A war correspondent is a journalist who covers stories firsthand from a war zone. They were called special correspondents, their jobs bring war correspondents to the most conflict-ridden parts of the world. Once there, they attempt to get close enough to the action to provide written accounts, photos, or film footage. Thus, this is considered the most dangerous form of journalism. On the other hand, war coverage is one of the most successful branches of journalism. Newspaper sales increase in wartime, television news ratings go up. News organizations have sometimes been accused of militarism because of the advantages they gather from conflict. William Randolph Hearst is said to have encouraged the Spanish–American War for this reason. Only some conflicts receive extensive worldwide coverage, however. Among recent wars, the Kosovo War received a great deal of coverage. In contrast, the largest war in the last half of the 20th century, the Iran–Iraq War, received far less substantial coverage; this is typical for wars among less-developed countries, as audiences are less interested and the reports do little to increase sales and ratings.
The lack of infrastructure makes reporting more difficult and expensive, the conflicts are far more dangerous for war correspondents. Written war correspondents have existed as long as journalism. Before modern journalism it was more common for longer histories to be written at the end of a conflict; the first known of these is Herodotus's account of the Persian Wars, however he did not himself participate in the events. Thucydides, who some years wrote a history of the Peloponnesian War was a commander and an observer to the events he described. In the eighteenth century the Baroness Frederika Charlotte Riedesel's Letters and Journals Relating to the War of the American Revolution and the Capture of the German Troops at Saratoga is regarded as the first account of war by a woman, her description of the events that took place in the Marshall House are poignant because she was in the midst of battle. The first modern war correspondent is said to be Dutch painter Willem van de Velde, who in 1653 took to sea in a small boat to observe a naval battle between the Dutch and the English, of which he made many sketches on the spot, which he developed into one big drawing that he added to a report he wrote to the States General.
A further modernization came with the development of magazines. One of the earliest war correspondents was Henry Crabb Robinson, who covered Napoleon's campaigns in Spain and Germany for The Times of London. Another early correspondent was William Hicks whose letters describing the Battle of Trafalgar were published in The Times. Early film and television news had war correspondents. Rather, they would collect footage provided by other sources the government, the news anchor would add narration; this footage was staged as cameras were large and bulky until the introduction of small, portable motion picture cameras during World War II. The situation changed with the Vietnam War when networks from around the world sent cameramen with portable cameras and correspondents; this proved damaging to the United States as the full brutality of war became a daily feature on the nightly news. The discourse in mediated conflicts is influenced by its public character. By forwarding information and arguments to the media, conflict parties attempt to use the media influence to gain support from their constituencies and persuade their opponents.
The continued progress of technology has allowed live coverage of events via satellite up-links. The rise of twenty-four hour news channels has led to a heightened demand for coverage. William Howard Russell, who covered the Crimean War for The Times, is described as the first modern war correspondent; the stories from this era, which were as lengthy and analytical as early books on war, took numerous weeks from being written to being published. Another renowned journalist, Ferdinando Petruccelli della Gattina, Italian correspondent of European newspapers such as La Presse, Journal des débats, Indépendance Belge and The Daily News, was known for his gory style in his articles but involving at the same time. Jules Claretie, critic of Le Figaro, was amazed about his correspondence of the Battle of Custoza, during the Third Italian War of Independence. Claretie wrote, "Nothing could be cruelly true than this tableau of agony. Reportage has never given a superior artwork." It was not until the telegraph was developed that reports could be sent on a daily basis and events could be reported as they occurred that the short descriptive stories of today became common.
Press coverage of the Russo-Japanese War was affected by restrictions on the movement of reporters and strict censorship. In all military conflicts which followed this 1904-1905 war, close attention to more managed reporting was considered essential; the First Balkan War between the Balkan League and the Ottoman Empire, the Second Balkan War between Bulgaria and its former allies Serbia and Greece, was covered by a large number of foreign newspapers, news agencies, movie companies. An estimated 200-300 war correspondents, war photographers, war artists, war cinematographers were active during these two nearly sequential conflicts; the First World War was characterized by rigid censorship. British Lord Kitchener hated reporters, they were banned from the Front at the start of the war, but reporters such as Basil Clarke and Philip Gibbs lived as fugitives near the Front, sending back their reports. The Government allowed s
Tarsus American College
Tarsus American College or Tarsus American School is a private coeducational high school located in Tarsus, Province of Mersin, Turkey. It is known for the success of its alumni throughout the world; the Economist noted that Tarsus American School is in the top ten schools in Turkey, due to the success of its graduates. The school maintains a respective fellowship system, in which all students in the school know each other and have strong bonds; the college was established in 1888. Armenian American reverent Harutiun Jenanian approached philanthropist Elliott Fitch Shepard to build an institution in dedication to Paul of Tarsus. Shepard promised to contribute a $100,000 trust fund upon his death. Jenanian subsequently founded the school under the name "Jenanian College". In its first years, the school had close contact with the American Board Foundation, a charity organization located in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Alexander Mac Lachlan and presbyterian missionary Harutyun Stephen Cenanyan, a graduate of Union Theological Seminary in New York City, served as the first school administrators until 1891, Thomas Davidson Christie from 1893 to 1920.
Regarding Burke Library alumni records of Union Theological Seminary, dates of Jenanyan's birth and death are given. In addition, the record credited him as founder of St. Paul's Institute. Education was carried out in the school's first building "Shepard Hall". Mr. Vanderpool, a US citizen, made a large donation in memory of this mother for a much needed building. "Stickler Hall" was once the tallest building in Tarsus with its five stories. Since its construction in 1911 it has been the symbol of Tarsus American College; the school was called both "St. Paul's Institute at Tarsus" and "Tarsus American College" between 1911 and 1928. Since 1930 the name has been Tarsus American College. Coeducation started in 1979 with 35 girls joining the student body of 506 boys. In 1986, the school graduates its first coed alumni; the same year, the boarding section, available from the preparatory class, was closed until its reopening for boys in 2002. 1888 "St. Paul's Institute at Tarsus " starts its education with eight students.
In the first years, it has contact with the American Board Foundation, a charity organization located in Boston, Massachusetts. Between 1888 and 1891 the first school administrators are Alexander Mac Lachlan and Hartune S. Jenanyan. St. Paul's Institute starts to become familiar, serving the academic needs of Tarsus and its surroundings. 1888-1911 instruction is carried out in the school's first building "Shepard Hall". 1911 Stickler Hall, a symbol of TAC today, is added to the campus. The construction of Stickler Hall starts in 1905 by a $10,000 donation from an American citizen, Mr. Vanderpool. "Stickler" got its name from Mrs. Vanderpool's mother; the building, whose construction was completed in 1911, is five stories tall. It was once the tallest building in Tarsus, with a height of 21 meters. Stickler Hall stands out with its high roof reflecting a triangle on every side. Between the years 1911-1928, the school was known as Tarsus College; the school had to endure difficult times in the First World War, was entitled to be a high school / lycée governed by the Turkish Republic in 1928, under an administration led by Mr. Woolworth.
1930 The school graduates its first alumni under the name " Tarsus American College " 1954 "Friendship Hall " building opens. 1960 "Unity Hall " building opens. 1963 Senior year students known as the Legendary Class of 63 refused to participate in their commencement ceremony to receive their diplomas, along with rejection to participate in any social activity, due to a conflict with the school administration. Their move was supported by the whole student body, with official permission from the Governor, organized a March to the Atatürk Monument, the first of its kind in the history of Tarsus, placed a black wreath, to protest against the School Administration; the School Administration came to terms with this Legendary Class and organized a graduation ceremony for them in the year 2000. 1979 The school starts co-ed education. Alongside 506 boys, there are 35 girls in the student body. 1983 The school graduates its first coed alumni. 1985 The school graduates its last all boys alumni. 1986 The boarding section, available from the preparatory year, is closed.
1988 "Centennial Hall " construction is completed and opened to service 1989 "Sadık Paşa Konağı" is rented and starts to be used as an annex to the school buildings. 1990 Maynard Hall is added to the school campus. 1997 The renovation of Stickler building, the symbol of the school, begins. After the law of eight years of primary education becomes effective, the middle school section is removed. Meanwhile, a preparatory year is added to the high school / lycée section; the Health and Education Foundation opens the Tarsus SEV Elementary School to fill the gap of a middle school. 1999 Stickler Hall, not used for some time, is re-opened for use. 2002 The school re-launches its boarding section for boys. 2003–2004 TAC initiates a four-year high school / lycée program. Today the school provides its students with modern academics through its laboratories, multi-functional sports hall, sports complexes and libraries.2005–present Yadigar Kaya starts working as the school secretary, starting the 1. Yadigar Era.
Tarsus American College offers its students qualified education with options. TAC is authorized to offer the IB Diploma Programme since November 2004, the programme is
Agos is an Armenian bilingual weekly newspaper published in Istanbul, established on 5 April 1996. Agos has both Turkish pages as well as an online English edition. Today, the paper has a weekly circulation of over 9,000. Turkish-Armenian Hrant Dink was Agos chief editor from the newspaper's beginnings until his assassination outside the newspaper's offices in Istanbul in January 2007. Hrant Dink's son, Arat Dink, who served as the executive editor of the weekly, had been co-defendant in the cases brought against Hrant Dink for "denigrating Turkishness" on account of his managerial position at the weekly. After Hrant Dink's assassination, Etyen Mahçupyan was named editor-in-chief. In 2010, he was succeeded in that position by Rober Koptaş. Arat Dink continued to serve as executive editor. In 2015, Yetvart Danzikyan became editor-in-chief of Aris Nalcı executive editor. Eraslan, Hülya. "Agos: Türkçe-Ermenice Bir Gazetenin Tarihi". Gazi Üniversitesi İletişim Fakültesi. ISBN 978-975-483-749-0. Archived from the original on 2008-12-22.
The Middle East is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia and Egypt. Saudi Arabia is geographically the largest Middle Eastern nation; the corresponding adjective is Middle Eastern and the derived noun is Middle Easterner. The term has come into wider usage as a replacement of the term Near East beginning in the early 20th century. Arabs, Persians and Azeris constitute the largest ethnic groups in the region by population. Arabs constitute the largest ethnic group in the region by a clear margin. Indigenous minorities of the Middle East include Jews, Assyrians, Copts, Lurs, Samaritans, Shabaks and Zazas. European ethnic groups that form a diaspora in the region include Albanians, Circassians, Crimean Tatars, Franco-Levantines, Italo-Levantines. Among other migrant populations are Chinese, Indians, Pakistanis, Pashtuns and sub-Saharan Africans; the history of the Middle East dates back to ancient times, with the importance of the region being recognized for millennia. Several major religions have their origins in the Middle East, including Judaism and Islam.
The Middle East has a hot, arid climate, with several major rivers providing irrigation to support agriculture in limited areas such as the Nile Delta in Egypt, the Tigris and Euphrates watersheds of Mesopotamia, most of what is known as the Fertile Crescent. Most of the countries that border the Persian Gulf have vast reserves of crude oil, with monarchs of the Arabian Peninsula in particular benefiting economically from petroleum exports; the term "Middle East" may have originated in the 1850s in the British India Office. However, it became more known when American naval strategist Alfred Thayer Mahan used the term in 1902 to "designate the area between Arabia and India". During this time the British and Russian Empires were vying for influence in Central Asia, a rivalry which would become known as The Great Game. Mahan realized not only the strategic importance of the region, but of its center, the Persian Gulf, he labeled the area surrounding the Persian Gulf as the Middle East, said that after Egypt's Suez Canal, it was the most important passage for Britain to control in order to keep the Russians from advancing towards British India.
Mahan first used the term in his article "The Persian Gulf and International Relations", published in September 1902 in the National Review, a British journal. The Middle East, if I may adopt a term which I have not seen, will some day need its Malta, as well as its Gibraltar. Naval force has the quality of mobility; the British Navy should have the facility to concentrate in force if occasion arise, about Aden and the Persian Gulf. Mahan's article was reprinted in The Times and followed in October by a 20-article series entitled "The Middle Eastern Question," written by Sir Ignatius Valentine Chirol. During this series, Sir Ignatius expanded the definition of Middle East to include "those regions of Asia which extend to the borders of India or command the approaches to India." After the series ended in 1903, The Times removed quotation marks from subsequent uses of the term. Until World War II, it was customary to refer to areas centered around Turkey and the eastern shore of the Mediterranean as the "Near East", while the "Far East" centered on China, the Middle East meant the area from Mesopotamia to Burma, namely the area between the Near East and the Far East.
In the late 1930s, the British established the Middle East Command, based in Cairo, for its military forces in the region. After that time, the term "Middle East" gained broader usage in Europe and the United States, with the Middle East Institute founded in Washington, D. C. in 1946, among other usage. The description Middle has led to some confusion over changing definitions. Before the First World War, "Near East" was used in English to refer to the Balkans and the Ottoman Empire, while "Middle East" referred to Iran, the Caucasus, Central Asia, Turkestan. In contrast, "Far East" referred to the countries of East Asia With the disappearance of the Ottoman Empire in 1918, "Near East" fell out of common use in English, while "Middle East" came to be applied to the re-emerging countries of the Islamic world. However, the usage "Near East" was retained by a variety of academic disciplines, including archaeology and ancient history, where it describes an area identical to the term Middle East, not used by these disciplines.
The first official use of the term "Middle East" by the United States government was in the 1957 Eisenhower Doctrine, which pertained to the Suez Crisis. Secretary of State John Foster Dulles defined the Middle East as "the area lying between and including Libya on the west and Pakistan on the east and Iraq on the North and the Arabian peninsula to the south, plus the Sudan and Ethiopia." In 1958, the State Department explained that the terms "Near East" and "Middle East" were interchangeable, defined the region as including only Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and Qatar. The Associated Press Styleboo
Lebanon known as the Lebanese Republic, is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered by Syria to the north and east and Israel to the south, while Cyprus is west across the Mediterranean Sea. Lebanon's location at the crossroads of the Mediterranean Basin and the Arabian hinterland facilitated its rich history and shaped a cultural identity of religious and ethnic diversity. At just 10,452 km2, it is the smallest recognized sovereign state on the mainland Asian continent; the earliest evidence of civilization in Lebanon dates back more than seven thousand years, predating recorded history. Lebanon was the home of the Canaanites/Phoenicians and their kingdoms, a maritime culture that flourished for over a thousand years. In 64 BC, the region came under the rule of the Roman Empire, became one of the Empire's leading centers of Christianity. In the Mount Lebanon range a monastic tradition known as the Maronite Church was established; as the Arab Muslims conquered the region, the Maronites held onto their identity.
However, a new religious group, the Druze, established themselves in Mount Lebanon as well, generating a religious divide that has lasted for centuries. During the Crusades, the Maronites re-established contact with the Roman Catholic Church and asserted their communion with Rome; the ties they established with the Latins have influenced the region into the modern era. The region was ruled by the Ottoman Empire from 1516 to 1918. Following the collapse of the empire after World War I, the five provinces that constitute modern Lebanon came under the French Mandate of Lebanon; the French expanded the borders of the Mount Lebanon Governorate, populated by Maronites and Druze, to include more Muslims. Lebanon gained independence in 1943, establishing confessionalism, a unique, Consociationalism-type of political system with a power-sharing mechanism based on religious communities. Bechara El Khoury, President of Lebanon during the independence, Riad El-Solh, first Lebanese prime minister and Emir Majid Arslan II, first Lebanese minister of defence, are considered the founders of the modern Republic of Lebanon and are national heroes for having led the country's independence.
Foreign troops withdrew from Lebanon on 31 December 1946, although the country was subjected to military occupations by Syria that lasted nearly thirty years before being withdrawn in April 2005 as well as the Israeli military in Southern Lebanon for fifteen years. Despite its small size, the country has developed a well-known culture and has been influential in the Arab world, powered by its large diaspora. Before the Lebanese Civil War, the country experienced a period of relative calm and renowned prosperity, driven by tourism, agriculture and banking; because of its financial power and diversity in its heyday, Lebanon was referred to as the "Switzerland of the East" during the 1960s, its capital, attracted so many tourists that it was known as "the Paris of the Middle East". At the end of the war, there were extensive efforts to revive the economy and rebuild national infrastructure. In spite of these troubles, Lebanon has the 7th highest Human Development Index and GDP per capita in the Arab world after the oil-rich economies of the Persian Gulf.
Lebanon has been a member of the United Nations since its founding in 1945 as well as of the Arab League, the Non-Aligned Movement, Organisation of the Islamic Cooperation and the Organisation internationale de la francophonie. The name of Mount Lebanon originates from the Phoenician root lbn meaning "white" from its snow-capped peaks. Occurrences of the name have been found in different Middle Bronze Age texts from the library of Ebla, three of the twelve tablets of the Epic of Gilgamesh; the name is recorded in Ancient Egyptian as Rmnn, where R stood for Canaanite L. The name occurs nearly 70 times in the Hebrew Bible, as לְבָנוֹן. Lebanon as the name of an administrative unit was introduced with the Ottoman reforms of 1861, as the Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate, continued in the name of the State of Greater Lebanon in 1920, in the name of the sovereign Republic of Lebanon upon its independence in 1943; the borders of contemporary Lebanon are a product of the Treaty of Sèvres of 1920. Its territory was the core of the Bronze Age Phoenician city-states.
As part of the Levant, it was part of numerous succeeding empires throughout ancient history, including the Egyptian, Babylonian, Achaemenid Persian, Hellenistic and Sasanid Persian empires. After the 7th-century Muslim conquest of the Levant, it was part of the Rashidun, Abbasid Seljuk and Fatimid empires; the crusader state of the County of Tripoli, founded by Raymond IV of Toulouse in 1102, encompassed most of present-day Lebanon, falling to the Mamluk Sultanate in 1289 and to the Ottoman Empire in 1517. With the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, Greater Lebanon fell under French mandate in 1920, gained independence under president Bechara El Khoury in 1943. Lebanon's history since independence has been marked by alternating periods of political stability and prosperity based on Beirut's position as a regional center for finance and trade, interspersed with political turmoil and
Tarsus is a historic city in south-central Turkey, 20 km inland from the Mediterranean. It is part of the Adana-Mersin metropolitan area, the fourth-largest metropolitan area in Turkey with a population of 3 million people. Tarsus forms an administrative district in the eastern part of the Mersin Province and lies in the core of Çukurova region. With a history going back over 6,000 years, Tarsus has long been an important stop for traders and a focal point of many civilizations. During the Roman Empire, Tarsus was the capital of the province of Cilicia, it was the scene of the first meeting between Mark Antony and Cleopatra, the birthplace of Paul the Apostle. Located on the mouth of the Berdan River, which empties into the Mediterranean, Tarsus is a junction point of land and sea routes connecting the Cilician plain, central Anatolia and the Mediterranean sea; the climate is typical of the Mediterranean region, with hot summers and chilly, damp winters. Tarsus has a long history of commerce, is still a commercial centre today, trading in the produce of the fertile Çukurova plain.
Industries include agricultural machinery, spare parts, fruit-processing, brick-making and ceramics. Agriculture is an important source of income: half the land area in the district is farmland and most of the remainder is forest and orchard; the farmland is well-irrigated and managed with up-to-date equipment. The ancient name is Tarsos, derived from Tarsa, the original name of the city in the Hittite language, derived from a pagan god, Tarku, as Hittites were one of the first settlers of the region. First mentioned in historical record in Akkadian texts of the Neo-Assyrian era as Tarsisi. During the Hellenistic era it was known as Antiochia on the Cydnus, to distinguish it from Syrian Antioch, it was known as Darson in Western Armenian and Tarson in Eastern Armenian. Excavation of the mound of Gözlükule reveals that the prehistorical development of Tarsus reaches back to the Neolithic Period and continues unbroken through Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Ages; the settlement was located at the crossing of several important trade routes, linking Anatolia to Syria and beyond.
Because the ruins are covered by the modern city, archaeology has touched the ancient city. The city may have been of Semitic origin. A Greek legend connects it with the memory of the Assyrian king Sardanapalus, still preserved in the Dunuk-Tach, called'tomb of Sardanapalus', a monument of unknown origin. Stephanus of Byzantium quotes Athenodorus of Tarsus as relating another legend: Anchiale, daughter of Iapetus, founded Anchiale: her son was Cydnus, who gave his name to the river at Tarsus: the son of Cydnus was Parthenius, from whom the city was called Parthenia: afterwards the name was changed to Tarsus. Much of this legend of the foundation of Tarsus, appeared in the Roman era, none of it is reliable; the geographer Strabo states that Tarsus was founded by people from Argos who were exploring this coast. Another legend states that Bellerophon fell off his winged horse Pegasus and landed here, hurting his foot, thus the city was named tar-sos. Other candidates for legendary founder of the city include the hero Perseus and Triptolemus, son of the earth-goddess Demeter, doubtless because the countryside around Tarsus is excellent farmland.
The coinage of Tarsus bore the image of Hercules, due to yet another tale in which the hero was held prisoner here by the local god Sandon. Tarsus has been suggested as a possible identification of the biblical Tarshish, where the prophet Jonah wanted to flee, but Tartessos in Spain is a more identification for this. In historical times, the city was first ruled by the Hittites, followed by Assyria, the Persian Empire. Tarsus, as the principal town of Cilicia, was the seat of a Persian satrapy from 400 BC onward. Indeed, Xenophon records that in 401 BC, when Cyrus the Younger marched against Babylon, the city was governed by King Syennesis in the name of the Persian monarch. At this period the patron god of the city was Sandon, of whom a large monument existed at Tarsus at least until the 3rd century AD. Coins showed Sandon standing on a winged and horned lion, it is now thought that the Lion of Saint Mark on the pillar in the Piazza San Marco in Venice was in origin a winged lion-griffin from such a monument at Tarsus.
Alexander the Great passed through with his armies in 333 BC and nearly met his death here after a bath in the Cydnus. By this time Tarsus was largely influenced by Greek language and culture, as part of the Seleucid Empire it became more and more hellenized. Strabo praises the cultural level of Tarsus in this period with its philosophers and linguists; the schools of Tarsus rivaled those of Alexandria. 2 Maccabees records its revolt in about 171 BC against Antiochus IV Epiphanes, who had renamed the town Antiochia on the Cydnus. The name did not last, due to the confusion of so many cities named Antioch. At this time the library of Tarsus held 200,000 books, including a huge collection of scientific works. In 67 BC, after crushing the Cilician pirates, subjected Tarsus to Rome, it beca