InfoTrac is a family of full-text databases of content from academic journals and general magazines, of which the majority are targeted to the English-speaking North American market. As is typical of online proprietary databases, various forms of authentication are used to verify affiliation with subscribing academic and school libraries. InfoTrac databases are published by a part of Cengage Learning; as of 1994, InfoTrac databases were published by Information Access Company on CD-ROMs which were mailed to subscribing libraries at regular intervals. In that era, when personal computers were still new, many publishers were not yet licensing full text of their articles, so most publications were represented only by article abstracts; this meant the InfoTrac family of products at their inception were bibliographic databases as opposed to full-text databases. Furthermore, the personal computers used as InfoTrac terminals operated only in text mode, meaning that "full text" meant only text and not the article as published with photos and illustrations.
However, InfoTrac databases were published in coordination with various microfilm products from IAC which came on sequentially numbered auto-loading cartridges, on which individual frames were individually numbered. Most InfoTrac abstracts and full-text articles from the 1980s and 1990s have a location code at the end of the article which points to the exact frame on a microfilm cartridge where the story begins, which a library user could use to obtain a copy of the article as published. With each microfilm product subscription, IAC included a large rotating carousel with slots in which the cartridges could be stored for easy access, sold proprietary microfilm readers for its cartridges; the readers were able to automatically take up the loose end of the microfilm upon cartridge insertion after a second or two, while standard microfilm reels must be manually wound into a reader, much slower. Thus, well-funded U. S. public libraries in the 1980s and 1990s had several Infotrac database terminals, several carousels of IAC cartridges, several microfilm readers.
Researchers would use the database terminals to compile a list of all the cartridge-and-frame codes for all articles they were interested in they would pull the corresponding cartridges from the carousels and use printers built into the readers to make photocopies of the articles as printed. IAC was acquired by Gale Group in 1994. Like most database companies, Gale started offering real-time access to InfoTrac databases through a Web interface in the late 1990s. Around 2000, Gale began making scanned articles in PDF format directly available through the Web interface, thus relieving users of having to go to microfilm or hard copy to obtain as-published copies of articles; the InfoTrac brand was relaunched in 2005 on a new technology platform named Thomson Gale PowerSearch, named "most improved product" at the 2005 Charleston Conference. InfoTrac has placed ninth in Library Journal's list of the top 50 library brands of the millennium. Search engine List of digital library projects List of online databases Academic OneFile
Charles Scribner's Sons
Charles Scribner's Sons, or Scribner's or Scribner, is an American publisher based in New York City, known for publishing American authors including Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Kurt Vonnegut, Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Stephen King, Robert A. Heinlein, Thomas Wolfe, George Santayana, John Clellon Holmes, Don DeLillo, Edith Wharton; the firm published Scribner's Magazine for many years. More several Scribner titles and authors have garnered Pulitzer Prizes, National Book Awards and other merits. In 1978 the company became The Scribner Book Companies. In turn it merged into Macmillan in 1984. Simon & Schuster bought Macmillan in 1994. By this point only the trade book and reference book operations still bore the original family name; the former imprint, now "Scribner," was retained by Simon & Schuster, while the reference division has been owned by Gale since 1999. As of 2012, Scribner is a division of Simon & Schuster under the title Scribner Publishing Group which includes the Touchstone Books imprint.
The president of Scribner as of 2017 is Susan Moldow, the current publisher is Nan Graham. The firm was founded in 1846 by Charles Scribner I and Isaac D. Baker as "Baker & Scribner." After Baker's death, Scribner bought the remainder of the company and renamed it the "Charles Scribner Company." In 1865, the company made its first venture into magazine publishing with Hours at Home. In 1870, the Scribners organized a new firm and Company, to publish a magazine entitled Scribner’s Monthly. After the death of Charles Scribner I in 1871, his son John Blair Scribner took over as president of the company, his other sons Charles Scribner II and Arthur Hawley Scribner would join the firm, in 1875 and 1884. They each served as presidents; when the other partners in the venture sold their stake to the family, the company was renamed Charles Scribner's Sons. The company launched St. Nicholas Magazine in 1873 with Mary Mapes Dodge as editor and Frank R. Stockton as assistant editor; when the Scribner family sold the magazine company to outside investors in 1881, Scribner’s Monthly was renamed the Century Magazine.
The Scribners brothers were enjoined from publishing any magazine for a period of five years. In 1886, at the expiration of this term, they launched Scribner's Magazine; the firm's headquarters were in the Scribner Building, built in 1893, on lower Fifth Avenue at 21st Street, in the Charles Scribner's Sons Building, on Fifth Avenue in midtown. Both buildings were designed by Ernest Flagg in a Beaux Arts style; the children's book division was established in 1934 under the leadership of Alice Dalgliesh. It published works by distinguished authors and illustrators including N. C. Wyeth, Robert A. Heinlein, Marcia Brown, Will James, Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Leo Politi; as of 2011 the publisher is owned by the CBS Corporation. Simon & Schuster reorganized their adult imprints into four divisions in 2012. Scribner became the Scribner Publishing Group and would expand to include Touchstone Books, part of Free Press; the other divisions are Atria Publishing Group, Simon & Schuster Publishing Group, the Gallery Publishing Group.
The new Scribner division would be led by Susan Moldow as president. Charles Scribner I, 1846 to 1871 John Blair Scribner, 1871 to 1879 Charles Scribner II, 1879 to 1930 Arthur Hawley Scribner, circa 1900 Charles Scribner III, 1932 to 1952 Charles Scribner IV, 1952 to 1984 Edith Wharton Henry James Ernest Hemingway Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings Ring Lardner Thomas Wolfe Reinhold Niebuhr F. Scott Fitzgerald Thomas Wolfe Ernest Hemingway Ring Lardner Erskine Caldwell S. S. Van Dine James Jones Simon & Schuster has published thousands of books from thousands of authors; this list represents some of the more notable authors from Scribner since becoming part of Simon & Schuster. For a more extensive list see List of Schuster authors. Annie Proulx Andrew Solomon Anthony Doerr Don DeLillo Frank McCourt Stephen King Jeanette Walls Baker & Scribner, until the death of Baker in 1850 Charles Scribner Company Charles Scribner's Sons Scribner The Scribner Bookstores are now owned by Barnes & Noble. Charles Scribner I List of Simon & Schuster Authors Scribner's Monthly Scribner's Magazine Simon & Schuster Scribner Building Roger Burlingame, Of Making Many Books: A Hundred Years of Reading and Publishing, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1946.
The House of Scribner "Scribner Magazine online". 1889-1939. Retrieved 2012-04-24. Charles Scribner's Sons at Thomson Gale Archives of Charles Scribner’s Sons at the Princeton University Library, Manuscript Division Charles Scribner's Sons Art Reference Department records at the Smithsonian Archives of American Art Charles Scribner's Sons: An Illustrated Chronology Princeton Library
A university is an institution of higher education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines. Universities provide undergraduate education and postgraduate education; the word university is derived from the Latin universitas magistrorum et scholarium, which means "community of teachers and scholars". While antecedents had existed in Asia and Africa, the modern university system has roots in the European medieval university, created in Italy and evolved from cathedral schools for the clergy during the High Middle Ages; the original Latin word universitas refers in general to "a number of persons associated into one body, a society, community, corporation, etc". At the time of the emergence of urban town life and medieval guilds, specialized "associations of students and teachers with collective legal rights guaranteed by charters issued by princes, prelates, or the towns in which they were located" came to be denominated by this general term. Like other guilds, they were self-regulating and determined the qualifications of their members.
In modern usage the word has come to mean "An institution of higher education offering tuition in non-vocational subjects and having the power to confer degrees," with the earlier emphasis on its corporate organization considered as applying to Medieval universities. The original Latin word referred to degree-awarding institutions of learning in Western and Central Europe, where this form of legal organisation was prevalent, from where the institution spread around the world. An important idea in the definition of a university is the notion of academic freedom; the first documentary evidence of this comes from early in the life of the University of Bologna, which adopted an academic charter, the Constitutio Habita, in 1158 or 1155, which guaranteed the right of a traveling scholar to unhindered passage in the interests of education. Today this is claimed as the origin of "academic freedom"; this is now recognised internationally - on 18 September 1988, 430 university rectors signed the Magna Charta Universitatum, marking the 900th anniversary of Bologna's foundation.
The number of universities signing the Magna Charta Universitatum continues to grow, drawing from all parts of the world. According to Encyclopædia Britannica, the earliest universities were founded in Asia and Africa, predating the first European medieval universities; the University of Al Quaraouiyine, founded in Morocco by Fatima al-Fihri in 859, is considered by some to be the oldest degree-granting university. Their endowment by a prince or monarch and their role in training government officials made early Mediterranean universities similar to Islamic madrasas, although madrasas were smaller, individual teachers, rather than the madrasa itself, granted the license or degree. Scholars like Arnold H. Green and Hossein Nasr have argued that starting in the 10th century, some medieval Islamic madrasas became universities. However, scholars like George Makdisi, Toby Huff and Norman Daniel argue that the European university has no parallel in the medieval Islamic world. Several other scholars consider the university as uniquely European in origin and characteristics.
Darleen Pryds questions this view, pointing out that madaris and European universities in the Mediterranean region shared similar foundations by princely patrons and were intended to provide loyal administrators to further the rulers' agenda. Some scholars, including Makdisi, have argued that early medieval universities were influenced by the madrasas in Al-Andalus, the Emirate of Sicily, the Middle East during the Crusades. Norman Daniel, views this argument as overstated. Roy Lowe and Yoshihito Yasuhara have drawn on the well-documented influences of scholarship from the Islamic world on the universities of Western Europe to call for a reconsideration of the development of higher education, turning away from a concern with local institutional structures to a broader consideration within a global context; the university is regarded as a formal institution that has its origin in the Medieval Christian tradition. European higher education took place for hundreds of years in cathedral schools or monastic schools, in which monks and nuns taught classes.
The earliest universities were developed under the aegis of the Latin Church by papal bull as studia generalia and from cathedral schools. It is possible, that the development of cathedral schools into universities was quite rare, with the University of Paris being an exception, they were founded by Kings or municipal administrations. In the early medieval period, most new universities were founded from pre-existing schools when these schools were deemed to have become sites of higher education. Many historians state that universities and cathedral schools were a continuation of the interest in learning promoted by The residence of a religious community. Pope Gregory VII was critical in promoting and regulating the concept of modern university as his 1079 Papal Decree ordered the regulated establishment of cathedral schools that transformed themselves into the first European universities; the first universities in Europe with a form of corporate/guild structure were the University of Bologna, the University of Paris, the University of Oxford.
The University of Bologna began as a law school teach
Questia Online Library
Questia is an online commercial digital library of books and articles that has an academic orientation, with a particular emphasis on books and journal articles in the humanities and social sciences. All the text in all the Questia books and articles is available to subscribers. Questia, based in Chicago, was founded in 1998 and purchased by Gale, part of Cengage Learning, in January 2010. Questia offers some information free of charge, including several public domain works, publication information, tables of contents, the first page of every chapter, Boolean searches of the contents of the library, short bibliographies of available books and articles on some 6500 topics. Questia does not sell ownership to books or ebooks, but rather sells monthly or annual subscriptions that allow temporary online reading access to all 78,000+ books, 9,000,000+ journal and newspaper articles in their collection; the books have been selected by academic librarians as credible, authoritative works in their respective areas.
The librarians have compiled about 7000 reference bibliographies on researched topics. The library is strongest in books and journal articles in the social sciences and humanities, with many older historical texts. Original pagination has been maintained; the Questia service features tools to automatically create citations and bibliographies, helping writers to properly cite the materials. A limitation to the Questia library is. Unlike Questia's earlier publications, these prevent users from copying text directly from the website, although one page from the publications can be printed free of charge. A charge is made for printing a range of pages. Questia launched their Q&A blog on September 21, 2011. Q&A is divided into "Education news," "Student resources" and "Subjects" categories. "Subjects" is further broken down so readers can find specific content based on their academic needs. Questia released an iPhone app in 2011, extended to the iPad the following year. In January 2013 Questia launched tutorials, including videos and quizzes, to teach students the research process.
Questia was criticized in 2005 by librarian Steven J. Bell for referring to itself as an academic library, when it concentrates on the liberal arts and treats users as customers rather than students. Moreover, Bell argues, Questia does not employ academic librarians or faculty. Although some of its employees have advanced library degrees, they do not work or collaborate with faculty to develop collections that serve distinctive student populations. List of digital library projects "Official Website". Questia.com. "Questia School". Questiaschool.com
G. Schirmer, Inc.
G. Schirmer, Inc. is an American classical music publishing company based in New York City, founded in 1861. The oldest active music publisher in the United States, Schirmer publishes sheet music for sale and rental, represents some well-known European music publishers in North America, such as the Music Sales Affiliates ChesterNovello, Breitkopf & Härtel and many Russian and former Soviet composers' catalogs; the company was founded in 1861 in the United States by German-born Gustav Schirmer, Sr. the son of a German immigrant. In 1891, the company established its own printing plant; the next year it inaugurated the Schirmer's Library of Musical Classics. The Musical Quarterly, the oldest academic journal on music in the U. S. was founded by Schirmer in 1915 together with musicologist Oscar Sonneck, who edited the journal until his death in 1928. In 1964, Schirmer acquired Associated Music Publishers which had built up an important catalog of American composers including Elliott Carter, Henry Cowell, Roy Harris, Charles Ives, Walter Piston, William Schuman, adding to a Schirmer's ASCAP roster which had included Samuel Barber, Leonard Bernstein, Morton Gould, Gian Carlo Menotti, Virgil Thomson, as well as composers from the earlier part of the century such as Charles Tomlinson Griffes, Charles Martin Loeffler, John Alden Carpenter, Percy Grainger.
The company was owned by the Schirmer family for over 100 years until Macmillan, a major book publisher, purchased it in 1968. Macmillan sold G. Schirmer to its current owner, Robert Wise, in 1986, the owner of popular music publisher, Music Sales Group, Inc. According to a spokesman, the purchase price was around US$7 million; as the sale of Schirmer did not include The Musical Quarterly, the future of the journal remained uncertain until its transition in 1989 to publisher Oxford University Press. In 1986 Schirmer joined with the Hal Leonard Corporation, a print distributor of jazz and popular music, who became the sole distributors of Schirmer's printed music; the last member of the family named for the founder was Gus Schirmer the 4th, a theatrical director and agent, who died in 1992 at the age of 73. The Schirmer/AMP catalog includes composers such as John Corigliano, Richard Danielpour, Avner Dorman, Gabriela Lena Frank, John Harbison, Aaron Jay Kernis, Leon Kirchner, Peter Lieberson, André Previn, Bright Sheng, Tan Dun, Augusto Brandt, Robert Xavier Rodriguez and Joan Tower.
The company publishes The G. Schirmer Manual of Style and Usage. G. Schirmer is a member of the Music Sales Group of Companies, the Music Publishers Association, the National Music Publishers Association, the Church Music Publishers Association. Schirmer.com, Home page ArtistsHouseMusic.org, Interview with Peggy Monastra on G. Schirmer Music Publishers G. Schirmer, Inc.: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project
Educational technology is "the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating and managing appropriate technological processes and resources". Educational technology is the use of educational theoretic, it encompasses several domains including learning theory, computer-based training, online learning, where mobile technologies are used, m-learning. Accordingly, there are several discrete aspects to describing the intellectual and technical development of educational technology: Educational technology as the theory and practice of educational approaches to learning. Educational technology as technological tools and media, for instance massive online courses, that assist in the communication of knowledge, its development and exchange; this is what people are referring to when they use the term "EdTech". Educational technology for learning management systems, such as tools for student and curriculum management, education management information systems.
Educational technology as back-office management, such as training management systems for logistics and budget management, Learning Record Store for learning data storage and analysis. Educational technology itself as an educational subject; the Association for Educational Communications and Technology defined educational technology as "the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating and managing appropriate technological processes and resources". It denoted instructional technology as "the theory and practice of design, utilization and evaluation of processes and resources for learning"; as such, educational technology refers to all valid and reliable applied education sciences, such as equipment, as well as processes and procedures that are derived from scientific research, in a given context may refer to theoretical, algorithmic or heuristic processes: it does not imply physical technology. Educational technology is the process of integrating technology into education in a positive manner that promotes a more diverse learning environment and a way for students to learn how to use technology as well as their common assignments.
Educational technology is an inclusive term for both the material tools and the theoretical foundations for supporting learning and teaching. Educational technology is not restricted to high technology but is anything that enhances classroom learning in the utilization of blended, face to face, or online learning. An educational technologist is someone, trained in the field of educational technology. Educational technologists try to analyze, develop and evaluate process and tools to enhance learning. While the term educational technologist is used in the United States, learning technologist is synonymous and used in the UK as well as Canada. Modern electronic educational technology is an important part of society today. Educational technology encompasses e-learning, instructional technology and communication technology in education, EdTech, learning technology, multimedia learning, technology-enhanced learning, computer-based instruction, computer managed instruction, computer-based training, computer-assisted instruction or computer-aided instruction, internet-based training, flexible learning, web-based training, online education, digital educational collaboration, distributed learning, computer-mediated communication, cyber-learning, multi-modal instruction, virtual education, personal learning environments, networked learning, virtual learning environments, m-learning, ubiquitous learning and digital education.
Each of these numerous terms has had its advocates. However, many terms and concepts in educational technology have been defined nebulously. Moreover, Moore saw these terminologies as emphasizing particular features such as digitization approaches, components or delivery methods rather than being fundamentally dissimilar in concept or principle. For example, m-learning emphasizes mobility, which allows for altered timing, location and context of learning. In practice, as technology has advanced, the particular "narrowly defined" terminological aspect, emphasized by name has blended into the general field of educational technology. "virtual learning" as narrowly defined in a semantic sense implied entering an environmental simulation within a virtual world, for example in treating posttraumatic stress disorder. In practice, a "virtual education course" refers to any instructional course in which all, or at least a significant portion, is delivered by the Internet. "Virtual" is used in that broader way to describe a course, not taught in a classroom face-to-face but through a substitute mode that can conceptually be associated "virtually" with classroom teaching, which means that people do not have to go to the physical classroom to learn.
Accordingly, virtual education refers to a form of distance learning in which course content is delivered by various methods such as course management applications, multimedia resources, videoconferencing. Virtual education and simulated learning opportunities, such as games or dissections, offer opportunities for students to connect classroom content to authentic situations. Educational conte
The Boston Globe
The Boston Globe is an American daily newspaper founded and based in Boston, since its creation by Charles H. Taylor in 1872; the newspaper has won a total of 26 Pulitzer Prizes as of 2016, with a total paid circulation of 245,824 from September 2015 to August 2016, it is the 25th most read newspaper in the United States. The Boston Globe is the largest daily newspaper in Boston. Founded in the late 19th century, the paper was controlled by Irish Catholic interests before being sold to Charles H. Taylor and his family. After being held until 1973, it was sold to The New York Times in 1993 for $1.1 billion, making it one of the most expensive print purchases in U. S. history. The newspaper was purchased in 2013 by Boston Red Sox and Liverpool F. C. owner John W. Henry for $70 million from The New York Times Company, having lost 93.64% of its value in twenty years. The newspaper has been noted as "one of the nation’s most prestigious papers." The paper's coverage of the 2001–2003 Roman Catholic Church sex abuse scandal received international media attention and served as the basis of the 2015 American drama, Spotlight.
In 1967, The Globe became the first major paper in the United States to come out against the Vietnam War. The chief print rival of The Boston Globe is the Boston Herald; as of 2013, The Globe circulates the entire press run of its rival. The editor-in-chief, otherwise known as the editor, of the paper is Brian McGrory who took the helm in December 2012; the Boston Globe was founded in 1872 by six Boston businessmen, including Charles H. Taylor and Eben Jordan, who jointly invested $150,000; the first issue was published on March 4, 1872, cost four cents. A morning daily, it began a Sunday edition in 1877, which absorbed the rival Boston Weekly Globe in 1892. In 1878, The Boston Globe started an afternoon edition called The Boston Evening Globe, which ceased publication in 1979. By the 1890s, The Boston Globe had become a stronghold, with an editorial staff dominated by Irish American Catholics. In 1912, the Globe was one of a cooperative of four newspapers, including the Chicago Daily News, The New York Globe, the Philadelphia Bulletin, to form the Associated Newspapers syndicate.
In 1965, Thomas Winship succeeded Larry Winship, as editor. The younger Winship transformed The Globe from a mediocre local paper into a regional paper of national distinction, he served as editor until 1984, during which time the paper won a dozen Pulitzer Prizes, the first in the paper's history. The Boston Globe was a private company until 1973 when it went public under the name Affiliated Publications, it continued to be managed by the descendants of Charles H. Taylor. In 1993, The New York Times Company purchased Affiliated Publications for US$1.1 billion, making The Boston Globe a wholly owned subsidiary of The New York Times' parent. The Jordan and Taylor families received substantial New York Times Company stock, but the last Taylor family members have since left management. Boston.com, the online edition of The Boston Globe, was launched on the World Wide Web in 1995. Ranked among the top ten newspaper websites in America, it has won numerous national awards and took two regional Emmy Awards in 2009 for its video work.
Under the helm of editor Martin Baron and Brian McGrory, The Globe shifted away from coverage of international news in favor of Boston-area news. Globe reporters Michael Rezendes, Matt Carroll, Sacha Pfeiffer and Walter Robinson and editor Ben Bradlee Jr. were an instrumental part of uncovering the Roman Catholic Church sex abuse scandal in 2001–2003 in relation to Massachusetts churches. They were awarded the Pulitzer Prize for their work, one of several the paper has received for its investigative journalism, their work was dramatized in the 2015 Academy Award-winning film Spotlight, named after the paper's in-depth investigative division; the Boston Globe is credited with allowing Peter Gammons to start his Notes section on baseball, which has become a mainstay in all major newspapers nationwide. In 2004, Gammons was selected as the 56th recipient of the J. G. Taylor Spink Award for outstanding baseball writing, given by the BBWAA, was honored at the Baseball Hall of Fame on July 31, 2005.
In 2007, Charlie Savage, whose reports on President Bush's use of signing statements made national news, won the Pulitzer Prize for National Reporting. The Boston Globe has been ranked in the forefront of American journalism. Time magazine listed it as one of the ten best US daily newspapers in 1974 and 1984, the Globe tied for sixth in a national survey of top editors who chose "America's Best Newspapers" in the Columbia Journalism Review in 1999; the Boston Globe hosts 28 blogs covering a variety of topics including Boston sports, local politics and a blog made up of posts from the paper's opinion writers. On April 2, 2009, The New York Times Company threatened to close the paper if its unions did not agree to $20,000,000 of cost savings; some of the cost savings include reducing union employees' pay by 5%, ending pension contributions, ending certain employees' tenures. The Boston Globe eliminated the equivalent of fifty full-time jobs. However, early on the morning of May 5, 2009, The New York Times Company announced it had reached a tentative deal with the Boston Newspaper Guild, which represents most of the Globe's editorial staff, that allowed it to get the concessions it demanded.
The paper's other three major unions had agreed to concessions on May 3, 2009, after The New York Times Company threatened to give