A compose key, called multi key, is a part of the computer keyboard that is—or behaves like—a kind of special dead key. Thus, unlike a modifier key, which must be held down, the effect of the compose key is to convert to a dead key every specified key that is pressed after it. The next keypress triggers the insertion of a character, typically a precomposed character or a symbol. Being a dead key, the key only needs one key position. This is ideally in the Base shift state, while the key positions may be attributed to other characters or dead keys. On the other hand, with respect to compact keyboards, the key may be hidden in one of the present classic dead keys. More generally, any dead key may be programmed to compose more than what it is expected to produce. Having one dedicated compose key on keyboard, regardless of the number of other dead keys. For ergonomics, the place for the Compose key is Right Alt. If they do, the user might prefer to have Compose on Left Alt. Alternately, the Compose key may be placed on Right Ctrl, as actual keyboards can manage key rollover, the compose key does not really have to be released before the subsequent keystrokes.
This makes it possible for experienced typists to enter composed characters rapidly, the typing speed is increased if the compose key can be acted with one thumb while other fingers are already about to hit the keys of the sequence. At the beginning, the Compose sequences followed handwriting and the overstrike technique, for example, striking Compose, followed by n, and ~, produced the character ñ. This order is still in use, but multidiacriticized characters are hard to obtain this way, the inverse order is known from standard dead keys as present on the last typewriters and as used today on computer keyboards, Compose~n for ñ. Likewise, striking Compose, followed by O, and C and this allows typing Compose^a, for ấ. There is no limit on combinations or sequence length, which only should respect the rules of mnemonics and ergonomics. For example, U+278C ➌ DINGBAT NEGATIVE CIRCLED SANS-SERIF DIGIT THREE might be inserted when the sequence is typed. This example is based on the use of @ for all circled characters, % after @ for all negative circled, the choice of % for negative can be made with respect to ergonomics on a U. S
The boliviano is the currency of Bolivia. It is divided into 100 cents or centavos in Spanish, Boliviano was the name of the currency of Bolivia between 1864 and 1963. The first boliviano was introduced in 1864 and it was equivalent to eight soles or half a scudo in the former currency. Initially, it was subdivided into 100 centécimos but this was altered to centavos in 1870, the name bolivar was used for an amount of ten bolivianos. Following many years of rampant inflation, the peso was replaced in 1987 by a new boliviano at a rate of one million to one. At that time,1 new boliviano was roughly equivalent to 1 U. S. dollar, in 1988, stainless-steel 2,5,10,20 and 50 centavo and 1 boliviano coins were introduced, followed by stainless-steel 2 bolivianos in 1991. Copper-plated steel 10 centavos were introduced in 1997 and bi-metallic 5 bolivianos in 2001, the 2 and 5 centavo coins are no longer in circulation. The 2 boliviano coin has been minted in two sizes, both of which remain legal tender.
The smaller 2 boliviano coin is almost the same as the 1 boliviano coin, leading to potential confusion, although the 2 boliviano coins are undecagonal whilst the 1 boliviano coins are round. In 1987, peso boliviano banknotes were overprinted with denominations in centavos and bolivianos to produce issues of 1,5,10 and 50 centavos. Regular issues followed the year in denominations of 2,5,10,20,50,100 and 200 bolivianos. -The 20 Boliviano bill has in the obverse to the lawyer Pantaleon Dalence, the 2 and 5 Bolivianos bills are officially out of circulation. As of 2013 the Boliviano is still manufactured abroad, in such as United Kingdom, France. Bolivia, although politically independent since 1825, economy of Bolivia Coins of Bolivia, online catalog with images A gallery of the banknotes of Bolivia
The peso is the currency of Chile. The current peso has circulated since 1975, with a previous version circulating between 1817 and 1960. Its symbol is defined as a letter S with either one or two vertical bars superimposed prefixing the amount, $ or, the symbol, available in most modern text systems, is almost always used. Both of these symbols are used by many currencies, most notably the US dollar, the ISO4217 code for the present peso is CLP. It is officially subdivided into 100 centavos, although there are no current centavo-denominated coins, the exchange rate was around CLP$600 to 1 U. S. dollar at the end of 2014, by August 2015 it fell to 694 per 1 US dollar. The first Chilean peso was introduced in 1817, at a value of 8 Spanish colonial reales, until 1851, the peso was subdivided into 8 reales, with the escudo worth 2 pesos. Also in 1851, the peso was set equal 5 French francs on the sild,22.5 grams pure silver, gold coins were issued to a different standard to that of France, with 1 peso =1.37 grams gold.
In 1885, a standard was adopted, pegging the peso to the British pound at a rate of 13⅓ pesos =1 pound. This was reduced in 1926 to 40 pesos =1 pound, from 1925, coins and banknotes were issued denominated in cóndores, worth 10 pesos. The gold standard was suspended in 1932 and the pesos value fell further, the escudo replaced the peso on 1 January 1960 at a rate 1 escudo =1000 pesos. Between 1817 and 1851, silver coins were issued in denominations of ¼, ½,1 and 2 reales and 1 peso, in 1835, copper ½ and 1 centavo coins were issued. A full decimal coinage was introduced between 1851 and 1853, consisting of copper ½ and 1 centavo, silver ½ and 1 décimo,20 and 50 centavos, and 1 peso, and gold 5 and 10 pesos. In 1860, gold 1 peso coins were introduced, followed by cupro-nickel ½,1 and 2 centavos between 1870 and 1871, copper coins for these denominations were reintroduced between 1878 and 1883, with copper 2½ centavos added in 1886. A new gold coinage was introduced in 1895, reflecting the lower gold standard, in 1896, the ½ and 1 décimo were replaced by 5 and 10 centavo coins.
In 1907, a short-lived, silver 40 centavo coin was introduced following cessation of production of the 50 centavo coin, in 1919, the last of the copper coins were issued. The following year, cu pro-nickel replaced silver in the 5,10 and 20 centavo coins, a final gold coinage was introduced in 1926, in denominations of 20,50 and 100 pesos. In 1927, silver 2 and 5 peso coins were issued, cu pro-nickel 1 peso coins were introduced in 1933, replacing the last of the silver coins. In 1942, copper 20 and 50 centavos and 1 peso coins were introduced, the last coins of the first peso were issued between 1954 and 1959
A penny is a coin or a unit of currency in various countries. Borrowed from the Carolingian denarius, it is usually the smallest denomination within a currency system, presently, it is the formal name of the British penny and the informal name of one American cent as well as the informal Irish designation of 1 cent euro coin. It is the name of the cent unit of account in Canada. The name is used in reference to various historical currencies derived from the Carolingian system, such as the French denier. It may be used to refer to any similar smallest-denomination coin. The Carolingian penny was originally a. 940-fine silver coin weighing 1/240 pound, the British penny remained a silver coin until the expense of the Napoleonic Wars prompted the use of base metals in 1797. Despite the decimalization of currencies in the United States and, throughout the British Commonwealth, no penny is currently formally subdivided, although farthings and half cents have previously been minted and the mill remains in use as a unit of account in some contexts.
Penny is first attested in a 1394 Scots text, a variant of Old English peni, a development of numerous variations including pennig and pending. The etymology of the penny is uncertain, although cognates are common across almost all Germanic languages and suggest a base *pan-, *pann-. Recently, it has proposed that it may represent an early borrowing of Punic PN. Following decimalization, the British and Irish coins were marked new penny until 1982 and 1985, the regular plural pennies fell out of use in England from the 16th century, except in reference to coins considered individually. The informal name for the American cent seems to have spread from New York, in British English, prior to decimalization, values from two to eleven pence and of twenty pence are often written and spoken as a single word, as twopence, threepence, &c. Where a single coin represented a number of pence, it was treated as a single noun, thus, a threepence would be single coin of that value whereas three pence would be its value and three pennies would be three penny coins.
In British English, divisions of a penny were added to such combinations without a conjunction, as sixpence-farthing, adjectival use of such coins used the ending -penny, as sixpenny. The British abbreviation d. derived from the Latin denarius and it followed the amount after a space. It has been replaced since decimalization by p, usually written without a space or period, from this abbreviation, it is common to speak of pennies and values in pence as p. In North America, it is common to abbreviate cents with the currency symbol ¢, elsewhere, it is usually written with a simple c. The medieval silver penny was modeled on similar coins in antiquity, such as the Greek drachma, the Carthaginian shekel, forms of these seem to have reached as far as Norway and Sweden
The main functions of money are distinguished as, a medium of exchange, a unit of account, a store of value, sometimes, a standard of deferred payment. Any item or verifiable record that fulfills these functions can be considered as money, Money is historically an emergent market phenomenon establishing a commodity money, but nearly all contemporary money systems are based on fiat money. Fiat money, like any check or note of debt, is without use value as a physical commodity. It derives its value by being declared by a government to be legal tender, the money supply of a country consists of currency and, depending on the particular definition used, one or more types of bank money. Bank money, which consists only of records, forms by far the largest part of money in developed countries. The word money is believed to originate from a temple of Juno, in the ancient world Juno was often associated with money. The temple of Juno Moneta at Rome was the place where the mint of Ancient Rome was located, the name Juno may derive from the Etruscan goddess Uni and Moneta either from the Latin word monere or the Greek word moneres.
In the Western world, a prevalent term for coin-money has been specie, stemming from Latin in specie, meaning in kind. The use of methods may date back to at least 100,000 years ago. Instead, non-monetary societies operated largely along the principles of gift economy, when barter did in fact occur, it was usually between either complete strangers or potential enemies. Many cultures around the world eventually developed the use of commodity money, the Mesopotamian shekel was a unit of weight, and relied on the mass of something like 160 grains of barley. The first usage of the came from Mesopotamia circa 3000 BC. Societies in the Americas, Asia and Australia used shell money – often, according to Herodotus, the Lydians were the first people to introduce the use of gold and silver coins. It is thought by scholars that these first stamped coins were minted around 650–600 BC. The system of commodity money eventually evolved into a system of representative money and this occurred because gold and silver merchants or banks would issue receipts to their depositors – redeemable for the commodity money deposited.
Eventually, these became generally accepted as a means of payment and were used as money. Paper money or banknotes were first used in China during the Song Dynasty and these banknotes, known as jiaozi, evolved from promissory notes that had been used since the 7th century. However, they did not displace commodity money, and were used alongside coins, in the 13th century, paper money became known in Europe through the accounts of travelers, such as Marco Polo and William of Rubruck
Cook Islands dollar
The dollar is the currency of the Cook Islands. The dollar is subdivided into 100 cents, although some 50 cent coins carry the denomination as 50 tene, until 1967, the New Zealand pound was used on the Cook Islands, when it was replaced by the New Zealand dollar. In 1972, coins were issued specifically for the Cook Islands, the Cook Islands dollar is pegged at par to the New Zealand dollar. The currency of New Zealand and the Cook Islands circulate concurrently within the country, coins have been struck on different occasions mainly by the Royal Australian Mint, the Franklin Mint, and the Perth Mint with the paper currency being printed by De La Rue. In 1972, bronze 1 and 2 cents, and cupro-nickel 5,10,20 and 50 cents, and 1-dollar coins were introduced. All were the size and composition as the corresponding New Zealand coins, however. Each coin depicted plants and items unique to the Cook Islands, in 1983, production of the 1 and 2-cent coins was ceased and the two coins were demonetized. In 1987, a smaller, lighter scallop-edged $1 coin with a similar size and this coin was issued to replace its bulky predecessor. 2003 saw the reintroduction of a 1-cent coin, this time composed of aluminium rather than bronze and these were issued with five different reverses, each commemorating a few of the nations historical themes.
A large, stainless steel 5 cent coin was issued in 2000 centred on FAO, the Cook Islands has a long reputation for frequent monetary oddities. It was one of the last countries to hold on to large crown-sized coins while elsewhere,1988 brought the redesign of the 50-cent piece, quite unique in becoming the first coin in the country to bear a denomination name. Although widely recognized as cents this coin depicts tene, the language equivalent to the English word cent. It abandoned its 1 and 2-cent pieces almost 10 years before both New Zealand and Australia, only to bring the 1 cent back 20 years later. It replaced $1 and $2 notes for two years before New Zealand did, even though the Cook Islands dollar is pegged to the NZD at par. Amidst minting $2 and $5 coins, it issued an oddball $3 note in between the dollar coins as part of the same series. With the reduction in size of the New Zealand 10,20 and 50-cent coins in 2006, however, $1, $2, and $5 pieces remained in use. As part of a reform, new coins were minted in 2015 by the Royal Australian Mint.
The new coins carry similar designs to the ones with the 10,20, and 50 cents struck in nickel-plated steel, while the 1,2
The Macintosh (/ˈmækᵻntɒʃ/ MAK-in-tosh, is a series of personal computers designed and marketed by Apple Inc. Steve Jobs introduced the original Macintosh computer on January 24,1984 and this was the companys first mass-market personal computer featuring an integral graphical user interface and mouse. This first model was renamed to Macintosh 128k for uniqueness amongst a populous family of subsequently updated models which are based on Apples same proprietary architecture. Since 1998, Apple has largely phased out the Macintosh name in favor of Mac, Macintosh systems still found success in education and desktop publishing and kept Apple as the second-largest PC manufacturer for the next decade. In the 1990s, improvements in the rival Wintel platform, notably with the introduction of Windows 3.0, Windows 95, gradually took market share from the more expensive Macintosh systems. The performance advantage of 68000-based Macintosh systems was eroded by Intels Pentium, even after a transition to the superior PowerPC-based Power Macintosh line in 1994, the falling prices of commodity PC components and the release of Windows 95 saw the Macintosh user base decline.
In 1998, after the return of Steve Jobs, Apple consolidated its multiple consumer-level desktop models into the all-in-one iMac G3, since their transition to Intel processors in 2006, the complete lineup is entirely based on said processors and associated systems. Its current lineup comprises three desktops, and three laptops and its Xserve server was discontinued in 2011 in favor of the Mac Mini and Mac Pro. Apple develops the operating system for the Mac, currently macOS version 10.12 Sierra, Macs are currently capable of running non-Apple operating systems such as Linux, OpenBSD, and Microsoft Windows with the aid of Boot Camp or third-party software. Apple does not license macOS for use on computers, though it did license previous versions of the classic Mac OS through their Macintosh clone program from 1995 to 1997. The Macintosh project was begun in 1979 by Jef Raskin, an Apple employee who envisioned an easy-to-use, in 1978 Apple began to organize the Apple Lisa project, aiming to build a next-generation machine similar to an advanced Apple III or the yet-to-be-introduced IBM PC.
In 1979, Steve Jobs learned of the work on graphical user interfaces taking place at Xerox PARC. He arranged a deal in which Xerox received Apple stock options in return for which Apple would license their designs, the basic layout of the Lisa was largely complete by 1982, at which point Jobs continual suggestions for improvements led to him being kicked off the project. At the same time that the Lisa was becoming a GUI machine in 1979, the design at that time was for a low-cost, easy-to-use machine for the average consumer. Raskin was authorized to start hiring for the project in September 1979 and his initial team would eventually consist of himself, Joanna Hoffman, Burrell Smith, and Bud Tribble. Smiths design used fewer RAM chips than the Lisa, which production of the board significantly more cost-efficient. Though there were no memory slots, its RAM was expandable to 512 kB by means of soldering sixteen IC sockets to accept 256 kb RAM chips in place of the factory-installed chips. The final products screen was a 9-inch, 512x342 pixel monochrome display, burrels innovative design, combining the low production cost of an Apple II with the computing power of Lisas Motorola 68000 CPU, began to receive Jobs attentions
The nakfa is the currency of Eritrea and was introduced on 8 November 1997 to replace the Ethiopian birr at par. The currency takes its name from the Eritrean town of Nakfa, the nakfa is divided into 100 cents. The nafka is pegged to the US dollar at a rate of USD$1 = ERN15. Prior to that it was pegged at USD$1 = ERN13.50. Between 18 November and 31 December 2015, the Bank of Eritrea began replacement of all nakfa banknotes, a consequence of this was substantial amounts of the countrys currency existed in vast hoardings outside Eritrea. The plan to replace the currency was top secret and designed to prevent human traffickers bringing their funds back in time to exchange for the new banknotes. On the 1 January 2016 the old nakfa banknotes ceased being recognized as legal tender, the current series of banknotes is the artwork of an Afro-American banknote designer, Clarence Holbert, and printed by German currency printer Giesecke & Devrient. Nakfa coins are entirely of Nickel clad Steel. Each coin has a different reeded edge, instead of consistent reeding for all denominations, the 1 nakfa coin carries the denomination 100 cents.
Coin denominations,1 cent 5 cents 10 cents 25 cents 50 cents 1 nakfa The nakfa banknotes were designed by Clarence Holbert of the United States Bureau of Engraving and Printing in 1994. Banknotes come in denominations of,1 nakfa 5 nakfa 10 nakfa 20 nakfa 50 nakfa 100 nakfa There have been five series of banknotes since the currencys launch, the current fifth banknote series which rendered all previous currency valueless is dated 24.5.2015. Eritreas government has resisted calls to float the nations currency, preferring the stability of an exchange rate. However periodic devaluations have been made, ERN is a very weak currency. The de facto exchange rate of the currency is around 100 ERN for 1 USD. The currency does not have a good demand outside Eritrea, the black markets that exist in Asmara and a few other towns show the diminishing values of ERN. Economy of Eritrea Regulations concerning the nakfa from Afrol news
Outside of Europe, a number of overseas territories of EU members use the euro as their currency. Additionally,210 million people worldwide as of 2013 use currencies pegged to the euro, the euro is the second largest reserve currency as well as the second most traded currency in the world after the United States dollar. The name euro was adopted on 16 December 1995 in Madrid. The euro was introduced to world markets as an accounting currency on 1 January 1999. While the euro dropped subsequently to US$0.8252 within two years, it has traded above the U. S. dollar since the end of 2002, peaking at US$1.6038 on 18 July 2008. In July 2012, the euro fell below US$1.21 for the first time in two years, following concerns raised over Greek debt and Spains troubled banking sector, as of 26 March 2017, the euro–dollar exchange rate stands at ~ US$1.07. The euro is managed and administered by the Frankfurt-based European Central Bank, as an independent central bank, the ECB has sole authority to set monetary policy.
The Eurosystem participates in the printing and distribution of notes and coins in all states. The 1992 Maastricht Treaty obliges most EU member states to adopt the euro upon meeting certain monetary and budgetary convergence criteria, all nations that have joined the EU since 1993 have pledged to adopt the euro in due course. Since 5 January 2002, the central banks and the ECB have issued euro banknotes on a joint basis. Euro banknotes do not show which central bank issued them, Eurosystem NCBs are required to accept euro banknotes put into circulation by other Eurosystem members and these banknotes are not repatriated. The ECB issues 8% of the value of banknotes issued by the Eurosystem. In practice, the ECBs banknotes are put into circulation by the NCBs and these liabilities carry interest at the main refinancing rate of the ECB. The euro is divided into 100 cents, in Community legislative acts the plural forms of euro and cent are spelled without the s, notwithstanding normal English usage.
Otherwise, normal English plurals are used, with many local variations such as centime in France. All circulating coins have a side showing the denomination or value. Due to the plurality in the European Union, the Latin alphabet version of euro is used. For the denominations except the 1-, 2- and 5-cent coins, beginning in 2007 or 2008 the old map is being replaced by a map of Europe showing countries outside the Union like Norway
Penny (United States coin)
The United States one-cent coin often called penny, is a unit of currency equaling one-hundredth of a United States dollar. Its obverse has featured the profile of President Abraham Lincoln since 1909, from 1959 to 2008, the reverse featured the Lincoln Memorial. Four different reverse designs in 2009 honored Lincolns 200th birthday and a new, the coin is 0.75 inches in diameter and 0.0598 inches in thickness. Its weight has varied, depending upon the composition of metals used in its production, Mints official name for the coin is cent and the U. S. Treasurys official name is one cent piece. The colloquial term penny derives from the British coin of the same name, in American English, pennies is the plural form. Although the coins abolition has been proposed because it is now very little. As of 2015, based on the U. S. Mint Annual Report released for 2014, it costs the U. S. Mint 1.67 cents to one cent because of the cost of materials, production. This figure includes the Mints fixed components for distribution and fabrication, fixed costs and overhead would have to be absorbed by other circulating coins without the penny.
The loss from producing the one cent coin in the United States for the year of 2013 was $55,000,000 and this was a slight decrease from 2012, the year before, which had a production loss of $58,000,000. In honor of Lincolns 200th anniversary, special 2009 cents were minted for collectors in the composition as the 1909 coins. In 1943, at the peak of World War II, zinc-coated steel cents were made for a time because of war demands for copper. A few copper cents from 1943 were produced from the 1942 planchets remaining in the bins, some 1944 steel cents have been confirmed. During the early 1970s, the price of copper rose to the point where the cent contained almost one cents worth of copper and this led the Mint to test alternative metals, including aluminum and bronze-clad steel. Aluminum was chosen, and over 1.5 million of these pennies were struck, One aluminum cent was donated to the Smithsonian Institution. The cents composition was changed in 1982 because the value of the copper in the coin started to rise above one cent, some 1982 pennies used the 97. 5% zinc composition, while others used the 95% copper composition.
With the exception of 2009 bicentennial cents minted specifically for collectors, in Fiscal Year 2013, the average one-cent piece minted cost the U. S. Mint 1.83 cents, down from 2.41 cents apiece in FY2011. The bronze and copper cents can be distinguished from the newer zinc cents by dropping the coins on a solid surface, the predominantly copper coins produce a higher-pitched ringing sound, while the zinc coins make a lower-pitched clunk. The coin has gone through several designs over its time frame
The Bermudian dollar is the official currency of the British Overseas Territory of Bermuda. It is subdivided into 100 cents, the Bermudian dollar is not normally traded outside of Bermuda, and is pegged to the United States dollar at a one-to-one ratio. Both currencies circulate in Bermuda on an equal basis, for nearly four hundred years Spanish dollars, known as pieces of eight were in widespread use on the worlds trading routes, including the Caribbean region. However, following the wars in Latin America, the source of these silver trade coins. The United Kingdom had adopted a successful gold standard in 1821. Because of this, the conversion had the effect in many colonies. Remedial legislation had to be introduced in 1838 so as to change over to the more realistic rating of $1 = 4s 2d. Contrary to expectations, and unlike in the Bahamas where US dollars circulated concurrently with sterling, the Spanish dollars fell away in the 1850s but returned again in the 1870s following the international silver crisis of 1873.
In 1874, the Bermuda merchants agreed unanimously to decline to accept the heavy imports of U. S. currency except at a heavy discount, and in 1876, legislation was passed to demonetise the silver dollars for fear of them returning. In 1882, the legal tender act demonetised the gold doubloon, which had in effect been the real standard in Bermuda, and this left pounds, shillings. The pound sterling remained the currency of Bermuda until 1970. With U. S. and Canadian coins regularly appearing in circulation in Bermuda, on 6 February 1970, Bermuda introduced a new decimal currency in the form of a dollar. The nascent Bermuda dollars circulated in conjunction with the new British decimal coinage a year before it was introduced in the United Kingdom, by adopting decimalisation early, Bermuda was able place orders for the coinage from the Royal Mint before other Commonwealth countries seeking to decimalise could. The link between the Bermudian dollar and the sterling was not broken until 31 July 1972, which allowed Bermuda to align to a one-to-one exchange rate with that of the United States.
The decision for Bermuda to peg its dollar to the U. S. dollar added convenience for the multitude of American tourists and businesses with whom Bermuda largely relied on. Since 1972, Bermuda law has required that local businesses charge prices in Bermudian dollars which, if paid in US dollars, only banks are legally allowed to exchange Bermudian dollars into U. S. dollars or other currencies, subject to a 1% Foreign Currency Purchase Tax. Prior to decimalisation and conversion to the dollar, the Government of Bermuda did not issue its own coins, other than the commemorative Bermuda crowns, in 1970, the Bermuda Monetary Authority introduced coinage with denominations of 1,5,10,25, and 50 cents. From its inception, the 1-cent coin was out of bronze until 1988