University of California, Santa Barbara
The University of California, Santa Barbara is a public research university in Santa Barbara, California. It is one of the 10 campuses of the University of California system. Tracing its roots back to 1891 as an independent teachers' college, UCSB joined the University of California system in 1944 and is the third-oldest general-education campus in the system. UCSB is one of America's Public Ivy universities, a designation that recognizes top public research universities in the U. S; the university is a comprehensive doctoral university, is organized into five colleges and schools offering 87 undergraduate degrees and 55 graduate degrees. UCSB was ranked 30th among "National Universities", fifth among U. S. public universities, 37th among Best Global Universities by U. S. News & World Report's 2019 rankings; the university was ranked 48th worldwide for 2016–17 by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, 45th worldwide by the Academic Ranking of World Universities in 2017. UC Santa Barbara is a high-activity research university with 10 national research centers, including the renowned Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics and the Center for Control, Dynamical-Systems and Computation.
Current UCSB faculty includes six Nobel Prize laureates, one Fields Medalist, 39 members of the National Academy of Sciences, 27 members of the National Academy of Engineering, 34 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. UCSB was the No. 3 host on the ARPAnet and was elected to the Association of American Universities in 1995. The world-class faculty includes two Academy and Emmy Award winners, recipients of a Millennium Technology Prize, an IEEE Medal of Honor, a National Medal of Technology and Innovation and a Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics; the UC Santa Barbara Gauchos compete in the Big West Conference of the NCAA Division I. The Gauchos have won NCAA national championships in men's water polo. UCSB traces its origins back to the Anna Blake School, founded in 1891, offered training in home economics and industrial arts; the Anna Blake School was taken over by the state in 1909 and became the Santa Barbara State Normal School, which became the Santa Barbara State College in 1921.
In 1944, intense lobbying by an interest group in the City of Santa Barbara led by Thomas Storke and Pearl Chase persuaded the State Legislature, Gov. Earl Warren, the Regents of the University of California to move the State College over to the more research-oriented University of California system; the State College system sued to stop the takeover. A state constitutional amendment was passed in 1946 to stop subsequent conversions of State Colleges to University of California campuses. From 1944 to 1958, the school was known as Santa Barbara College of the University of California, before taking on its current name; when the vacated Marine Corps training station in Goleta was purchased for the growing college, Santa Barbara City College moved into the vacated State College buildings. The regents envisioned a small, several thousand–student liberal arts college, a so-called "Williams College of the West", at Santa Barbara. Chronologically, UCSB is the third general-education campus of the University of California, after Berkeley and UCLA.
The original campus the regents acquired in Santa Barbara was located on only 100 acres of unusable land on a seaside mesa. The availability of a 400-acre portion of the land used as Marine Corps Air Station Santa Barbara until 1946 on another seaside mesa in Goleta, which the regents could acquire for free from the federal government, led to that site becoming the Santa Barbara campus in 1949. Only 3000–3500 students were anticipated, but the post-WWII baby boom led to the designation of general campus in 1958, along with a name change from "Santa Barbara College" to "University of California, Santa Barbara," and the discontinuation of the industrial arts program for which the state college was famous. A chancellor, Samuel B. Gould, was appointed in 1959. All of this change was done in accordance with the California Master Plan for Higher Education. In 1959, UCSB professor Douwe Stuurman hosted the English writer Aldous Huxley as the university's first visiting professor. Huxley delivered a lectures series called "The Human Situation".
In the late'60s and early'70s, UCSB became nationally known as a hotbed of anti–Vietnam War activity. A bombing at the school's faculty club in 1969 killed Dover Sharp. In the spring of 1970, multiple occasions of arson occurred, including a burning of the Bank of America branch building in the student community of Isla Vista, during which time one male student, Kevin Moran, was shot and killed by police. UCSB's anti-Vietnam activity impelled then-Gov. Ronald Reagan to order the National Guard to enforce it. Armed guardsmen were a common sight in Isla Vista during this time. In 1995, UCSB was elected to the Association of American Universities, an organization of leading research universities, with a membership consisting of 59 universities in the United States and two universities in Canada. On May 23, 2014, a killing spree occurred in Isla Vista, California, a community in close proximity to the campus. All six people killed during the rampage were students at UCSB; the murderer was a former Santa Barbara City College student.
1944–1946: Clarence L. Phelps 1946–1955: J. Harold Williams 1955–1955: Clark G. Kuebler 1956–1956: John C. Snidecor 1956–1959: Elmer Noble 1959–1962: Samuel B. Gould 1962–1977: Vernon Cheadle 1977–1986: Robert Huttenba
W. D. Hamilton
William Donald Hamilton, FRS was an English evolutionary biologist recognised as one of the most significant evolutionary theorists of the 20th century. Hamilton became famous through his theoretical work expounding a rigorous genetic basis for the existence of altruism, an insight, a key part of the development of a gene-centric view of evolution, he is considered one of the forerunners of sociobiology. Hamilton published important work on sex ratios and the evolution of sex. From 1984 to his death in 2000, he was a Royal Society Research Professor at Oxford University. Hamilton was born in 1936 in Cairo, the second of seven children, his parents were from New Zealand. The Hamilton family settled in Kent. During the Second World War, the young Hamilton was evacuated to Edinburgh, he had an interest in natural history from an early age and spent his spare time collecting butterflies and other insects. In 1946, he discovered E. B. Ford's New Naturalist book Butterflies, which introduced him to the principles of evolution by natural selection and population genetics.
He was educated at Tonbridge School. As a 12-year-old, he was injured while playing with explosives his father had; these were left over from his father making hand grenades for the Home Guard during World War II. Before going up to the University of Cambridge, he travelled in France and completed two years of national service; as an undergraduate at St. John's College, he was uninspired by the "many biologists hardly seemed to believe in evolution", he was intrigued by Ronald Fisher's book The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection, but Fisher lacked standing at Cambridge, being viewed as only a statistician. Hamilton was excited by Fisher's chapters on eugenics. In earlier chapters, Fisher provided a mathematical basis for the genetics of evolution and Hamilton blamed Fisher's book for his getting only a 2:1 degree. Hamilton enrolled in an MSc course in demography at the London School of Economics, under Norman Carrier, who helped secure various grants for his studies; when his work became more mathematical and genetical, he had his supervision transferred to John Hajnal of the LSE and Cedric Smith of University College London.
Both Fisher and J. B. S. Haldane had seen a problem in how organisms could increase the fitness of their own genes by aiding their close relatives, but not recognised its significance or properly formulated it. Hamilton worked through several examples, realised that the number that kept falling out of his calculations was Sewall Wright's coefficient of relationship; this became Hamilton's rule: in each behaviour-evoking situation, the individual assesses his neighbour's fitness against his own according to the coefficients of relationship appropriate to the situation. Algebraically, the rule posits that a costly action should be performed if: Where C is the cost in fitness to the actor, r the genetic relatedness between the actor and the recipient, B is the fitness benefit to the recipient. Fitness costs and benefits are measured in fecundity. R is a number between 0 and 1, his two 1964 papers entitled The Genetical Evolution of Social Behavior are now referenced. The proof and discussion of its consequences, involved detailed mathematics, two reviewers passed over the paper.
The third, John Maynard Smith, did not understand it either, but recognised its significance. Having his work passed over led to friction between Hamilton and Maynard Smith, as Hamilton thought Smith had held his work back to claim credit for the idea; the Hamilton paper was printed in the Journal of Theoretical Biology and, when first published, was ignored. Recognition of its significance increased to the point that it is now cited in biology books. Much of the discussion relates to the evolution of eusociality in insects of the order Hymenoptera based on their unusual haplodiploid sex-determination system; this system means that females are more related to their sisters than to their own offspring. Thus, Hamilton reasoned, a "costly action" would be better spent in helping to raise their sisters, rather than reproducing themselves. In his 1970 paper Selfish and Spiteful Behaviour in an Evolutionary Model Hamilton considers the question of whether harm inflicted upon an organism must be a byproduct of adaptations for survival.
What of possible cases where an organism is deliberately harming others without apparent benefit to the self? Such behaviour Hamilton calls spiteful, it can be explained as the increase in the chance of an organism's genetic alleles to be passed to the next generations by harming those that are less related than relationship by chance. Spite, however, is unlikely to be elaborated into any complex forms of adaptation. Targets of aggression are to act in revenge, the majority of pairs of individuals exhibit a average level of genetic relatedness, making the selection of targets of spite problematic. Between 1964 and 1977 Hamilton was a lecturer at Imperial College London. Whilst there he published a paper in Science on "extraordinary sex ratios". Fisher had proposed a model as to why "ordinary" sex ratios were nearly always 1:1, extraordinary sex
Evolutionary approaches to depression
Evolutionary approaches to depression are attempts by evolutionary psychologists to use the theory of evolution to shed light on the problem of mood disorders. Depression is thought of as dysfunction, but it is much more common than schizophrenia or autism, its prevalence does not increase with age the way dementia and other organic dysfunction does; some researchers have surmised that the disorder may have evolutionary roots, in the same way that others suggest evolutionary contributions to schizophrenia, sickle cell anemia and other disorders. Psychology and psychiatry have not embraced evolutionary explanations for behaviors, the proposed explanations for the evolution of depression remain controversial. Major depression is a leading cause of disability worldwide, in 2000 was the fourth leading contributor to the global burden of disease, it is understandable that clinical depression is thought to be a pathology—a major dysfunction of the brain. In most cases, rates of organ dysfunction increase with age, with low rates in adolescents and young adults, the highest rates in the elderly.
These patterns are consistent with evolutionary theories of aging which posit that selection against dysfunctional traits decreases with age. In contrast to these patterns, prevalence of clinical depression is high in all age categories, including otherwise healthy adolescents and young adults. In one study of the US population, for example, the 12 month prevalence for a major depression episode was highest in the youngest age category; the high prevalence of depression is an outlier when compared to the prevalence of major mental retardation and schizophrenia, all with prevalence rates about one tenth that of depression, or less. The common occurrence and persistence of a trait like clinical depression with such negative effects early in life is difficult to explain. Evolutionary psychology and its application in evolutionary medicine suggest how behaviour and mental states, including harmful states such as depression, may have been beneficial adaptations of human ancestors which improved the fitness of individuals or their relatives.
It has been argued, for example, that Abraham Lincoln's lifelong depression was a source of insight and strength. Some suggest that "we aren't designed to have happiness as our natural default" and so a state of depression is the evolutionary norm; the following hypotheses attempt to identify a benefit of depression that outweighs its obvious costs. Such hypotheses are not incompatible with one another and may explain different aspects and symptoms of depression. One reason depression is thought to be a pathology is that it causes so much psychic pain and distress. However, physical pain is very distressful, yet it has an evolved function: to inform the organism that it is suffering damage, to motivate it to withdraw from the source of damage, to learn to avoid such damage-causing circumstances in the future. Sadness is distressing, yet is believed to be an evolved adaptation. In fact the most influential evolutionary view is that most cases of depression are particularly intense cases of sadness in response to adversity, such as the loss of a loved one.
According to the psychic pain hypothesis, depression is analogous to physical pain in that it informs the sufferer that current circumstances, such as the loss of a friend, are imposing a threat to biological fitness. It motivates the sufferer to cease activities that led to the costly situation, if possible, it causes him or her to learn to avoid similar circumstances in the future. Proponents of this view tend to focus on low mood, regard clinical depression as a dysfunctional extreme of low mood—and not as a unique set of characteristics that are physiologically distanced from regular depressed mood. Alongside the absence of pleasure, other noticeable changes include psychomotor retardation, disrupted patterns of sleeping and feeding, a loss of sex drive and motivation—which are all characteristics of the body's reaction to actual physical pain. In depressed people there is an increased activity in the regions of the cortex involved with the perception of pain, such as the anterior cingulate cortex and the left prefrontal cortex.
This activity allows the cortex to manifest an abstract negative thought as a true physical stressor to the rest of the brain. The behavioral shutdown model states that if an organism faces more risk or expenditure than reward from activities, the best evolutionary strategy may be to withdraw from them; this model proposes. Negative emotions like disappointment, grief, anxiety and guilt are described as "evolved strategies that allow for the identification and avoidance of specific problems in the social domain." Depression is characteristically associated with anhedonia and lack of energy, those experiencing it are risk-aversive and perceive more negative and pessimistic outcomes because they are focused on preventing further loss. Although the model views depression as an adaptive response, it does not suggest that it is beneficial by the standards of current society. A related phenomenon to the behavioral
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical processes, molecular interactions, physiological mechanisms and evolution. Despite the complexity of the science, there are certain unifying concepts that consolidate it into a single, coherent field. Biology recognizes the cell as the basic unit of life, genes as the basic unit of heredity, evolution as the engine that propels the creation and extinction of species. Living organisms are open systems that survive by transforming energy and decreasing their local entropy to maintain a stable and vital condition defined as homeostasis. Sub-disciplines of biology are defined by the research methods employed and the kind of system studied: theoretical biology uses mathematical methods to formulate quantitative models while experimental biology performs empirical experiments to test the validity of proposed theories and understand the mechanisms underlying life and how it appeared and evolved from non-living matter about 4 billion years ago through a gradual increase in the complexity of the system.
See branches of biology. The term biology is derived from the Greek word βίος, bios, "life" and the suffix -λογία, -logia, "study of." The Latin-language form of the term first appeared in 1736 when Swedish scientist Carl Linnaeus used biologi in his Bibliotheca botanica. It was used again in 1766 in a work entitled Philosophiae naturalis sive physicae: tomus III, continens geologian, phytologian generalis, by Michael Christoph Hanov, a disciple of Christian Wolff; the first German use, was in a 1771 translation of Linnaeus' work. In 1797, Theodor Georg August Roose used the term in the preface of a book, Grundzüge der Lehre van der Lebenskraft. Karl Friedrich Burdach used the term in 1800 in a more restricted sense of the study of human beings from a morphological and psychological perspective; the term came into its modern usage with the six-volume treatise Biologie, oder Philosophie der lebenden Natur by Gottfried Reinhold Treviranus, who announced: The objects of our research will be the different forms and manifestations of life, the conditions and laws under which these phenomena occur, the causes through which they have been effected.
The science that concerns itself with these objects we will indicate by the name biology or the doctrine of life. Although modern biology is a recent development, sciences related to and included within it have been studied since ancient times. Natural philosophy was studied as early as the ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia, the Indian subcontinent, China. However, the origins of modern biology and its approach to the study of nature are most traced back to ancient Greece. While the formal study of medicine dates back to Hippocrates, it was Aristotle who contributed most extensively to the development of biology. Important are his History of Animals and other works where he showed naturalist leanings, more empirical works that focused on biological causation and the diversity of life. Aristotle's successor at the Lyceum, wrote a series of books on botany that survived as the most important contribution of antiquity to the plant sciences into the Middle Ages. Scholars of the medieval Islamic world who wrote on biology included al-Jahiz, Al-Dīnawarī, who wrote on botany, Rhazes who wrote on anatomy and physiology.
Medicine was well studied by Islamic scholars working in Greek philosopher traditions, while natural history drew on Aristotelian thought in upholding a fixed hierarchy of life. Biology began to develop and grow with Anton van Leeuwenhoek's dramatic improvement of the microscope, it was that scholars discovered spermatozoa, bacteria and the diversity of microscopic life. Investigations by Jan Swammerdam led to new interest in entomology and helped to develop the basic techniques of microscopic dissection and staining. Advances in microscopy had a profound impact on biological thinking. In the early 19th century, a number of biologists pointed to the central importance of the cell. In 1838, Schleiden and Schwann began promoting the now universal ideas that the basic unit of organisms is the cell and that individual cells have all the characteristics of life, although they opposed the idea that all cells come from the division of other cells. Thanks to the work of Robert Remak and Rudolf Virchow, however, by the 1860s most biologists accepted all three tenets of what came to be known as cell theory.
Meanwhile and classification became the focus of natural historians. Carl Linnaeus published a basic taxonomy for the natural world in 1735, in the 1750s introduced scientific names for all his species. Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon, treated species as artificial categories and living forms as malleable—even suggesting the possibility of common descent. Although he was opposed to evolution, Buffon is a key figure in the history of evolutionary thought. Serious evolutionary thinking originated with the works of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, the first to present a coherent theory of evolution, he posited that evolution was the result of environmental stress on properties of animals, meaning that the more and rigorously an organ was used, the more complex and efficient it would become, thus adapting the animal to its environment. Lamarck believed that these acquired traits could be passed on to the animal's offspring, who would
Kin selection is the evolutionary strategy that favours the reproductive success of an organism's relatives at a cost to the organism's own survival and reproduction. Kin altruism can look like altruistic behaviour. Kin selection is an instance of inclusive fitness, which combines the number of offspring produced with the number an individual can ensure the production of by supporting others, such as siblings. Charles Darwin discussed the concept of kin selection in his 1859 book, The Origin of Species, where he reflected on the puzzle of sterile social insects, such as honey bees, which leave reproduction to their mothers, arguing that a selection benefit to related organisms would allow the evolution of a trait that confers the benefit but destroys an individual at the same time. R. A. Fisher in 1930 and J. B. S. Haldane in 1932 set out the mathematics of kin selection, with Haldane famously joking that he would willingly die for two brothers or eight cousins. In 1964, W. D. Hamilton popularised the concept and the major advance in the mathematical treatment of the phenomenon by George R. Price which has become known as Hamilton's rule.
In the same year John Maynard Smith used the actual term kin selection for the first time. According to Hamilton's rule, kin selection causes genes to increase in frequency when the genetic relatedness of a recipient to an actor multiplied by the benefit to the recipient is greater than the reproductive cost to the actor. Hamilton proposed two mechanisms for kin selection. First, kin recognition allows individuals to be able to identify their relatives. Second, in viscous populations, populations in which the movement of organisms from their place of birth is slow, local interactions tend to be among relatives by default; the viscous population mechanism makes kin selection and social cooperation possible in the absence of kin recognition. In this case, nurture kinship, the treatment of individuals as kin as a result of living together, is sufficient for kin selection, given reasonable assumptions about population dispersal rates. Note that kin selection is not the same thing as group selection, where natural selection is believed to act on the group as a whole.
In humans, altruism is both more and on a larger scale with kin than with unrelated individuals. In other species, vervet monkeys use allomothering, where related females such as older sisters or grandmothers care for young, according to their relatedness; the social shrimp Synalpheus regalis protects juveniles within related colonies. Charles Darwin was the first to discuss the concept of kin selection. In The Origin of Species, he wrote about the conundrum represented by altruistic sterile social insects that This difficulty, though appearing insuperable, is lessened, or, as I believe, when it is remembered that selection may be applied to the family, as well as to the individual, may thus gain the desired end. Breeders of cattle wish the fat to be well marbled together. An animal thus characterised has been slaughtered, but the breeder has gone with confidence to the same stock and has succeeded. In this passage "the family" and "stock" stand for a kin group; these passages and others by Darwin about "kin selection" are highlighted in D.
J. Futuyma's textbook of reference Evolutionary Biology and in E. O. Wilson's Sociobiology; the earliest mathematically formal treatments of kin selection were by R. A. Fisher in 1930 and J. B. S. Haldane in 1932 and 1955. J. B. S. Haldane grasped the basic quantities and considerations in kin selection, famously writing "I would lay down my life for two brothers or eight cousins". Haldane's remark alluded to the fact that if an individual loses its life to save two siblings, four nephews, or eight cousins, it is a "fair deal" in evolutionary terms, as siblings are on average 50% identical by descent, nephews 25%, cousins 12.5%. But Haldane joked that he would die only to save more than a single identical twin of his or more than two full siblings. In 1955 he clarified: Let us suppose that you carry a rare gene that affects your behaviour so that you jump into a flooded river and save a child, but you have one chance in ten of being drowned, while I do not possess the gene, stand on the bank and watch the child drown.
If the child's your own child or your brother or sister, there is an chance that this child will have this gene, so five genes will be saved in children for one lost in an adult. If you save a grandchild or a nephew, the advantage is only two and a half to one. If you only save a first cousin, the effect is slight. If you try to save your first cousin once removed the population is more to lose this valuable gene than to gain it. … It is clear that genes making for conduct of this kind would only have a chance of spreading in rather small populations when most of the children were near relatives of the man who risked his life. W. D. Hamilton, in 1963 and in 1964 popularised the concept and the more thorough mathematical treatment given to it by George Price. John Maynard Smith may have coined the actual term "kin selection" in 1964: These processes I will call kin selection and group selection respectively. Kin selection has been discussed by Hamilton. … By kin selection I mean the evolution of characteristics which favour the survival of close relatives of the affected individual, by processes which do not require any discontinuities in the population breeding structure.
Kin selection causes changes in gene frequency across generations, driven by interactions between related indiv
Steven Arthur Pinker is a Canadian-American cognitive psychologist and popular science author. He is Johnstone Family Professor in the Department of Psychology at Harvard University, is known for his advocacy of evolutionary psychology and the computational theory of mind. Pinker's academic specializations are visual psycholinguistics, his experimental subjects include mental imagery, shape recognition, visual attention, children's language development and irregular phenomena in language, the neural bases of words and grammar, the psychology of cooperation and communication, including euphemism, emotional expression, common knowledge. He has written two technical books that proposed a general theory of language acquisition and applied it to children's learning of verbs. In particular, his work with Alan Prince published in 1989 critiqued the connectionist model of how children acquire the past tense of English verbs, arguing instead that children use default rules such as adding "-ed" to make regular forms, sometimes in error, but are obliged to learn irregular forms one by one.
Pinker is the author of eight books for general audiences. His earlier works argue that the human faculty for language is an instinct, an innate behavior shaped by natural selection and adapted to our communication needs; the Language Instinct, How the Mind Works and Rules, The Blank Slate, The Stuff of Thought, describe aspects of psycholinguistics and cognitive science, include accounts of his own research. Pinker's The Sense of Style, as a general style guide, is another language-oriented work. Informed by modern science and psychology, it offers advice on how to produce more comprehensible and unambiguous writing in nonfiction contexts and explains why so much of today's academic and popular writing is difficult for readers to understand. Pinker's two other books for the public leave behind individual questions of language and learning in favor of broader societal themes; the Better Angels of Our Nature, makes the case that violence in human societies has, in general declined with time, identifies six major causes of this decline.
Enlightenment Now, continues the optimistic thesis of The Better Angels of Our Nature by using social science data from various sources to argue for a general improvement of the human condition over recent history. Pinker has been named as one of the world's most influential intellectuals by various magazines, he has won awards from the American Psychological Association, the National Academy of Sciences, the Royal Institution, the Cognitive Neuroscience Society and the American Humanist Association. He delivered the Gifford Lectures at the University of Edinburgh in 2013, he has served on the editorial boards of a variety of journals, on the advisory boards of several institutions. He has participated in public debates on science and society. Pinker was born in Montreal, Quebec, to a middle-class Jewish family, his parents were Harry Pinker. His grandparents emigrated to Canada from Poland and Romania in 1926, owned a small necktie factory in Montreal, his father, a lawyer, first worked as a manufacturer's representative, while his mother was first a home-maker a guidance counselor and high-school vice-principal.
He has two younger siblings. His brother Robert is a policy analyst for the Canadian government, while his sister, Susan Pinker, is a psychologist and writer who authored The Sexual Paradox and The Village Effect. Pinker married Nancy Etcoff in 1980 and they divorced in 1992, his third wife, whom he married in 2007, is philosopher Rebecca Goldstein. He has the poet Danielle Blau. Pinker graduated from Dawson College in 1973, he received a Bachelor of Arts in psychology from McGill University in 1976, earned his Doctorate of Philosophy in experimental psychology at Harvard University in 1979 under Stephen Kosslyn. He did research at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology for a year, after which he became an assistant professor at Harvard and Stanford University. From 1982 until 2003, Pinker taught at the Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences at MIT, was the co-director of the Center for Cognitive science, became the director of the Center for Cognitive neuroscience, taking a one-year sabbatical at the University of California, Santa Barbara, in 1995–96.
Since 2003, he has been serving as the Johnstone Family Professor of Psychology at Harvard and between 2008 and 2013 he held the title of Harvard College Professor in recognition of his dedication to teaching. He gives lectures as a visiting professor at the New College of the Humanities, a private college in London. About his Jewish background Pinker has said, "I was never religious in the theological sense... I never outgrew my conversion to atheism at 13, but at various times was a serious cultural Jew." As a teenager, he says he considered himself an anarchist until he witnessed civil unrest following a police strike in 1969, when: As a young teenager in proudly peaceable Canada during the romantic 1960s, I was a true believer in Bakunin's anarchism. I laughed off my parents' argument that if the government laid down its arms all hell would break loose. Our competing predictions were put to the test at 8:00 A. M. on October 17, 1969, when the Montreal police went on strike... This decisive empirical test left my politics in tatters.
Pinker identifies himself as an equity feminist, which he defines as "a moral doctrine about
Pyotr Alexeyevich Kropotkin was a Russian activist, scientist and philosopher who advocated anarcho-communism. Born into an aristocratic land-owning family, he attended a military school and served as an officer in Siberia, where he participated in several geological expeditions, he was managed to escape two years later. He spent the next 41 years in exile in England, he returned to Russia after the Russian Revolution in 1917 but was disappointed by the Bolshevik form of state socialism. Kropotkin was a proponent of a decentralised communist society free from central government and based on voluntary associations of self-governing communities and worker-run enterprises, he wrote many books and articles, the most prominent being The Conquest of Bread and Fields and Workshops. He contributed the article on anarchism to the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition and left unfinished a work on anarchist ethical philosophy. Pyotr Kropotkin was born into an ancient Russian princely family, his father, major general Prince Alexei Petrovich Kropotkin, was a descendant of the Smolensk branch, of the Rurik dynasty which had ruled Russia before the rise of the Romanovs.
Kropotkin's father owned nearly 1,200 male serfs in three provinces. His mother was the daughter of a Cossack general."Under the influence of republican teachings", Kropotkin dropped his princely title at age 12, "even rebuked his friends, when they so referred to him."In 1857, at age 14, Kropotkin enrolled in the Corps of Pages at St. Petersburg. Only 150 boys – children of nobility belonging to the court – were educated in this privileged corps, which combined the character of a military school endowed with exclusive rights and of a court institution attached to the Imperial Household. Kropotkin's memoirs detail the hazing and other abuse of pages for which the Corps had become notorious. In Moscow, Kropotkin developed what would become a lifelong interest in the condition of the peasantry. Although his work as a page for Tsar Alexander II made Kropotkin skeptical about the tsar's "liberal" reputation, Kropotkin was pleased by the tsar's decision to emancipate the serfs in 1861. In St. Petersburg, he read on his own account and gave special attention to the works of the French encyclopædists and French history.
The years 1857–1861 witnessed a growth in the intellectual forces of Russia, Kropotkin came under the influence of the new liberal-revolutionary literature, which expressed his own aspirations. In 1862, Kropotkin graduated first in his class from the Corps of Pages and entered the Tsarist army; the members of the corps had the prescriptive right to choose the regiment to which they would be attached. Following a desire to "be someone useful", Kropotkin chose the difficult route of serving in a Cossack regiment in eastern Siberia. For some time, he was aide de camp to the governor of Transbaikalia at Chita, he was appointed attaché for Cossack affairs to the governor-general of East Siberia at Irkutsk. The administrator under whom Kropotkin served, General Boleslar Kazimirovich Kukel, was a liberal and a democrat who maintained personal connections to various Russian radical political figures exiled to Siberia; these included the writer M. I. Mikhailov, to whom Kukel sent Kropotkin to warn the exiled intellectual that Moscow police agents were on the scene to examine his ongoing political activities in confinement.
As a result of this assignment, Kropotkin made the acquaintance of Mikhailov, who provided the young Tsarist functionary with a copy of a book by the French anarchist Pierre-Joseph Proudhon — Kropotkin's first introduction to anarchist ideas. Kukel was subsequently dismissed from his administrative position, Kropotkin moved from administration to state-sponsored scientific endeavors. In 1864 Kropotkin accepted a position in a geographical survey expedition, crossing North Manchuria from Transbaikalia to the Amur, soon was attached to another expedition up the Sungari River into the heart of Manchuria; the expeditions yielded valuable geographical results. The impossibility of obtaining any real administrative reforms in Siberia now induced Kropotkin to devote himself entirely to scientific exploration, in which he continued to be successful. Kropotkin continued his political reading, including works by such prominent liberal thinkers as John Stuart Mill and Alexander Herzen; these readings, along with his experiences among peasants in Siberia, led him to declare himself an anarchist by 1872.
In 1867, Kropotkin resigned his commission in the army and returned to St. Petersburg, where he entered the Saint Petersburg Imperial University to study mathematics, becoming at the same time secretary to the geography section of the Russian Geographical Society, his departure from a family tradition of military service prompted his father to disinherit him, "leaving him a'prince' with no visible means of support". In 1871, Kropotkin explored the glacial deposits of Sweden for the Society. In 1873, he published an important contribution to science, a map and paper in which he showed that the existing maps misrepresented the physical features of Asia. During this work, he was offered the secretaryship of the Society, but he had decided that it was his duty not to work at fresh discoveries but to aid in diffusing existin