John F. Jones Jr.
John F. "Jack" Jones Jr. Ph. D. serves as Chief Information Officer of the National Institutes of Health, an agency of the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services; the NIH CIO advises the NIH Director on strategic directions and management of information technology programs and policy. Dr. Jones serves as the Director of the Center for Information Technology, at the NIH. John F. "Jack" Jones Jr. Ph. D. was appointed NIH CIO on June 22, 2008 and served till February 2011. He served as CIT Director from 2005 till June 2008, his past appointments include NIH Chief IT Architect in 2001, when he joined the NIH. Before coming to the NIH, Dr. Jones served as Director of Information Processes at Sandia National Laboratories. During his last two years at Sandia, he served as senior advisor to the Deputy Assistant Secretary at the U. S. Department of Energy for the Advanced Strategic Computing Initiative. In his former role as the Chief IT Architect, as CIO and CIT Director at NIH, Dr. Jones has focused on ensuring that information technology is matched to the business needs and processes that it supports.
His efforts have brought together disparate communities, from physician-scientists to accountants and technologists. Results of this effort include the development of business process and conceptual data models for grants award and management, the acceptance of business process modeling as a required part of application development. Dr. Jones attended Case Western Reserve University as an undergraduate and graduated first in his class, he continued his education at Stanford University and was awarded Master and Doctor of Philosophy degrees in Aeronautical Engineering. Dr. Jones's graduate education was interrupted by four years of service in the U. S. Navy, serving as a Naval Flight Officer. Dr. Jones's career focus moved from aviation to computing, his work to develop and employ standards in computer-aided design and manufacturing was acknowledged with an award from the National Institute of Standards and Technology for being "the first commercial use of the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification."
NIH Almanac - Organization - Office of the Director. URL: http://www.nih.gov/about/almanac/organization/OD.htm Office of the Chief Information Officer. URL: http://ocio.od.nih.gov/ OCIO Home Page, http://ocio.od.nih.gov/about.html NIH Almanac, http://www.nih.gov/about/almanac/organization/OD.htm CIT Home Page, http://www.cit.nih.gov/ NIH Home Page, http://www.nih.gov/ NIH Press Release, October 7, 2008, http://www.nih.gov/news/health/oct2008/od-07.htm U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, https://www.hhs.gov/
United States National Library of Medicine
The United States National Library of Medicine, operated by the United States federal government, is the world's largest medical library. Located in Bethesda, the NLM is an institute within the National Institutes of Health, its collections include more than seven million books, technical reports, microfilms and images on medicine and related sciences, including some of the world's oldest and rarest works. The current director of the NLM is Patricia Flatley Brennan. Since 1879, the National Library of Medicine has published the Index Medicus, a monthly guide to articles, in nearly five thousand selected journals; the last issue of Index Medicus was printed in December 2004, but this information is offered in the accessible PubMed, among the more than fifteen million MEDLINE journal article references and abstracts going back to the 1960s and 1.5 million references going back to the 1950s. The National Library of Medicine runs the National Center for Biotechnology Information, which houses biological databases that are accessible on the Internet through the Entrez search engine and Lister Hill National Center For Biomedical Communications.
As the United States National Release Center for SNOMED CT, NLM provides SNOMED CT data and resources to licensees of the NLM UMLS Metathesaurus. NLM maintains ClinicalTrials.gov registry for human observational studies. The Toxicology and Environmental Health Program was established at the National Library of Medicine in 1967 and is charged with developing computer databases compiled from the medical literature and from the files of governmental and nongovernmental organizations; the program has implemented several information systems for chemical emergency response and public education, such as the Toxicology Data Network, TOXMAP, Tox Town, Wireless Information System for Emergency Responders and the Household Products Database. These resources are accessible without charge on the internet; the United States National Library of Medicine Radiation Emergency Management System provides: Guidance for health care providers physicians, about clinical diagnosis and treatment of radiation injury during radiological and nuclear emergencies Just-in-time, evidence-based, usable information with sufficient background and context to make complex issues understandable to those without formal radiation medicine expertise Web-based information that may be downloaded in advance, so that it would be available during an emergency if the Internet were not accessibleRadiation Emergency Management System is produced by the United States Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, Office of Planning and Emergency Operations, in cooperation with the National Library of Medicine, Division of Specialized Information Services, with subject matter experts from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, many U.
S. and international consultants. The Extramural Division provides grants to support research in medical information science and to support planning and development of computer and communications systems in medical institutions. Research and exhibitions on the history of medicine and the life sciences are supported by the History of Medicine Division. In April 2008 the current exhibition Against the Odds: Making a Difference in Global Health was launched. National Center for Biotechnology Information is an intramural division within National Library of Medicine that creates public databases in molecular biology, conducts research in computational biology, develops software tools for analyzing molecular and genomic data, disseminates biomedical information, all for the better understanding of processes affecting human health and disease. For details of the pre-1956 history of the Library, see Library of the Surgeon General's Office; the precursor of the National Library of Medicine, established in 1836, was the Library of the Surgeon General's Office, a part of the office of the Surgeon General of the United States Army.
The Armed Forces Institute of Pathology and its Medical Museum were founded in 1862 as the Army Medical Museum. Throughout their history the Library of the Surgeon General's Office and the Army Medical Museum shared quarters. From 1866 to 1887, they were housed in Ford's Theatre after production there was stopped, following the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln. In 1956, the library collection was transferred from the control of the U. S. Department of Defense to the Public Health Service of the Department of Health and Welfare and renamed the National Library of Medicine, through the instrumentality of Frank Bradway Rogers, the director from 1956 to 1963; the library moved to its current quarters in Bethesda, Maryland, on the campus of the National Institutes of Health, in 1962. JournalReview.org National Library of Medicine classification system PubMed Miles, Wyndham D.. A History of the National Library of Medicine: The Nation's Treasury of Medical Knowledge. U. S. Government Printing Office.
P. 531. ISBN 978-0-16-002644-7. NLM 8218545. Reznick, Jeffrey. US National Library of Medicine. Charleston, South Carolina: Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4671-2608-3. LCCN 2017931439. NLM 101706419. Schullian, Dorothy. "The National Library of Medicine. I"; the Library Quarterly: Information, Policy. 28: 1–17. Doi:10.1086/618482. JSTOR 4304714. NLM 0135203. Schullian, Dorothy. "The National Library of Medicine. II"; the Library Quarterly: Information, Policy. 28: 95–121. Doi:10.1086/618521. JSTOR 4304753. NLM 0135203. Past and future of biomedical informat
George Walter McCoy
George Walter McCoy was an American physician. An international expert on leprosy, he served as director of the National Institute of Health for more than twenty years. McCoy was born in 1876 in the Cumberland Valley of Pennsylvania, he was the son of Osborn George McCoy and his wife Lavanda Walters, had one sibling, J. Ross McCoy, who died young in 1899, he graduated from the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine in 1898 and completed his internship at City Hospital in Newark, New Jersey. After completing his internship, McCoy joined the United States Public Health Service and was assigned to the U. S. Marine Hospital in San Francisco, California. While stationed in San Francisco, he became the director of the U. S. Plague Laboratory in 1908, during his time there he discovered, isolated the pathogen responsible for, a "plague-like disease of rodents" dubbed tularemia. In 1911, he was transferred to direct the U. S. Leprosy Investigation Station in Hawaii. In 1915, he was appointed the fourth head of the U.
S. Hygienic Laboratory, renamed the National Institute of Health in 1930. McCoy directed the NIH for more than twenty years. Apart from his administrative role, he continued to conduct major medical studies on a variety of diseases, advocated a combined field and laboratory approach to public health research, he resigned his position as director in early 1937, but remained with the Public Health Service to conduct a large, nationwide survey on leprosy. In 1938, he left the PHS and joined the staff of the Louisiana State University School of Medicine in New Orleans, where he headed the Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health until his retirement in 1948, he died on 2 April 1952. McCoy served as president of the American Association of Immunologists from 1922-3, he was made an honorary member of Delta Omega in 1930. He was awarded the American Public Health Association's Sedgwick Memorial Medal in 1931
National Institutes of Health
The National Institutes of Health is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research. It was founded in the late 1870s and is now part of the United States Department of Health and Human Services; the majority of NIH facilities are located in Maryland. The NIH conducts its own scientific research through its Intramural Research Program and provides major biomedical research funding to non-NIH research facilities through its Extramural Research Program; as of 2013, the IRP had 1,200 principal investigators and more than 4,000 postdoctoral fellows in basic and clinical research, being the largest biomedical research institution in the world, while, as of 2003, the extramural arm provided 28% of biomedical research funding spent annually in the U. S. or about US$26.4 billion. The NIH comprises 27 separate institutes and centers of different biomedical disciplines and is responsible for many scientific accomplishments, including the discovery of fluoride to prevent tooth decay, the use of lithium to manage bipolar disorder, the creation of vaccines against hepatitis, Haemophilus influenzae, human papillomavirus.
NIH's roots extend back to the Marine Hospital Service in the late 1790s that provided medical relief to sick and disabled men in the U. S. Navy. By 1870, a network of marine hospitals had developed and was placed under the charge of a medical officer within the Bureau of the Treasury Department. In the late 1870s, Congress allocated funds to investigate the causes of epidemics like cholera and yellow fever, it created the National Board of Health, making medical research an official government initiative. In 1887, a laboratory for the study of bacteria, the Hygienic Laboratory, was established at the Marine Hospital in New York. In the early 1900s, Congress began appropriating funds for the Marine Hospital Service. By 1922, this organization changed its name to Public Health Services and established a Special Cancer Investigations laboratory at Harvard Medical School; this marked the beginning of a partnership with universities. In 1930, the Hygienic Laboratory was re-designated as the National Institute of Health by the Ransdell Act, was given $750,000 to construct two NIH buildings.
Over the next few decades, Congress would increase funding tremendously to the NIH, various institutes and centers within the NIH were created for specific research programs. In 1944, the Public Health Service Act was approved, the National Cancer Institute became a division of NIH. In 1948, the name changed from National Institute of Health to National Institutes of Health. In the 1960s, virologist and cancer researcher Chester M. Southam injected HeLa cancer cells into patients at the Jewish Chronic Disease Hospital; when three doctors resigned after refusing to inject patients without their consent, the experiment gained considerable media attention. The NIH was a major source of funding for Southam's research and had required all research involving human subjects to obtain their consent prior to any experimentation. Upon investigating all of their grantee institutions, the NIH discovered that the majority of them did not protect the rights of human subjects. From on, the NIH has required all grantee institutions to approve any research proposals involving human experimentation with review boards.
In 1967, the Division of Regional Medical Programs was created to administer grants for research for heart disease and strokes. That same year, the NIH director lobbied the White House for increased federal funding in order to increase research and the speed with which health benefits could be brought to the people. An advisory committee was formed to oversee further development of the NIH and its research programs. By 1971 cancer research was in full force and President Nixon signed the National Cancer Act, initiating a National Cancer Program, President's Cancer Panel, National Cancer Advisory Board, 15 new research and demonstration centers. Funding for the NIH has been a source of contention in Congress, serving as a proxy for the political currents of the time. In 1992, the NIH encompassed nearly 1 percent of the federal government's operating budget and controlled more than 50 percent of all funding for health research, 85 percent of all funding for health studies in universities. While government funding for research in other disciplines has been increasing at a rate similar to inflation since the 1970s, research funding for the NIH nearly tripled through the 1990s and early 2000s, but has remained stagnant since then.
By the 1990s, the NIH committee focus had shifted to DNA research, launched the Human Genome Project. The NIH Office of the Director is the central office responsible for setting policy for NIH, for planning and coordinating the programs and activities of all NIH components; the NIH Director plays an active role in shaping outlook. The Director is responsible for providing leadership to the Institutes and Centers by identifying needs and opportunities in efforts involving multiple Institutes. Within this Office is the Division of Program Coordination and Strategic Initiatives with 12 divisions including: Office of AIDS Research Office of Research on Women's Health Office of Disease Prevention Sexual and Gender Minority Research Office Tribal Heath Research Office Office of Program Evaluation and PerformancePrevious directors: Joseph J. Kinyoun, served August 1887 – April 30, 1899 Milton J. Rosenau, served May 1, 1899 – September 30, 1909 John F. Anderson, served October 1, 1909 – November 19, 1915 George W. McCoy, served November 20, 1915 – January 31, 1937 Lewis R. Thompson, served February 1, 1937 – January 31, 1942 R
Robert Stone (scientist)
Robert S. Stone was an American physician, he served as the Director of The National Institutes of Health from 1973 to 1975. Stone served as the vice president for health services and dean of the school of medicine at the University of New Mexico, dean of the School of Medicine of the University of Oregon Health Sciences Center and vice president of the Health Sciences Center, dean of the Texas A&M Health Science Center College of Medicine. Stone was born in Manhattan, New York on February 10, 1922, he received his B. A. in 1942 from Brooklyn College and his M. D. from the State University of New York Upstate Medical University in 1950. Stone was an instructor in pathology at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons from 1950 to 1952 while fulfilling his medical residency requirement in pathology at NewYork–Presbyterian Hospital. In 1952, Stone moved to Los Angeles and joined the faculty of UCLA's School of Medicine, department of pathology; as part of his academic duties at UCLA, Stone served as the deputy coroner at Los Angeles County Coroner's Office, as a pathologist for the Los Angeles Shriners Hospital for Crippled Children.
He served as the chief of research in pathology for the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission from 1959 to 1960 and a collection of his speeches is held at the National Library of Medicine. Stone served as the vice president for health services and dean of the school of medicine at the University of New Mexico. While at the University of New Mexico, he worked to increase diversity within the school of medicine by hiring minority faculty members and appointing a woman to a key leadership role. One of his hires, Dr. Alonzo Atencio, PhD, began a high school student recruitment program. In 1972, he obtained funding from the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services – Hispanic Centers of Excellence for the Basic Sciences Enrichment Program, which provided pre-entry basic science education for incoming minority medical students, he was dean of the School of Medicine of the University of Oregon Health Sciences Center and vice president of the Health Sciences Center, dean of the Texas A&M Health Science Center College of Medicine.
While on sabbatical as a visiting scientist at The Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research in 1959, he was credited with demonstrating by electron microscopy that the Shope papilloma virus of rabbits could be found in mature skin cells, but was undetectable, although presumed present, in younger growing cells. Stone is credited with helping to develop the idea of using a method control population to study the rates of given diseases for comparison, he was one of the first researchers to suggest that radiation exposure increases the incidence of certain known diseases rather than creating new types. On May 29, 1973, Stone was nominated by President Richard Nixon to the position of Director of the National Institutes of Health, he served two years and was fired in January 1975 after he "became an advocate of medical research rather than an emissary of the HEW secretary's office, he had failed to relate the federal governments health research effort to the developing health services activities and failing to give strong direction to the NIH."
Stone was married to an acclaimed artist. She had her work exhibited near Texas A&M at the Texas Gallery and in the Reynolds Medical Building. On a regular basis, her pieces were entered into and captured awards from juried art shows around the nation; the couple's contribution to Texas A&M University was such that the Medical Sciences Courtyard Pavilion at the Joe H. Reynolds Medical Building located on the College of Medicine College Station Campus was named in honor of Robert S. Stone, M. D. and Mary E. Stone. Stone died on October 2016, in Cleveland, Ohio. LeBaron, Wayne D.. America's nuclear legacy. Nova Publishers. Pp. 99–100. ISBN 978-1-56072-556-5
United States Department of Health and Human Services
The United States Department of Health & Human Services known as the Health Department, is a cabinet-level department of the U. S. federal government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services. Its motto is "Improving the health and well-being of America". Before the separate federal Department of Education was created in 1979, it was called the Department of Health and Welfare. HHS is administered by the Secretary of Health and Human Services, appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate; the United States Public Health Service is the main division of the HHS and is led by the Assistant Secretary for Health. The current Secretary, Alex Azar, assumed office on January 29, 2018, upon his appointment by President Trump and confirmation by the Senate; the United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, the uniformed service of the PHS, is led by the Surgeon General, responsible for addressing matters concerning public health as authorized by the Secretary or by the Assistant Secretary of Health in addition to his or her primary mission of administering the Commissioned Corps.
The Federal Security Agency was established on July 1, 1939, under the Reorganization Act of 1939, P. L. 76-19. The objective was to bring together in one agency all federal programs in the fields of health and social security; the first Federal Security Administrator was Paul V. McNutt; the new agency consisted of the following major components: Office of the Administrator, Public Health Service, Office of Education, Civilian Conservation Corps, Social Security Board. By 1953, the Federal Security Agency's programs in health and social security had grown to such importance that its annual budget exceeded the combined budgets of the Departments of Commerce, Justice and Interior and affected the lives of millions of people. In accordance with the Reorganization Act of 1949, President Eisenhower submitted to the Congress on March 12, 1953, Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1953, which called for the dissolution of the Federal Security Agency and elevation of the agency to Cabinet status as the Department of Health and Welfare.
The plan was approved April 1, 1953, became effective on April 11, 1953. Unlike statutes authorizing the creation of other executive departments, the contents of Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1953 were never properly codified within the United States Code, although Congress did codify a statute ratifying the Plan. Today, the Plan is included as an appendix to Title 5 of the United States Code; the result is that HHS is the only executive department whose statutory foundation today rests on a confusing combination of several codified and uncodified statutes. The Department of Health and Welfare was created on April 11, 1953, when Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1953 became effective. HEW thus became the first new Cabinet-level department since the Department of Labor was created in 1913; the Reorganization Plan abolished the FSA and transferred all of its functions to the Secretary of HEW and all components of the Agency to the Department. The first Secretary of HEW was Oveta Culp Hobby, a native of Texas, who had served as Commander of the Women's Army Corps in World War II and was editor and publisher of the Houston Post.
Sworn in on April 11, 1953, as Secretary, she had been FSA Administrator since January 21, 1953. The six major program-operating components of the new Department were the Public Health Service, the Office of Education, the Food and Drug Administration, the Social Security Administration, the Office of Vocational Rehabilitation, St. Elizabeth's Hospital; the Department was responsible for three federally aided corporations: Howard University, the American Printing House for the Blind, the Columbia Institution for the Deaf. The Department of Health and Welfare was renamed the Department of Health & Human Services in 1979, when its education functions were transferred to the newly created United States Department of Education under the Department of Education Organization Act. HHS was left in charge of the Social Security Administration, agencies constituting the Public Health Service, Family Support Administration. In 1995, the Social Security Administration was removed from the Department of Health & Human Services, established as an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States Government.
The 2010 United States federal budget established a reserve fund of more than $630 billion over 10 years to finance fundamental reform of the health care system. The Department of Health & Human Services is led by the United States Secretary of Health and Human Services, a member of the United States Cabinet appointed by the President of the United States with the consent of the United States Senate; the Secretary is assisted in managing the Department by the Deputy Secretary of Health and Human Services, appointed by the President. The Secretary and Deputy Secretary are further assisted by seven Assistant Secretaries, who serve as top Departmental administrators; as of Jan. 20, 2018, this is the top level of the organizational chart. HHS provides further organizational detail on its website. Several agencies within HHS are components of the USPHS or Public Health Service. Secretary, Deputy Secretary, Chief of Staff The Executive Secretariat Office of Intergovernmental and External Affairs Headquarters Staff Regional Offices Office of Human Resources Office of Health Reform Office of the Secretary Office of the Assistant Secretary for Administration Office of the Assistant Secretary for F