The Ford Pinto is a subcompact car, manufactured and marketed by Ford Motor Company in North America, sold from the 1971 to the 1980 model years. The smallest American Ford vehicle since 1907, the Pinto was the first subcompact vehicle produced by Ford in North America; the Pinto was marketed in three body styles through its production: a two-door fastback sedan with a trunk, a three-door hatchback, a two-door station wagon. Mercury offered rebadged versions of the Pinto as the Mercury Bobcat from 1975 to 1980. From 1974 to 1978, the Ford Mustang II shared a common platform with the Pinto/Bobcat, though with a different unibody and powertrain assortment. For the 1981 model year, the Pinto was replaced by the Ford Escort, as Ford transitioned its product line towards front-wheel drive. Over 3 million Pintos were produced over its 10-year production run, with the Ford Pinto and Mercury Bobcat produced at Edison Assembly, St. Thomas Assembly, San Jose Assembly. Since the 1970s, the safety reputation of the Pinto has been surrounded by controversy.
Its fuel-tank design attracted both media and government scrutiny after several deadly fires related to the tanks rupturing during rear-end collisions. A subsequent analysis of the overall safety of the Pinto suggested it was comparable to other 1970s subcompact cars; the safety issues surrounding the Pinto and the subsequent response by Ford have been cited as a business ethics as well as tort reform case study. American automakers had first countered imports such as the Volkswagen Beetle with compact cars including the Ford Falcon, Chevrolet Corvair and Plymouth Valiant, although these cars featured six-cylinder engines and comprised a larger vehicle class; as the popularity of smaller Japanese imports from Toyota and Datsun increased throughout the 1960s, Ford North America responded by introducing the Cortina from Ford of Europe as a captive import. American automakers would soon introduce their own subcompacts; these were led by the AMC Gremlin, which arrived six months before the Pinto, the Chevrolet Vega, introduced the day before the Pinto.
Named for the pony, the Pinto was introduced on September 11, 1970. The Pinto was a new platform, but utilized a powertrain from the European-specification Escort. Ford Chairman Henry Ford II himself purchased a 1971 Runabout to use as one of his personal cars. Initial planning for the Pinto began in the summer of 1967, was recommended by Ford's Product Planning Committee in December 1968, was approved by Ford's Board of Directors in January 1969. Ford President Lee Iacocca wanted a 1971 model that weighed under 2,000 pounds and that would be priced at less than $2,000; the Pinto product development, from conception through delivery, was completed in 25 months, when the automotive industry average was 43 months. Some development processes conducted sequentially were conducted in parallel. Machine tooling overlapped with product development. Decisions which threatened the schedule were discouraged; the attitude of Ford management was to develop the Pinto as as possible. Iacocca ordered a rush project to build the car, the Pinto became known internally as "Lee's car."
The Pinto's bodywork was styled by Robert Eidschun. Offered with an inline-4 engine and bucket seats the Pinto's mechanical design was conventional, with unibody construction, a longitudinally mounted engine in front driving the rear wheels through either a manual or automatic transmission and live axle rear end. Suspension was by unequal-length control arms with front coil springs; the rack and pinion steering had optional power assist. On September 11, 1970, Ford introduced the Pinto under the tagline The Little Carefree Car. After structural design on alternate body styles encountered obstacles, Ford offered the Pinto as a two-door sedan, with entry level models priced at $1850, undercutting GM's Chevrolet Vega and directly targeting imported models — which included such new competitors as the Mazda 1200 in 1971, the Subaru DL in 1972, the Honda Civic in 1973. By January 1971, the Pinto had sold over 100,000 units and 352,402 for the entire 1971 production run. 1974 saw. The Ford Pinto went on sale on September 11, 1970 in one bodystyle, a fastback sedan with an enclosed trunk.
A hatchback became available on February 1971, debuting at the Chicago Auto Show. In 1971, the Pinto brochure came with a paper cutout Pinto. Marketed as the Runabout, the hatchback went on sale five days priced at $2,062; the hatch itself featured exposed chrome hinges for the liftgate and five decorative chrome strips, pneumatic struts to assist in opening the hatch, a rear window as large as the sedan's, a fold down seat — a feature which became an option on the sedan. The hatchback model matched the sedan in all other dimensions and offered 38.1 cubic feet of cargo space with its seat folded. By 1972, Ford redesigned the hatch itself, with the glass portion of the hatch enlarged to the entire size of the hatch itself to be supplemented for 1977–1980 with an optional rear hatch, glass. On October 30, 1970, less than two months after introduction, 26,000 Pintos were recalled to address a possible problem with the accelerator sticking on once engaged at more than halfway. On March 29, 1971, Ford recalled 220,000 Pintos, all Pintos manufactured prior to March 19, 1971, to address a possible problem with
Firestone Tire and Rubber Company
Firestone Tire and Rubber Company is an American tire company founded by Harvey Firestone in 1900 to supply solid rubber side-wire tires for fire apparatus, pneumatic tires for wagons and other forms of wheeled transportation common in the era. Firestone soon saw the huge potential for marketing tires for automobiles, the company was a pioneer in the mass production of tires. Harvey Firestone had a personal friendship with Henry Ford, used this to become the original equipment supplier of Ford Motor Company automobiles, was active in the replacement market. In 1988, the company was sold to the Japanese Bridgestone Corporation. Firestone was based in Akron, Ohio the hometown of its archrival and two other midsized competitors, General Tire and Rubber and BFGoodrich. Founded on August 3, 1900, the company initiated operations with 12 employees. Together and Goodyear were the largest suppliers of automotive tires in North America for over 75 years. In 1906, Henry Ford chose Firestone to supply tires for its car models.
In 1918, Firestone Tire and Rubber Company of Canada was incorporated in Hamilton and the first Canadian-made tire rolled off the line on September 15, 1922. During the 1920s, Firestone produced the Oldfield tire, named for racing driver Barney Oldfield. In 1926, the company opened one of the world's biggest rubber plantations in Liberia, West Africa, spanning more than one million acres; that year, the company opened its first Firestone Tire and Service Center. Firestone Complete Auto Care is the division of Firestone that offers automotive maintenance and repair, including tires. In 1927, Henry Ford and Harvey Firestone took a trip to southern California to select locations for their new factories. Friends say Ford wanted to be near the ocean and picked Long Beach and suggested Firestone go to South Gate; the tiny community southeast of downtown Los Angeles was agricultural at the time and Firestone found 40 acres of beanfield to house his new manufacturing plant. Architects Curlett and Beelman created a spectacular four-story Italianate complex, with its own power plant and gorgeous polychrome murals by Gladding, McBean depicting the tire and rubber-making process.
A year after the plant opened in 1928, it doubled in size, grew to nearly one million square feet by 1954. The town grew around Firestone, its main boulevard was named after Harvey, Los Angeles became the number one tire market in the country. By the mid-1970s, Ford and GM had massive layoffs as Firestone and other manufacturers opened new plants in non-union locales like Wilson, North Carolina. After considerable downsizing, the end at South Gate came in 1980 when 1,300 workers were laid off and the plant closed. East Los Angeles College has proposed a new satellite campus at the site. In 1928, the company built a factory in Brentford, England, a longtime Art Deco landmark on a major route into the city. In 1936, the company opened a plant in Tennessee. With a work force exceeding 3,000 employees, the Memphis plant was the largest tire manufacturer in the company's worldwide operation. On July 1, 1963, the company celebrated the production of 100 million tires in Memphis; the plant was closed in 1982.
On October 11, 1941, the Firestone Rubber and Latex plant in Fall River Mass had 5 out of 8 buildings and at least 15,000 tons of rubber destroyed by fire. The fire incurred $12 million in damage. During World War II, the company was called on by the U. S. Government to make artillery shells, aluminum kegs for food transport, rubberized military products. Barrage balloons were produced at Akron. Firestone ranked 55th among U. S. corporations in the value of wartime military production contracts. In the 1940s, Firestone was given a defense contract to produce plastic helmet liners. In 1951, Firestone was given the defense contract for the MGM-5 Corporal missile. Firestone was given a total of $6,888,796 for the first 200 units. Known as the "Embryo of the Army," it was a surface-to-surface guided missile which could deliver a high-explosive warhead up to 75 nautical miles, it was modified to be able to carry a nuclear payload for use in the event of Cold War hostilities in Eastern Europe. Built in southern California, this missile was replaced in 1962 by the MGM-29 Sergeant system.
In 1961, Firestone acquired the Dayton Tire division from the Dayco Corporation. Dayco sued both Firestone and Goodyear, alleging that the two companies conspired to monopolize the tire industry in the United States; the United States District Court dismissed the lawsuit. In late 1979, Firestone brought in John Nevin, the ex-head of Zenith Electronics, as president to save the hemorrhaging company from total collapse, it was more than a billion dollars in debt at the time, losing $250 million a year. Nevin closed nine of the company's seventeen manufacturing plants, including six in one day, relocated the company from its ancestral home in Akron to Chicago, he spun off non-tire related businesses, including the Firestone Country Club. In 1988, after discussions with Pirelli, Nevin negotiated the sale of the company to the Japanese company Bridgestone, able to buy the company for much less than it had been worth a decade and a half earlier; the combined Bridgestone / Firestone North American operations are now based in Nashville, Tennessee.
The companies celebrated a 20-year anniversary of the merger in 2008, changed the tire division name to Bridgestone Americ
Ralph Nader 2008 presidential campaign
The 2008 presidential campaign of Ralph Nader, political activist, author and attorney began on February 24, 2008. He announced his intent to run on NBC's Meet The Press, it was Nader's fifth campaign. The 2008 election was the third in which he had run a national campaign. While Nader ran as an independent, in some states he had ballot access with the Independent-Ecology Party, the Natural Law Party, the Peace and Freedom Party. Nader received 738,475 votes. In February 2007, Nader criticized Democratic candidate Hillary Clinton as "a panderer and a flatterer". Asked on CNN Late Edition news program if he would run in 2008, Nader replied, "It's too early to say...." Asked during a radio appearance to describe the former First Lady, Nader said, "Flatters, coasting, front-runner, looking for a coronation... She has no political fortitude." Some Greens started a campaign to draft Nader as their party's 2008 presidential candidate. In June 2007, Nader said, "You know the two parties are still converging -- they don't debate the military budget anymore.
I think there needs to be more competition from outside the two parties." Nader praised Dennis Kucinich, Mike Gravel, John Edwards during the race for the Democratic nomination. After the election became a contest between Clinton and Barack Obama, Nader hinted more towards his own presidential bid by participating in the Green Party Presidential Debates in San Francisco on January 13, 2008, though not as an announced candidate, he formed a presidential exploratory committee on January 30, 2008, telling CNN he would run again if he could raise the necessary funds. Before entering the race, Nader was asked by Wolf Blitzer on CNN's The Situation Room if he liked any of the Democratic presidential candidates in 2008, said "in terms of his record, Dennis Kucinich and in terms of a great Democratic strengthened Democracy proposal, Mike Gravel". A petition was started to urge Nader to run with Mike Gravel as a vice presidential candidate. In the weeks before the Iowa caucus, Nader praised former Senator John Edwards and his populist message, calling him "a Democratic glimmer of hope" and encouraging Iowans to "give him a victory".
In a Zogby International poll released March 15, 2008, Nader received 6 percent of the vote in a John McCain-Clinton-Nader race and 5 percent in a McCain-Obama-Nader race. According to pollster John Zogby, a self-described Democrat, "Nader's presence in the race can turn a lulu of a race into an absolute tizzy; the messages to Democrats are clear – number one, Nader may win enough support to get into the general election debates. Number two, what could be at risk is support among several key constituencies that the Democratic Party candidate will need to win in November, notably younger voters and progressives." However, according to pollster Mark Blumenthal, such an effect is overstated. After announcing his run on Meet the Press Nader announced that he had chosen former San Francisco Board of Supervisors president and Texas native Matt Gonzalez as his running mate on February 28, 2008. Gonzalez was a supporter of Nader in 2000 and 2004, has a background as a public defender and civil rights attorney.
He narrowly lost the San Francisco mayoral election to Democrat Gavin Newsom in 2003. While campaigning at his alma mater Princeton University, Nader gave a lecture titled "The Corporate State and the Destruction of Democracy." He discussed the "political bigotry against third parties" and the lack of limitations on the power of corporations. Nader described his plans for reform, including single-payer national health insurance, cuts to the military budget, crackdowns on corporations, a repeal of the 1947 Taft–Hartley Act. On March 9, Nader visited West Chester, Pennsylvania where he talked with the Chester County Historical Society about protection of the "victims" of "corporate crooks." He stated that taxes should be levied first on polluters and corporations, that taxes should be lowered on labor and necessities. He called for a withdrawal of American troops from Iraq criticizing the current presidential candidate's stance on the war, "Children not born yet today will be in Iraq under these candidates...
We will bring our troops home". In April 2008, Nader praised Jimmy Carter's plan to visit the Middle East saying: "It is time for all retired military and national security officials from both parties who agree with Carter — and there are many — to band together and launch the Washington Peace Show leading to what a majority of Palestinians and Israelis want — a viable two-state solution." Nader was selected as the presidential candidate of the Peace and Freedom Party at its convention on August 2. He received 46 delegate votes defeating Gloria La Riva, Brian Moore and Cynthia McKinney who vied for the nomination; the distinction gave Nader instant ballot access in California. In June, Nader accused Democratic Party candidate Barack Obama of trying to "talk white" and appealing to white guilt in the election campaign. Obama said about Nader's criticism, "He's become a perennial political candidate. At this point, he's somebody who's trying to get attention, whose campaign hasn't gotten any traction."On September 10, 2008, Nader appeared with Republican presidential candidate Ron Paul as well as several other third party candidates for a press conference at the National Press Club to present the four key principles that they all agreed were the most important of the election.
That day and Paul appeared on CNN's The Situation Room with Wolf Blitzer to lay out these principles. On November 4, 2008, Ralph Nader issued an open letter to Barack
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
Firestone and Ford tire controversy
The Firestone and Ford tire controversy was a period of unusually high failures of P235/75R15 ATX, ATX II, Wilderness AT tires installed on the Ford Explorer and other related vehicles. The tire failures are linked to 271 fatalities and over eight hundred injuries in the United States with more injuries and fatalities occurring internationally, it led Bridgestone/Firestone and Ford Motor Company to recall and replace 23 million tires, it cut the market value of Bridgestone/Firestone in half, Firestone closed the Decatur, Illinois factory where the tires were manufactured, several executives in Bridgestone and Ford resigned or were fired, it led Congress to pass the TREAD Act, it brought an end to the nearly 100 year corporate relationship between Ford Motor Company and Firestone; as early as 1996 personal injury lawyers were aware of accidents and fatalities caused by the tread of Firestone tires separating from the tire at high speeds. Lawyers and traffic safety researchers decided not to contact the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration because they lacked confidence in the agency and feared that an investigation might conclude that there were no defects thereby compromising existing personal injury lawsuits.
All but 13 of the 271 fatalities from these tires took place after 1996. In 1996 the State of Arizona told Firestone that the tread on its tires were separating in high temperatures. Firestone sent several engineers to inspect the tires and concluded that normal passenger tires were being used in heavy conditions, on dirt roads, off road, under heavy loads. Firestone replaced those tires with heavier duty tires. Internal Firestone documents showed a rise in injury claims for ATX, ATX II, Wilderness AT tires as early as 1997. In July 1998 Samuel Boyden, a researcher for State Farm Insurance, received a call from a claims handler asking for information about tread separation in Firestone tires. Boyden found 21 cases of accidents caused by tread separation and forwarded the information to NHTSA. In 1999 he found an additional 30 cases and forwarded that information to NHTSA. Sean Kane, a researcher at Strategic Safety Consulting, found documents showing that Ford had been replacing Firestone tires in Venezuela starting in 1998 where 46 deaths had occurred.
Firestone was aware of tire defects in Venezuela as early as 1999. A Ford dealer in Saudi Arabia noticed high failure rates of Firestone tires in Saudi Arabia and Kuwait starting in 1997 and in July 1999 began replacing Firestone tires on unsold Ford Explorers and to offer a 75% discount for replacement tires when customers came in for maintenance. Ford and Firestone began testing tires in late 1997 or 1998 and began a limited recall in the Middle East, Venezuela and Thailand in 1999 and the spring of 2000 but did not notify NHTSA. On February 7, 2000 KHOU-TV in Houston Texas ran a 9 minute story about high speed Firestone tire failures on Ford Explorers that led to 30 deaths. KHOU was overwhelmed by phone calls from concerned citizens and started directing callers to contact NHTSA. Clarence Ditlow, Executive Director for the Centre for Auto Safety, stated before the Senate Committee on Commerce and Transportation that, "Emerging Information shows that both Ford and Firestone had early knowledge of tread separation in Firestone Tires fitted to Ford Explorer vehicles but at no point informed NHTSA of their findings".
Firestone had more information about tire failures than Ford did because of warranty claims, but Firestone never acted on this information because it always blamed consumers for not maintaining their tires or operating their vehicles in extreme environments, leading to these failures. When either Ford or NHTSA looked into concerns about tire failures or rollovers they always consulted consumer complaints to NHTSA's toll-free hotline; the consumer complaints didn't reflect the size of the problem because attorneys and their clients had completely stopped using the hotline to report tire failures or other complaints. On March 6, 2000 NHTSA began a preliminary inquiry and on May 2, NHTSA began an investigation concerning the high incidence of tire failures and accidents of Ford Explorers and other light trucks and SUV's fitted with Firestone Radial ATX, ATX II, Wilderness tires. On August 9 Firestone recalled all ATX and ATX II tires and all Wilderness AT tires manufactured in Decatur, IL. On August 31, 2000 the Office of Defect Investigation upgraded the investigation to an Engineering Analysis to determine whether Firestone's recall covered all the defective tires.
Ford and Firestone both issued root cause analyses to NHTSA. Firestone argued that vehicle weight, tire design, low recommended inflation pressure, lower tire adhesion for tires manufactured at the Decatur, IL factory contributed to the tire failures. Ford argued that the tire design led to higher operating temperatures compared to similar tires manufactured by Goodyear and that differences in manufacturing at Decatur led to weaker tires that were more prone to failure. Ford argued that the size of the wedge, a strip of rubber between the first and second belts, is smaller in Firestone tires than Michelin tires making them weaker than comparable Michelin tires. Publicly Firestone argued that Ford's recommended 26 psi inflation pressure was too low and should have been 30 psi. In addition Firestone argued that the Explorer was abnormally dangerous and prone to rollovers in the event of a tire failure, leading to more injuries and fatalities. In the words of Firestone CEO John Lampe, "When a driver of a vehicle has something happen such as a tread separation, they should be able to pull over not rollover."Ford argued that the Explorer was no more dangerous than any other SUV and that the accident rate for Explorers with Goodyear tires was far
2008 United States presidential election
The 2008 United States presidential election was the 56th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 4, 2008. The Democratic ticket of Barack Obama, the junior Senator from Illinois, Joe Biden, the senior Senator from Delaware, defeated the Republican ticket of John McCain, the senior Senator from Arizona, Sarah Palin, the Governor of Alaska. Obama became the first African American to be elected as president. Incumbent Republican President George W. Bush was ineligible to pursue a third term due to the term limits established by the 22nd Amendment; as neither Bush nor Vice President Dick Cheney sought the presidency, the 2008 election was the first election since 1952 in which neither major party's presidential nominee was the incumbent president or the incumbent vice president. McCain secured the Republican nomination by March 2008, defeating Mitt Romney, Mike Huckabee, other challengers; the Democratic primaries were marked by a sharp contest between Obama and the initial front-runner, Senator Hillary Clinton.
Clinton's victory in the New Hampshire primary made her the first woman to win a major party's presidential primary. After a long primary season, Obama clinched the Democratic nomination in June 2008. Early campaigning focused on the Iraq War and Bush's unpopularity. McCain supported the war, as well as a troop surge that had begun in 2007, while Obama opposed the war. Bush endorsed McCain, but the two did not campaign together, Bush did not appear in person at the 2008 Republican National Convention. Obama campaigned on the theme that "Washington must change,"; the campaign was affected by the onset of a major financial crisis, which peaked in September 2008. McCain's decision to suspend his campaign during the height of the financial crisis backfired as voters viewed his response as erratic. Obama won a decisive victory over McCain, winning the Electoral College and the popular vote by a sizable margin, including states that had not voted for the Democratic presidential candidate since 1976 and 1964.
Obama received the largest share of the popular vote won by a Democrat since Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964; as of the 2016 presidential election Obama's total count of 69.5 million votes still stands as the largest tally won by a presidential candidate. Hillary Clinton, U. S. Senator from New York John Edwards, former U. S. Senator from North Carolina Bill Richardson, Governor of New Mexico Dennis Kucinich, U. S. Representative from Ohio Joe Biden, U. S. Senator from Delaware Mike Gravel, former U. S. Senator from Alaska Christopher Dodd, U. S. Senator from Connecticut Evan Bayh, U. S. Senator from Indiana Tom Vilsack, former Governor of Iowa Media speculation had begun immediately after the results of the 2004 presidential election were released. In the 2006 midterm elections, the Democrats regained majorities in both houses of the U. S. Congress. Early polls taken before anyone had announced a candidacy had shown Senators Hillary Clinton and Barack Obama as the most popular potential Democratic candidates.
The media speculated on several other candidates, including Al Gore, the runner-up in the 2000 election. Edwards was one of the first to formally announce his candidacy for the presidency, on December 28, 2006; this run would be his second attempt at the presidency. Clinton announced intentions to run in the Democratic primaries on January 20, 2007. Obama announced his candidacy on February 10 in his home state of Illinois. Early in the year, the support for Barack Obama started to increase in the polls, he passed Clinton for the top spot in Iowa. Obama's win was fueled by first time caucus-goers and Independents and showed voters viewed him as the "candidate of change." Iowa has since been viewed as the state that jump-started Obama's campaign and set him on track to win both the nomination and the presidency. After the Iowa caucus, Joe Biden and Christopher Dodd withdrew from the nomination contest. Obama became the new front runner in New Hampshire, when his poll numbers skyrocketed after his Iowa victory The Clinton campaign was struggling after a huge loss in Iowa and no strategy beyond the early primaries and caucuses.
According to The Vancouver Sun, Campaign strategists had "mapped a victory scenario that envisioned the former first lady wrapping up the Democratic presidential nomination by Super Tuesday on Feb. 5." In what is considered a turning point for her campaign, Clinton had a strong performance at the Saint Anselm College, ABC, Facebook debates several days before the New Hampshire primary as well as an emotional interview in a public broadcast live on TV. Clinton won that primary by 2% of the vote, contrary to the predictions of pollsters who had her trailing Obama for a few days up to the primary date. Clinton's win was the
Unstoppable: The Emerging Left–Right Alliance to Dismantle the Corporate State
Unstoppable: The Emerging Left–Right Alliance to Dismantle the Corporate State is a non-fiction book by American consumer advocate Ralph Nader, published in 2014 by Nation Books. Nader argues that there are many issues which progressives and conservatives can agree on, such as opposition to "free trade" agreements, too much Wall Street influence in Washington, opposition to "corporate welfare", preservation of civil liberties, opposition to foreign military entanglements, etc. and that by working together they can defeat entrenched interest groups and achieve their desired policy outcomes. According to a review in The Charleston Gazette, Their agreements center on our government's aggressive foreign interventions and wars, under both Republican and Democratic presidents, as well as the huge of amount of federal tax dollars spent to benefit a handful of large corporations and defense contractors. A review in The Washington Post notes, It's a backhanded compliment to Nader that the stampede of corporate lobbyists into Washington starting in the 1970s began as an effort to counter him.
Conservative Grover Norquist has endorsed the book and concept, saying, "Right and left coalitions are areas of principle agreement, on procedure or goals. Not a compromise where somebody walks in and gives up part of their soul in order to get something that moves — they think — in the wrong direction, in the hope of doing something else." Reviews in both conservative and liberal publications tend to focus on Nader's career and on describing the content of the book. However, a review in Alternet suggests that "The legendary consumer advocate has lost his political compass."The book was the subject of interviews with Mr. Nader on C-SPAN, Democracy Now!, The Tavis Smiley Show. A community gathering based on the book has been held in Washington, D. C. "Unstoppable". The Nader Page. Retrieved 2014-06-02