, when he purchased it in 1866. He occasionally painted depictions of Italy, including his well-known En gondol from 1859, a view looking out from the dark interior of a covered gondola. A young woman at the side of the canvas peers out from the dark
Heinrich Hansen (painter)
Heinrich Hansen was a Danish architectural painter and State Councillor. His son, Adolf Heinrich-Hansen, was an architectural painter and his father was a cloth dyer who originally came from Flensborg. After some time as a painter, he went to Copenhagen in 1842 to enroll at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts with the intention of becoming a decorative painter. Before the year was out, he had begun assisting with the decorations at the Thorvaldsen Museum and he attended the modeling classes and won a silver medal in 1846 for his live model painting. The following year, together with Wilhelm Marstrand, he helped create decorations for the chapel of King Christian IV at Roskilde. In 1847, he was awarded money from the Reiersenske Fund and this enabled him to study in Germany. During his time there, he decided to be an architectural painter, in 1848, he held his first exhibition, had an exhibit of oil paintings in 1849. It was well-received and his support was extended so he was able to visit most of Western Europe.
One of the paintings that resulted from this trip, a view of the Church of Our Blessed Lady of the Sablon, was purchased for the Royal Collection and he was a member of the selection committee for the Charlottenborg Spring Exhibition. He became a Knight in the Order of the Dannebrog in 1859, over the years, he worked on restoration projects at Rosenborg and Frederiksborg castles, the last of which suffered a major fire in 1859. He designed furniture and porcelain, coordinating design at Bing & Grøndahls porcelain factory for a period of 22 years, in 1877, together with his wife, Margrethe, he created the State Councilor H. Hansen and Wife Silver Anniversary Scholarship and he went through an extended period of illness and apparently recovered for a time, but had a sudden relapse and died the next day
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
The hectare is an SI accepted metric system unit of area equal to 100 ares and primarily used in the measurement of land as a metric replacement for the imperial acre. An acre is about 0.405 hectare and one hectare contains about 2.47 acres, in 1795, when the metric system was introduced, the are was defined as 100 square metres and the hectare was thus 100 ares or 1⁄100 km2. When the metric system was further rationalised in 1960, resulting in the International System of Units, the are was not included as a recognised unit. The hectare, remains as a non-SI unit accepted for use with the SI units, the metric system of measurement was first given a legal basis in 1795 by the French Revolutionary government. At the first meeting of the CGPM in 1889 when a new standard metre, manufactured by Johnson Matthey & Co of London was adopted, in 1960, when the metric system was updated as the International System of Units, the are did not receive international recognition. The units that were catalogued replicated the recommendations of the CGPM, many farmers, especially older ones, still use the acre for everyday calculations, and convert to hectares only for official paperwork.
Farm fields can have long histories which are resistant to change, with names such as the six acre field stretching back hundreds of years. The names centiare, deciare and hectare are derived by adding the standard metric prefixes to the base unit of area. The centiare is a synonym for one square metre, the deciare is ten square metres. The are is a unit of area, equal to 100 square metres and it was defined by older forms of the metric system, but is now outside of the modern International System of Units. It is commonly used to measure real estate, in particular in Indonesia, and in French-, Portuguese-, Slovakian-, Serbian-, Czech-, Polish-, Dutch-, in Russia and other former Soviet Union states, the are is called sotka. It is used to describe the size of suburban dacha or allotment garden plots or small city parks where the hectare would be too large, the decare is derived from deka, the prefix for 10 and are, and is equal to 10 ares or 1000 square metres. It is used in Norway and in the former Ottoman areas of the Middle East, the hectare, although not strictly a unit of SI, is the only named unit of area that is accepted for use within the SI.
The United Kingdom, United States, and to some extent Canada instead use the acre, such as South Africa, published conversion factors which were to be used particularly when preparing consolidation diagrams by compilation. In many countries, metrication redefined or clarified existing measures in terms of metric units, non-SI units accepted for use with the International System of Units
St. Matthew's Church, Copenhagen
St. Mathews Church is the oldest and largest church in the Vesterbro district of Copenhagen, Denmark. The decommissioning of Copenhagens Bastioned Fortifications was a gradual and prolonged process and this was the case with Vesterbro outside the former Western City Gate which developed into a crowded and poor working-class neighbourhood. Constructed between 1879 and 1880, St. Matthews Church was the first church to be built in the area, at that time the parish had around 2,000 inhabitants. Its architect was Ludvig Fenger who had just completed St. James Church in Østerbro, up until the mid-1890s, St. Matthews remained the only church in Vesterbro. At the turn of the 20th century the population had grown to about 7,000, like many other Danish buildings of its time, St. Matthews Church is inspired by North Italian Romanesque brick architecture. A distinctive feature of the exterior is the many pinnacles along the eaves as well as on the corners of the tower, most of the inventory is designed by Ludvig Fenger, including the organ case.
The organ works were created by A. H. Busch & Sønner in 1880, the altarpiece is a mural painted directly on the wall behind the altar by Henrik Olrik depicting the Sermon on the Mount. St. Johns Church, Copenhagen Jesus Church, Valby