Cambridge is a city in Middlesex County and part of the Boston metropolitan area. Situated directly north of Boston, across the Charles River, it was named in honor of the University of Cambridge in England, an important center of the Puritan theology embraced by the town's founders. Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology are in Cambridge, as was Radcliffe College, a college for women until it merged with Harvard on October 1, 1999. According to the 2010 Census, the city's population was 105,162; as of July 2014, it was the fifth most populous city in the state, behind Boston, Worcester and Lowell. Cambridge was one of two seats of Middlesex County until the county government was abolished in Massachusetts in 1997. In December 1630, the site of what would become Cambridge was chosen because it was safely upriver from Boston Harbor, making it defensible from attacks by enemy ships. Thomas Dudley, his daughter Anne Bradstreet, her husband Simon were among the town's first settlers.
The first houses were built in the spring of 1631. The settlement was referred to as "the newe towne". Official Massachusetts records show the name rendered as Newe Towne by 1632, as Newtowne by 1638. Located at the first convenient Charles River crossing west of Boston, Newe Towne was one of a number of towns founded by the 700 original Puritan colonists of the Massachusetts Bay Colony under Governor John Winthrop, its first preacher was Thomas Hooker, who led many of its original inhabitants west in 1636 to found Hartford and the Connecticut Colony. The original village site is now within Harvard Square; the marketplace where farmers sold crops from surrounding towns at the edge of a salt marsh remains within a small park at the corner of John F. Kennedy and Winthrop Streets; the town comprised a much larger area than the present city, with various outlying parts becoming independent towns over the years: Cambridge Village in 1688, Cambridge Farms in 1712 or 1713, Little or South Cambridge and Menotomy or West Cambridge in 1807.
In the late 19th century, various schemes for annexing Cambridge to Boston were pursued and rejected. In 1636, the Newe College was founded by the colony to train ministers. According to Cotton Mather, Newe Towne was chosen for the site of the college by the Great and General Court for its proximity to the popular and respected Puritan preacher Thomas Shepard. In May 1638, The settlement's name was changed to Cambridge in honor of the university in Cambridge, England. Newtowne's ministers and Shepard, the college's first president, major benefactor, the first schoolmaster Nathaniel Eaton were Cambridge alumni, as was the colony's governor John Winthrop. In 1629, Winthrop had led the signing of the founding document of the city of Boston, known as the Cambridge Agreement, after the university. In 1650, Governor Thomas Dudley signed the charter creating the corporation that still governs Harvard College. Cambridge grew as an agricultural village eight miles by road from Boston, the colony's capital.
By the American Revolution, most residents lived near the Common and Harvard College, with most of the town comprising farms and estates. Most inhabitants were descendants of the original Puritan colonists, but there was a small elite of Anglican "worthies" who were not involved in village life, made their livings from estates and trade, lived in mansions along "the Road to Watertown". Coming north from Virginia, George Washington took command of the volunteer American soldiers camped on Cambridge Common on July 3, 1775, now reckoned the birthplace of the U. S. Army. Most of the Tory estates were confiscated after the Revolution. On January 24, 1776, Henry Knox arrived with artillery captured from Fort Ticonderoga, which enabled Washington to drive the British army out of Boston. Between 1790 and 1840, Cambridge grew with the construction of the West Boston Bridge in 1792 connecting Cambridge directly to Boston, so that it was no longer necessary to travel eight miles through the Boston Neck and Brookline to cross the Charles River.
A second bridge, the Canal Bridge, opened in 1809 alongside the new Middlesex Canal. The new bridges and roads made what were estates and marshland into prime industrial and residential districts. In the mid-19th century, Cambridge was the center of a literary revolution, it was home to some of the famous Fireside Poets—so called because their poems would be read aloud by families in front of their evening fires. The Fireside Poets—Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, James Russell Lowell, Oliver Wendell Holmes—were popular and influential in their day. Soon after, turnpikes were built: the Cambridge and Concord Turnpike, the Middlesex Turnpike, what are today's Cambridge and Harvard Streets connected various areas of Cambridge to the bridges. In addition, the town was connected to the Boston & Maine Railroad, leading to the development of Porter Square as well as the creation of neighboring Somerville from the rural parts of Charlestown. Cambridge was incorporated as a city in 1846 despite persistent tensions between East Cambridge and Old Cambridge stemming from differences in culture, sources of income, the national origins of the resident
Wendy Ruth Sherman is Senior Counselor at Albright Stonebridge Group and Senior Fellow at Harvard Kennedy School's Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs. She served as Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs, the fourth-ranking official in the U. S. Department of State, from September 2011 to October 2015, she has worked as a social worker, the director of EMILY's list, the director of Maryland's office of child welfare, the founding president of the Fannie Mae Foundation. During the Clinton Administration, she served as Counselor of the United States Department of State and Special Advisor to the President and Secretary of State and North Korea Policy Coordinator. In the latter role, she was instrumental in negotiations related to North Korea's nuclear weapon and ballistic missile programs, she was the lead negotiator for the Iran nuclear deal. Sherman was born in Maryland, to a Jewish family, her father, Malcolm Sherman, was a Marine from Philadelphia. While she was in elementary school, her family moved to Pikesville and Sherman attended Pikesville High School.
Sherman attended Smith College from 1967 to 1969, graduated from Boston University in 1971 in the field of sociology and urban studies. In 1976, she earned a master's degree in social work from the University of Maryland, she subsequently began her career before going into politics. A social worker, Sherman began her career working to help battered women and the urban poor; as part of the neighborhood movement, she worked as a social activist, alongside activists like Geno Baroni and Arthur Naparstek on problems related to low-income housing. Sherman's early jobs were in social work; these included working as the director of EMILY's List, which provides money to pro-choice, Democratic political candidates. She worked as director of Maryland's office of child welfare and as the president and CEO of the Fannie Mae Foundation, an arm of Fannie Mae. Sherman has worked in a variety of positions in both government and non-profit organizations: chief of staff for three years for Congresswoman Barbara Mikulski, campaign manager for Mikulski's first successful Senate campaign, Special Secretary for Children and Youth in Maryland, Director of Maryland's Office of Child Welfare, supervising protective services, foster care and group homes.
Sherman directed Campaign'88 for the Democratic National Committee, where she oversaw field and political operations, Congressional relations, constituency operations, issue development and coordination with all federal and local campaigns during the 1988 general election. From 1991 to 1993, Sherman specialized in strategic communications as a partner in the political and media consulting firm of Doak, Shrum and Sherman. Prior to that, she directed EMILY's List, the largest financial and political resource for pro-choice Democratic women candidates. From 1993 to 1996, Sherman served under United States Secretary of State Warren Christopher as Assistant Secretary of State for Legislative Affairs, where she directed the legislative efforts of the State Department with the U. S. Congress. Among other issues, she led the efforts to obtain the funding for Russia and the newly independent states after the break-up of the Soviet Union and support for the Dayton accords. After working as CEO and President of the Fannie Mae Foundation, she returned to the State Department as Madeleine Albright's counselor, with the rank of Ambassador, appointed by President Bill Clinton and confirmed by the U.
S. Senate, she advised Secretary Albright on issues of foreign policy, provided guidance to the Department and undertook special assignments. She has been a Vice Chair of Albright Stonebridge Group, Albright's international strategic consulting firm, since the group's formation in 2009, she advised Hillary Clinton during the 2008 presidential campaign, she has served with Thomas Donilon as an agency review lead for the State Department in the Obama presidential transition. In 2015 she was named as one of The Forward 50. On September 21, 2011, she was appointed to the position of Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs by Secretary Hillary Clinton. In this capacity, Sherman has led the US team during six negotiating rounds between Iran and six world powers about Tehran's nuclear program. In October 2013, before negotiations began in Geneva between Iran and the so-called "P5+1," she made a comment about the Iranian negotiating strategy in a Senate committee hearing, she said, "We know that deception is part of the DNA."
This caused her some trouble when a number of Iranian officials, including some members of the country's parliament, asked her to apologize. She served as the lead negotiator for the United States in the agreement reached with Iran on July 14, 2015 in Vienna. Wendy Sherman was the Clinton administration's policy coordinator for North Korea; the Clinton Administration had first arrived at the 1994 Agreed Framework under which, North Korea agreed to freeze and dismantle its nuclear weapons program, including its main reactor at Yongbyon. Sherman headed North Korean negotiation policy until 2001. In 2001, following years of secret negotiations with Kim Jong Il, North Korea had promised not to produce, test or deploy missiles with a range of more than 300 miles; that offer would prevent North Korea from fielding missiles. North Korea offered to halt the sale of missiles, missile components and training. In 2001, in a New York Time
Han Dongfang has been an advocate for workers' rights in China for more than two decades. He has won numerous international awards, including the 1993 Democracy Award from the U. S. National Endowment for Democracy. Han was born in the impoverished village of Nanweiquan in Shanxi and first came to international prominence as a railway worker in Beijing, he helped set up the Beijing Workers’ Autonomous Federation during the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. The BWAF was the People's Republic of China's first independent trade union, established as an alternative to the Party-controlled All-China Federation of Trade Unions; the BWAF was disbanded after the June 4 crackdown, Han was placed at the top of the Chinese government’s most wanted list. He turned himself in to the police and was imprisoned for 22 months without trial until he contacted tuberculosis in prison and was released in April 1991, he spent a year in the U. S. undergoing medical treatment before returning to China in August 1993.
On his return, he was expelled to Hong Kong, where he still lives today. In 1994, he established China Labour Bulletin, a Hong Kong-based non-governmental organization that seeks to uphold and defend the rights of workers across China. In addition to his work at CLB, Han conducts regular interviews with workers and peasants across China on Radio Free Asia; these interviews give insight into lives of workers in China, are broadcast three times weekly on shortwave radio. Han did not attend college or university. Despite this, Han was an avid reader of everything from Greek to Chinese classics and worked as an assistant librarian at Beijing Normal University. In 1983, attracted by higher wages, Han began a job at the Fengtai Locomotive Maintenance Section in Beijing. While working there Han's feelings about workers' rights were emboldened, as he saw Chinas "savage" economic policies had a lack for regard for China's "society and environment." Because of this, Han believed that workers needed to protect and represent their own interests, which most served as a key incentive for him to join the BWAF.
In 1980, Han decided to join Public Security Soldiers Corps. After going through basic training at the Qinghe prison labor camp, Han was given command of a squad consisting of 12 men. During an annual review of the camp, Han claimed that officers were stealing a third of the food rations from his men, that his men were being beaten and abused. Han claimed that these acts were in violation of Chairman Mao's teachings that officers and soldiers should share good and bad fortunes and be treated as equals. Han's application to join the Communist Party was allegedly destroyed by a battalion commandant the following day. On April 17, 1989, Han gave a speech at the Tiananmen Square protests that praised the moral courage of the students at the Square and advocated for the protection and constitutional right for Chinese workers to organize. During this speech, Han focused his attention towards the People’s Liberation Army, claiming that the army and the people "are like fish and water" and should not antagonize or attack one another.
While it was considered normal for many workers to hide their identities in the early stages of the protests, Han gave his name to those who asked. Han said he did this because he felt like he needed to set an example and encourage others to own their words and be prepared to "face the consequences" for what they said. Han made more impromptu speeches throughout the movement accompanied by his wife Chen Jingyun. Despite Han’s speeches and fervor for the movement, many student protesters at Tiananmen Square were apprehensive and questioned whether or not workers should be welcome or permitted into the Tiananmen protests. Many of the student leaders the security members, were concerned about the movement being infiltrated by government agents or police who would purposefully provoke violence or "hooliganism." Many students felt that the movement needed to remain run by students to avoid giving the government grounds for accusing them of trying to start a revolution. Han joined the movement and became a leader within BWAF when its membership numbered just a few hundred.
Han and Li Jinjin wrote appeals for students to join together in the Tiananmen protests. The BWAF tried to read some of these documents on the student owned loudspeakers in Tiananmen Square, but were turned down by the students. Undeterred, the BWAF pooled their money together and bought their own hand cranked system to use as a loudspeaker. Han said that he saw the BWAF as an opportunity to educate workers about China's constitution and how much of their rights were not put into practice. Han did not have much faith that the BWAF or the Tiananmen Protests would survive long, but he felt that the BWAF was important since its legacy would live on through the workers who would be educated about China's constitution. After finding out he was at the top of the most wanted list, Han wanted to avoid the "humiliation" of being tracked down the police and turned himself in to "straighten out" the police and tell them what happened at the protests. Han spent 22 months in prison, where he debated with interrogators and prison guards about the formation of the Tiananmen protests about the protests’ spontaneous rather than planned nature.
Han was freed in 1992 after an international campaign pressured the Chinese government to release him to the United States for treatment of tuberculosis, which he contracted while imprisoned. Han attempted to travel back to China but was expelled to Hong Kong, where he founded \the China Labor Bulletin; the Gate of Heavenly Peace. Directed by Richard Gordon
Sakena Yacoobi is the founder and Executive Director of the Afghan Institute of Learning, an Afghan women-led NGO she founded in 1995. She is well known for her work for the rights of children and education, she received numerous awards. This includes the 2013 Opus Prize, 2015 WISE Prize in Education and 2016 Harold W. McGraw, Jr. Prize in Education as well as 6 honorary degrees including from Princeton University. Born in Herat, Sakena came to the United States in the 1970s, earning a bachelor's degree in biological sciences from the University of the Pacific in 1977 and a master's degree in public health from Loma Linda University. Before returning in 1990 to work with her people, Sakena was a professor at D’Etre University and a health consultant. While working with refugees in Pakistan, she published eight Dari-language teacher training guides. During that time, she served as the Agency Coordinating Body for Afghan Relief delegate working on the education portion of the United Nation’s Rehabilitation Plan for Afghanistan.
Sakena Yacoobi is co-founder and Vice President of Creating Hope International, a Michigan-based non-profit organization. She is founder of private enterprises in Afghanistan including, 4 schools, a hospital and Radio Meraj, Herat; the Afghan Institute of Learning was established to provide teacher training to Afghan women, to support education for boys and girls, to provide health education to women and children. Under Sakena’s leadership AIL has established itself as a groundbreaking, visionary organization which works at the grassroots level and empowers women and communities to find ways to bring education and health services to rural and poor urban girls and other poor and disenfranchised Afghans. AIL was the first organization to offer leadership training to Afghan women. During the 1990s when the Taliban closed girls' schools AIL supported 80 underground home schools for 3,000 girls. After the defeat of the Taliban AIL was the first organization that opened Learning Centers for Afghan women—a concept now copied by many organizations throughout Afghanistan.
In 2015, AIL opened a legal clinic to provide free legal services to poor Afghan women. AIL has been hosting large scale peace conferences around Afghanistan, which use the poetry of the Afghan poet Rumi to teach lessons of justice, human rights, good citizenship and living harmoniously. Using their grassroots strategies and holistic approach, AIL now serves hundreds of thousands of women and children each year through training programs, Learning Centers and clinics in both Afghanistan and Pakistan. Since 1996, millions of Afghans have benefited from AIL’s education and health programs. Sakena and AIL have received international recognition for their efforts on behalf of Afghan women and children. In 2001, Sakena was awarded the Bill Graham award from the Rex Foundation in recognition of the efforts of the Afghan Institute of Learning to assist children who are victims of political oppression and human rights violations. AIL and Dr. Yacoobi are co-recipients of the 2003 Peacemakers in Action Award of the Tanenbaum Center for Inter-religious Understanding and the 2004 Women’s Rights Prize of the Peter Gruber Foundation.
Sakena and AIL have received recognition of service awards from the Ministry of Education in Herat, the district governments of Mir Bacha Kot, Kalakan and sixth district Kabul Afghanistan and from numerous Afghan organizations. In 2005, Professor Yacoobi was awarded the Democracy Award from the National Endowment for Democracy. Sakena was among the 1,000 women nominated to jointly receive the 2005 Nobel Peace Prize. In 2006, Sakena received the Citizen Leader Award from the University of the Pacific in Stockton and the Skoll Award for Social Entrepreneurship. In January 2007, Sakena was inducted as the first Ashoka Fellow from Afghanistan. In May 2007, Sakena was awarded an honorary doctorate of laws by the University of the Pacific for her leadership and human rights work for women and children. In December 2007, Sakena received the 2007 Gleitsman International Activist Award at Harvard University. In June 2008, Sakena received an honorary Doctor of Humanitarian Service degree from Loma Linda University, recognizing her distinguished contribution to society.
In February 2009, Sakena received the 2009 Americans for UNFPA Board of Advocates Award for the Health and Dignity of Women. Sakena was cited by Americans for UNPFA as a tireless advocate for Afghan women, who has increased the literacy and improved the health of thousands of Afghan women and girls despite decades of armed conflict and a ban on girls education during Taliban rule. In March 2009, Sakena received the Henry R. Kravis Prize in Nonprofit Leadership for her outstanding work. In 2010, Sakena received the Jonathan Mann Award for Global Health and Human Rights, the Asia Social Entrepreneur of the Year Award given by the Schwab Foundation. Yacoobi was one of the 1000 women worldwide, collectively nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize in 2005, she was elected as an Ashoka Fellow in 2006. In 2007, Yacoobi received the Gleitsman International Activist Award from the Center for Public Leadership at Harvard's JFK School of Government. For web reference: Yacoobi received the Gruber Prize for Women’s Rights in 2004 and the Democracy Award from the National Endowment for Democracy in 2005.
AIL has received a 2006 Skoll Award for Social Entrepreneurship. In 2009, she received the Kravis Prize for her work in establishing schools for young girls in Afghanistan. In 2012, she was awarded the Worlds Children's Prize for her work in figh
Mahmoud Abbas known by the kunya Abu Mazen, is the President of the State of Palestine and Palestinian National Authority. He has been the Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization since 11 November 2004, Palestinian president since 15 January 2005. Abbas is a member of the Fatah party and was elected Chairman of Fatah in 2009. Abbas was elected on 9 January 2005 to serve as President of the Palestinian National Authority until 15 January 2009, but extended his term until the next election in 2010, citing the PLO constitution, on December 16, 2009 was voted into office indefinitely by the PLO Central Council; as a result, Fatah's main rival, Hamas announced that it would not recognize the extension or view Abbas as the rightful president. Yet, Abbas is internationally recognized and Hamas and Fatah conducted numerous negotiations in the following years, leading to an agreement in April 2014 over a Unity Government, which lasted until October 2016, therefore to the recognition of his office by Hamas.
Abbas was chosen as the President of the State of Palestine by the Palestine Liberation Organization's Central Council on 23 November 2008, a position he had held unofficially since 8 May 2005. Abbas served as the first Prime Minister of the Palestinian Authority from March to September 2003. Before being named prime minister, Abbas led the PLO Negotiations Affairs Department. Mahmoud Abbas was born in 15 November 1935 in the Galilee region of Mandatory Palestine, his family fled to Syria during the 1948 Palestine war. Before going to Egypt, Abbas graduated from the University of Damascus. Abbas entered graduate studies at the Patrice Lumumba University in Moscow, where he earned a Candidate of Sciences degree, his doctoral dissertation was "The Other Side: The Secret Relationship Between Nazism and Zionism", a conspiracy theory about the Holocaust. He is married to Amina Abbas and they have had three sons; the eldest, Mazen Abbas, ran a building company in Doha and died in Qatar of a heart attack in 2001 at the age of 42.
The kunya of Abu Mazen means "father of Mazen." Their second son is Yasser Abbas, a Canadian businessman, named after former PA leader Yasser Arafat. The youngest son is a business executive. Abbas has eight grandchildren, six of whom are part of the Seeds of Peace initiative bringing them in touch with young Israelis. In the mid-1950s, Abbas became involved in underground Palestinian politics, joining a number of exiled Palestinians in Qatar, where he was Director of Personnel in the emirate's Civil Service. While there in 1961, he was recruited to become a member of Fatah, founded by Yasser Arafat and 5 other Palestinians in Kuwait in the late 1950s. At the time, Arafat was establishing the groundwork of Fatah by enlisting wealthy Palestinians in Qatar and other Gulf States. According to Abu Daoud, part of the funds raised by Abbas were used, without the latter's knowledge, to implement the 1972 Munich massacre, he was among the first members of Fatah to call for talks with moderate Israelis, doing so in 1977.
In a 2012 interview, he recalled, " because we took up arms, we were in a position to put them down with credibility."Abbas has performed diplomatic duties, presenting a moderating contrast to the PLO's "revolutionary"policies. Abbas was the first PLO official to visit Saudi Arabia after the Gulf War in January 1993 to mend fences with the Gulf countries after the PLO's support of Iraq during the Persian Gulf War strained relations. In the Oslo I Accord, Abbas was the signatory for the PLO on 13 September 1993, he published a memoir, Through Secret Channels: The Road to Oslo. In 1995, he and Israeli negotiator Yossi Beilin wrote the Beilin–Abu Mazen agreement, meant to be the framework for a future Israeli–Palestinian peace deal, it emerged in September 2016 that Abbas may have once worked for the KGB, as early as 1985 in Damascus, according to a document uncovered in the Mitrokhin Archive, where he is registered as agent "Krotov". Palestinian officials replied that at the time in question, the PLO collaborated with Moscow, that Abbas was their liaison man in the Palestinian-Soviet friendship foundation.
By early 2003, as Israel and the United States refused to negotiate with Yasser Arafat, it was thought that Abbas would be a candidate for the kind of leadership role envisaged by both countries. As one of the few remaining founding members of Fatah, he had some degree of credibility within the Palestinian cause, his candidacy was bolstered by the fact that other high-profile Palestinians were for various reasons not suitable. Abbas's reputation as a pragmatist garnered him favor with the West and some members of the Palestinian legislature. Under international pressure, on 19 March 2003, Arafat appointed Abbas Prime Minister of the Palestinian National Authority. According to Gilbert Achcar, the United States imposed Abbas on Arafat, the democratically elected leader, though the majority of Palestinians thought of the former as a Quisling. A struggle for power between Arafat and Abbas ensued. Abbas's term as prime minister was characterised by numerous conflicts between him and Arafat over the distribution of power.
The United States and Israel accused Arafat of undermining his government. Abbas hinted. In early September 2003, he confronted t
Ronald Heifetz is the King Hussein bin Talal Senior Lecturer in Public Leadership, Founding Director of the Center for Public Leadership at the John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, co-founder of Cambridge Leadership Associates. Known for his seminal work during the past three decades on the practice and teaching of leadership, his research focuses on how to build adaptive capacity in societies and nonprofits, his book Leadership Without Easy Answers has been translated into many languages and is in its 13th printing. He coauthored the bestselling book Leadership on the Line: Staying Alive through the Dangers of Leading with Marty Linsky, his most recent book, The Practice of Adaptive Leadership: Tools and Tactics for Changing Your Organization. A sequel to "Leadership On The Line," it provides a more hands-on approach to identifying personal and organizational practices related to mobilizing organizations around adaptive challenges. A Clinical Instructor in Psychiatry at Harvard Medical School, Heifetz works extensively with leaders in government and business.
His consultations and seminars with individuals, executive committees and leadership teams focus on the work of leaders in generating and sustaining adaptive change across political boundaries, operating units, product divisions, functions in politics, government agencies and international businesses. For example, Heifetz spoke as a part of the non-profit Central New York Famous Entrepreneurs Series in March 2009. Heifetz' work on adaptive leadership has garnered attention in educational fields by promoting a new approach towards leadership education that focuses on teaching leadership in ways that build capacity to address adaptive leadership problems. In the book, "Leadership Can Be Taught," Sharon Daloz Parks writes about the processes and practice of Heifetz in his classroom teaching leadership to upcoming leaders. Named "case-in-point" teaching, this method focuses on implementing aspects of Heifetz' work within the class itself, thereby turning the classroom into a leadership laboratory where learners can analyze on the immediate, relevant leadership dynamics occurring before them.
CIP has four main distinctions: 1) authority does not equal leadership, 2) understanding the difference between technical and adaptive challenges, 3) Power vs. progress, 4) Personality vs. presence. The benefits of Heifetz' CIP model help bridge the current disconnect between learning and applying leadership whereby educators may discuss leadership cases or examples within the classroom, but leave the analysis of impact of personal leadership behaviors to individual reflection outside of the classroom. CIP focuses on bringing leadership to the forefront by analyzing behaviors occurring within the classroom space. To date, a number of leadership educators at universities and organizations across the nation, most notably the University of Minnesota, University of San Diego as well as the Kansas Leadership Center, utilize CIP practices in their work. Heifetz is a graduate of Columbia University, Harvard Medical School, the John F. Kennedy School of Government, he is a cellist and former student of Gregor Piatigorsky.
His brother is violinist Daniel Heifetz, Founder & Artistic Director of the Heifetz International Music Institute. Heifetz, Ronald A. Grashow and Linsky, Marty; the Practice of Adaptive Leadership: Tools and Tactics for Changing Your Organization and the World. Harvard Business Review Press, 2009. Heifetz, Ronald A. and Marty Linsky. Leadership on the Line: Staying Alive through the Dangers of Leading. Bardon-Chinese Media Agency, 2003. Heifetz, Ronald A. and Linsky, Marty. Liderazgo Sin Limites: Manual de Supervivencia para Managers. Paidos, 2003. Heifetz, Ronald A. and Linsky, Marty. Leadership on the Line: Staying Alive through the Dangers of Leading. Harvard Business School Press, 2002. Heifetz, Ronald A. and Linsky, Marty. I Skudlinjen, Hvordan man overlever i Lederskabets Jungle. Borsens, 2002. Heifetz, Ronald A. Leadership Without Easy Answers. Belknap Press of Harvard Business School Press, 1994. Book Chapters Heifetz, Ronald A. "Anchoring Leadership in the Work of Adaptive Progress." The Leader of the Future 2: Visions and Practices for the New Era.
Eds. Frances Hesselbein, Marshall Goldsmith. Jossey-Bass, 2006. Heifetz, Ronald A. "Adaptive Learning." Encyclopedia of Leadership. Ed. George R. Goethals, Georgia J. Sorenson, James MacGregor Burns. Sage Publications, 2004. Heifetz, Ronald A. and Marty Linsky. "Leadership Is 1% Inspiration and 99% Perspiration." MBA in a Box. Ed. Joel Kurtzman. Crown Business, 2004. Heifetz, Ronald A. and Marty Linsky. "Self-Management." Encyclopedia of Leadership. Ed. George R. Goethals, Georgia J. Sorenson, James MacGregor Burns. Sage Publications, 2004. Academic Journals Heifetz, Ronald A. Grashow and Linsky, Marty. "Leadership in a Crisis." Harvard Business Review. July/Aug 2009. Pp. 62–69. Heifetz, Ronald A. John V. Kania, Kramer, Mark R. "Leading Boldly." Stanford Social Innovation Review. Winter 2004. Pp. 20–31. Heifetz, Ronald A. and Linsky, Marty. "When Leadership Spells Danger." Educational Leadership 61.7 April 2004. Pp. 33–37. Heifetz, Ronald A. and Laurie, Donald L. "The leader as teacher: Creating the learning organization."
Ivey Business Journal Online. Jan/Feb 2003. Heifetz, Ronald A. and Laurie, Donald L. "The work of leadership." Harvard Business Review. December 2001. Pp. 131–140. Heifetz, Ronald A. "Staying alive." Nieman Repor
Ilwad Elman (Somali: ilwaad Elman, is a Somali-Canadian social activist. She works at the Elman Peace and Human Rights Center in Mogadishu alongside her mother abshir Adan, the NGO's founder, she was voted the African Young Personality of the Year during the 2016 Africa Youth Awards. Ilwad was born between 1990 in Mogadishu, Somalia. One of four daughters, she is the child of the late entrepreneur and peace activist Elman Ali Ahmed and social activist Fartuun Adan, her father was an ardent peace activist in the 1990s, who coined the famous mantra in Somalia "Drop the Gun, Pick up the Pen". Ilwad returned from Canada to Somalia in 2010 whilst the conflict still raged and the majority of Mogadishu and South Central Regions of Somalia were lost to the control of the Al-Qaeda linked terrorist group Al-Shabaab, she remained in Somalia since, along side her mother Fartuun Adan co-founding the first rape crisis centre for survivors of sexual and gender based violence, designing interventions aimed at security sector reform to create an inclusive space for women in peace building, developing programs for the disarmament and rehabilitation of child soldiers and adults defecting from armed groups for their socio-economic empowerment and reintegration.
In honour of Ahmed, his wife Fartuun Adan and their children established the Elman Peace Centre in Mogadishu. Adan serves as the NGO's Executive Director. Ilwad serves therein as Director of Development, she is responsible for designing and overseeing the Elman Peace & Human Rights Centre’s programs with a broad portfolio focus on Human Rights Gender Justice Protection of Civilians Peace & Security Social EntrepreneurshipShe helps run Sister Somalia, a subsidiary of the Elman Peace and Human Rights Center. The country's first program for assistance of victims of gender-based violence, it provides counseling and housing support for women in need. Elman's work has helped raise awareness locally on the issue, encouraged changes in government policy, she has carried out educational workshops for vulnerable members of society, designed and implemented projects promoting alternative livelihood opportunities for both young and old. In mid-2012, Mogadishu held its first Technology, Design conference.
The event was organized by the First Somali Bank to showcase improvements in business and security to potential Somali and international investors. Ilwad was featured as a guest speaker, where she explained the role of Sister Somalia in the country's post-conflict reconstruction process. Opposite 76 other activists from 36 different nations in Africa, Elman in 2011 represented Somalia during the "Climb Up, Speak OUT" campaign on Mount Kilimanjaro; the event was organized by UNite Africa under UNwomen, concluded with the participants committing to end violence against women and girls. In 2013, Elman was featured in the documentary Through the Fire, along with Hawa Abdi and Edna Adan Ismail, she appeared in the 2014 film Live From Mogadishu, which focuses on the Mogadishu Music/Peace Festival of March 2013. Organized by the ensemble Waayaha Cusub and the philanthropist Bill Brookman, it was the first international music festival to be held in Somalia's capital in years. Beyond her duties at Elman Peace.
Ilwad additionally serves as the chair of the Child Protection Gender Based Violence Case Management Group in Mogadishu. She has served as the One Young World Ambassador to Somalia since 2013. Ilwad briefed the UN Security Council on the Protection of Civilians debate in 2015, she co-wrote the Youth Action Agenda on Countering Violent Extremism, cited in the historic UN Security Council Resolution 2250 on youth and security. August 2016, Ilwad was appointed by UN Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon an expert advisor on Youth, Peace & Security and has been tasked to counsel a study to develop a strategy on UNSCR 2250. From the front lines of conflict and in the face of extreme insecurities. Through the combined effect of the grass-root programmatic interventions she designs as well as her global advocacy. Ilwad was honoured with the 2015 Gleitsman International Activist Award from Harvard University 2016 Right the Wrongs Award from Oxfam America 2016 Young African Woman of the Year Award 100 Most Influential Young Africans of 2017 2017 BET Global Good Star