Ufology is the study of reports, visual records, physical evidence, other phenomena related to unidentified flying objects. UFO reports have been subject to various investigations over the years by governments, independent groups, scientists. However, ufology, as a field, has been rejected by modern academia and is considered a pseudoscience; the term derives from UFO, pronounced as an acronym, the suffix -logy, which comes from the Ancient Greek λογία. An early appearance of this term in print can be found in the article "An Introduction to Ufology" by Ivan T. Sanderson, found in Fantastic Universe magazine's February 1957 issue, which closes with this direct plea: "What we need, in fact, is the immediate establishment of a respectable new science named Ufology." Another early use of the word was in a 1958 speech given at the opening of The Planetary Center, a UFO research organization near Detroit, Michigan. Another early use, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, one of the first documented uses of the word ufology can be found in the Times Literary Supplement from January 23, 1959, in which it writes, "The articles and bureaucratic studies which have been written about this perplexing visitant constitute'ufology'."
This article was printed eight years after Edward J. Ruppelt of the United States Air Force coined the word UFO in 1951; the modern UFO mythology has three traceable roots: the late 19th century "mystery airships" reported in the newspapers of the western United States, "foo fighters" reported by Allied airmen during World War II, the Kenneth Arnold "flying saucer" sighting near Mt. Rainier, Washington on June 24, 1947. UFO reports between "The Great Airship Wave" and the Arnold sighting were limited in number compared to the post-war period: notable cases include reports of "ghost fliers" in Europe and North America during the 1930s and the numerous reports of "ghost rockets" in Scandinavia from May to December 1946. Media hype in the late 1940s and early 1950s following the Arnold sighting brought the concept of flying saucers to the public audience; as the public's preoccupation in UFOs grew, along with the number of reported sightings, the United States military began to take notice of the phenomenon.
The UFO explosion of the early post-war era coincides with the escalation of the Cold War and the Korean War. The U. S. military feared that secret aircraft of the Soviet Union developed from captured German technology, were behind the reported sightings. If correct, the craft causing the sightings were thus of importance to national security and in need of systematic investigation. By 1952, the official US government interest in UFOs began to fade as the USAF projects Sign and Grudge concluded, along with the CIA's Robertson Panel that UFO reports indicated no direct threat to national security; the government's official research into UFOs ended with the publication of the Condon Committee report in 1969, which concluded that the study of UFOs in the previous 21 years had achieved little, if anything, that further extensive study of UFO sightings was unwarranted. It recommended the termination of the USAF special unit Project Blue Book; as the U. S. government ceased studying UFO sightings, the same became true for most governments of the world.
A notable exception is France, which still maintains the GEIPAN known as GEPAN and SEPRA, a unit under the French Space Agency CNES. During the Cold War, Canadian, Danish and Swedish governments have each collected reports of UFO sightings. Britain's Ministry of Defence ceased accepting any new reports as of 2010. Ufology has not been embraced by academia as a scientific field of study though UFOs were, during the late 1940s and early 1950s, the subject of large-scale scientific studies; the lack of acceptance of ufology by academia as a field of study means that people can claim to be "UFO researchers", without the sorts of scientific consensus building and, in many cases peer review, that otherwise shape and influence scientific paradigms. Among scientifically inclined UFO research efforts, data collecting is done by amateur investigators. Famous mainstream scientists who have shown interest in the UFO phenomenon include Stanford physicist Peter A. Sturrock, astronomer J. Allen Hynek, computer scientist and astronomer Jacques F. Vallée, University of Arizona meteorologist James E. McDonald.
Ufology is characterized by scientific criticism as a partial or total pseudoscience, a characterization which many ufologists reject. Pseudoscience is a term that classifies studies that are claimed to exemplify the methods and principles of science, but that do not adhere to an appropriate scientific method, lack supporting evidence, falsifiability, or otherwise lack scientific status. Gregory Feist, an academic psychologist, proposes that ufology can be categorized as a pseudoscience because its adherents claim it to be a science while the scientific community denies that it is, because the field lacks a cumulative scientific progress. Rachel Cooper, a philosopher of science and medicine, states that the fundamental problem in ufology is not the lack of scientific method, as many ufologists have striven to meet standards of scientific acceptability, but rather the fact that the assumptions on which the research is based are considered speculative. Stanton Friedman considers the general attitude of mainstream academics as arrogant and dismissive, or bound to a rigid worldview that disallows any evidence contrary to held notions.
Denzler states that the fear of ridicule and a loss of status has prevented scientists from publicly pur
Aurora, Texas, UFO incident
The Aurora, Texas, UFO incident occurred on April 17, 1897 when, according to locals, a UFO crashed on a farm near Aurora, Texas. The incident is claimed to have resulted in a fatality from the crash and the alleged alien body is to have been buried in an unmarked grave at the local cemetery. During the 1896–1897 timeframe, numerous sightings of a cigar-shaped mystery airship were reported across the United States. One of these accounts appeared in the April 1897, edition of the Dallas Morning News. Written by Aurora resident S. E. Haydon, the alleged UFO is said to have hit a windmill on the property of a Judge J. S. Proctor two days earlier at around 6am local time, resulting in its crash; the pilot did not survive the crash, was buried "with Christian rites" at the nearby Aurora Cemetery. Wreckage from the crash site was dumped into a nearby well located under the damaged windmill, while some ended up with the alien in the grave. Adding to the mystery was the story of Mr. Brawley Oates, who purchased Judge Proctor's property around 1935.
Oates cleaned out the debris from the well in order to use it as a water source, but developed an severe case of arthritis, which he claimed to be the result of contaminated water from the wreckage dumped into the well. As a result, Oates placed an outbuilding atop the slab; the hoax theory is based on historical research performed by Barbara Brammer, a former mayor of Aurora. Her research revealed that, in the months prior to the alleged crash, Aurora had been beset by a series of tragic incidents: First, the local cotton crop was destroyed by a boll weevil infestation. Second, a fire on the town's west side lives. Shortly after the fire, a spotted fever epidemic hit the town, nearly wiping out the remaining citizens and placing the town under quarantine. A planned railroad got within 27 miles of Aurora but never made it into the town. Aurora was in serious danger of dying out; the theory was further supported by the fact that Haydon never performed any sort of follow-up on the story, not to report on the alien's burial, unusual given the significance of the event.
Further, in 1980, Time magazine interviewed Etta Pegues, an 86 year old Aurora resident who claimed that Haydon had fabricated the entire story, stating that Haydon "wrote it as a joke and to bring interest to Aurora. The railroad bypassed us, the town was dying." Pegues further claimed that Judge Proctor never operated a windmill on his property, a statement refuted as part of the UFO Hunters episode, which found the base of a wooden water pump tower constructed around the well. Jim Marrs interviewed an eyewitness who saw the UFO crash; the incident has been investigated on numerous occasions. One report was broadcast by local television station KDFW FOX 4 and two other reports aired on cable television. In 1998, Dallas-based TV station KDFW aired a lengthy report about the Aurora incident. Reporter Richard Ray interviewed former Fort Worth Star Telegram reporter Jim Marrs and other locals, who said something crashed in Aurora. However, Ray's report was unable to find conclusive evidence of extraterrestrial technology.
Ray reported that the State of Texas erected a historical plaque in town that outlines the tale and labels it "legend." On December 19, 2005, UFO Files first aired an episode related to this incident, titled "Texas' Roswell". The episode featured a 1973 investigation led by Bill Case, an aviation writer for the Dallas Times Herald and the Texas state director of Mutual UFO Network. MUFON uncovered two new eyewitnesses to the crash. Mary Evans, 15 at the time, told of how her parents went to the crash site and the discovery of the alien body. Charlie Stephens, age 10, told how he saw the airship trailing smoke as it headed north toward Aurora, he wanted to see what happened. MUFON investigated the Aurora Cemetery and uncovered a grave marker that appeared to show a flying saucer of some sort, as well as readings from its metal detector. MUFON asked for permission to exhume the site. After the MUFON investigation, the marker mysteriously disappeared from the cemetery and a three-inch pipe was placed into the ground.
MUFON's report stated that the evidence was inconclusive, but did not rule out the possibility of a hoax. The episode featured an interview with Mayor Brammer. On November 19, 2008, UFO Hunters first aired another television documentary regarding the Aurora incident, titled "First Contact"; the documentary featured one notable change from the UFO Files story – Tim Oates, grandson of Brawl
Solway Firth Spaceman
The Solway Firth Spaceman is a figure seen in a photograph taken in 1964 by fireman and local historian Jim Templeton. The picture was taken on Burgh Marsh, situated near Burgh by Sands, overlooking the Solway Firth in Cumbria, England. Templeton claimed the photograph shows a background figure wearing a space suit and insisted that he did not see anyone present when the photograph was taken; the image was reproduced in contemporary newspapers and gained the interest of ufologists. A contemporary analysis concluded that the figure was the photographer's wife, standing with her back towards the camera, her dress appearing white due to overexposure. On 23 May 1964, Jim Templeton, a firefighter from Carlisle, took three photographs of his five-year-old daughter while on a day trip to Burgh Marsh. Templeton said the only other people on the marshes that day were a couple of old women sitting in a car at the far end of the marsh. In a letter to the Daily Mail in 2002, Templeton stated, "I took three pictures of my daughter Elizabeth in a similar pose – and was shocked when the middle picture came back from Kodak displaying what looks like a spaceman in the background."
Templeton insists that he did not see the figure until after his photographs were developed, analysts at Kodak confirmed that the photograph was genuine. According to UFO author David Clarke in 2014, the "spaceman" is most Templeton's wife, present at the time and was seen on other photographs taken that day. "I think for some reason his wife walked into the shot and he didn't see her because with that particular make of camera you could only see 70% of what was in the shot through the viewfinder", said Clarke. Annie Templeton was wearing a pale blue dress on the day in question, overexposed as white in the other photos, it has been argued that, when using photo software to darken the image and straighten the horizon, the figure appears to be a regular person viewed from behind. Of its impact, Clarke said: "People will still be talking about it in another 50 years." Templeton stated, "I took the picture to the police in Carlisle who, after many doubts, examined it and stated there was nothing suspicious about it.
The local newspaper, the Cumberland News, picked up the story and within hours it was all over the world. The picture is not a fake, I am as bemused as anyone else as to how this figure appeared in the background. Over the four decades the photo has been in the public domain, I have had many thousands of letters from all over the world with various ideas or possibilities – most of which make little sense to me."Templeton said that after the photograph was published he was visited by two men who said they were from the government who refused to show their identification and that "They said they worked for the government and that they were only identified by number." After taking the men to the site where the photos were taken, Templeton said that when he explained he had not seen the figure at the time, the men became angry and drove away, leaving him to walk home. In September 1964, Templeton dismissed the two men as frauds, saying: "It all looks like a leg pull to me. I'm sure the men were not security agents."In a BBC Look North interview and a letter to The Daily Mail, Templeton said that a Blue Streak missile launch at the Woomera Test Range in South Australia had been aborted because the figures of two large men were seen on the firing range.
He alleged that technicians saw his photograph in an Australian newspaper and found the figures to be the same. Responding to a request from ufologists to know if the photo was of interest to the authorities, a British Ministry of Defence official said that the Templeton photo was of no interest to them. Story, Chris. "Suspected UFO sighting leads to Cumbria hotspot claim.". News & Star
Astronomy is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena. It applies mathematics and chemistry in an effort to explain the origin of those objects and phenomena and their evolution. Objects of interest include planets, stars, nebulae and comets. More all phenomena that originate outside Earth's atmosphere are within the purview of astronomy. A related but distinct subject is physical cosmology, the study of the Universe as a whole. Astronomy is one of the oldest of the natural sciences; the early civilizations in recorded history, such as the Babylonians, Indians, Nubians, Chinese and many ancient indigenous peoples of the Americas, performed methodical observations of the night sky. Astronomy has included disciplines as diverse as astrometry, celestial navigation, observational astronomy, the making of calendars, but professional astronomy is now considered to be synonymous with astrophysics. Professional astronomy is split into theoretical branches. Observational astronomy is focused on acquiring data from observations of astronomical objects, analyzed using basic principles of physics.
Theoretical astronomy is oriented toward the development of computer or analytical models to describe astronomical objects and phenomena. The two fields complement each other, with theoretical astronomy seeking to explain observational results and observations being used to confirm theoretical results. Astronomy is one of the few sciences in which amateurs still play an active role in the discovery and observation of transient events. Amateur astronomers have made and contributed to many important astronomical discoveries, such as finding new comets. Astronomy means "law of the stars". Astronomy should not be confused with astrology, the belief system which claims that human affairs are correlated with the positions of celestial objects. Although the two fields share a common origin, they are now distinct. Both of the terms "astronomy" and "astrophysics" may be used to refer to the same subject. Based on strict dictionary definitions, "astronomy" refers to "the study of objects and matter outside the Earth's atmosphere and of their physical and chemical properties," while "astrophysics" refers to the branch of astronomy dealing with "the behavior, physical properties, dynamic processes of celestial objects and phenomena."
In some cases, as in the introduction of the introductory textbook The Physical Universe by Frank Shu, "astronomy" may be used to describe the qualitative study of the subject, whereas "astrophysics" is used to describe the physics-oriented version of the subject. However, since most modern astronomical research deals with subjects related to physics, modern astronomy could be called astrophysics; some fields, such as astrometry, are purely astronomy rather than astrophysics. Various departments in which scientists carry out research on this subject may use "astronomy" and "astrophysics" depending on whether the department is affiliated with a physics department, many professional astronomers have physics rather than astronomy degrees; some titles of the leading scientific journals in this field include The Astronomical Journal, The Astrophysical Journal, Astronomy and Astrophysics. In early historic times, astronomy only consisted of the observation and predictions of the motions of objects visible to the naked eye.
In some locations, early cultures assembled massive artifacts that had some astronomical purpose. In addition to their ceremonial uses, these observatories could be employed to determine the seasons, an important factor in knowing when to plant crops and in understanding the length of the year. Before tools such as the telescope were invented, early study of the stars was conducted using the naked eye; as civilizations developed, most notably in Mesopotamia, Persia, China and Central America, astronomical observatories were assembled and ideas on the nature of the Universe began to develop. Most early astronomy consisted of mapping the positions of the stars and planets, a science now referred to as astrometry. From these observations, early ideas about the motions of the planets were formed, the nature of the Sun and the Earth in the Universe were explored philosophically; the Earth was believed to be the center of the Universe with the Sun, the Moon and the stars rotating around it. This is known as the geocentric model of the Ptolemaic system, named after Ptolemy.
A important early development was the beginning of mathematical and scientific astronomy, which began among the Babylonians, who laid the foundations for the astronomical traditions that developed in many other civilizations. The Babylonians discovered. Following the Babylonians, significant advances in astronomy were made in ancient Greece and the Hellenistic world. Greek astronomy is characterized from the start by seeking a rational, physical explanation for celestial phenomena. In the 3rd century BC, Aristarchus of Samos estimated the size and distance of the Moon and Sun, he proposed a model of the Solar System where the Earth and planets rotated around the Sun, now called the heliocentric model. In the 2nd century BC, Hipparchus discovered precession, calculated the size and distance of the Moon and inven
The Lakenheath-Bentwaters Incident was a series of radar and visual contacts with Unidentified flying objects that took place over airbases in eastern England on the night of 13–14 August 1956, involving personnel from the Royal Air Force and the United States Air Force. The incident has since gained some prominence in the literature of the popular media; the final Report of the Condon Committee, which otherwise concluded that UFOs were simple misidentifications of natural phenomena or aircraft, took an unusual position on the case: "In conclusion, although conventional or natural explanations cannot be ruled out, the probability of such seems low in this case and the probability that at least one genuine UFO was involved appears to be high". It has, however been argued that the incidents can be explained by false radar returns and misidentification of astronomical phenomena; the cited sequence of events is recorded in the original Project Blue Book file by the USAF, subsequently analysed by the Condon Committee's report and by atmospheric physicist James E. McDonald.
The incident began at the USAF-tenanted RAF Bentwaters, Suffolk, on the evening of 13 August 1956. This was a dry clear night with, observers noted, an unusually large number of shooting stars, associated with the Perseid meteor shower. At 21:30, Radar operators at the base tracked a target, appearing similar to a normal aircraft return, approaching the base from the sea at an apparent speed of several thousand miles per hour, they tracked a group of targets moving to the north-east which merged into a single large return before moving off the scope to the north, as well as a further rapid target proceeding from east to west. A T-33 trainer from the 512th Fighter Interceptor Squadron, crewed by 1st Lieutenants Charles Metz and Andrew Rowe, was directed to investigate the radar contacts, but saw nothing. No visual sightings of the objects were made from Bentwaters in this period with the exception of a single amber star-like object, subsequently identified as being Mars low in the south-east.
At 22:55, a target was detected approaching Bentwaters from the east at a speed estimated around 2000–4000 mph. It faded from the scope. However, as it passed overhead a moving white light was observed from the ground, while the pilot of a C-47 at 4000 feet over Bentwaters reported that a similar light had passed beneath his aircraft. At this point, Bentwaters alerted the U. S.-tenanted RAF Lakenheath 40 miles to the north-west, to look out for the targets. Ground personnel at Lakenheath made visual sightings of several luminous objects, including two which arrived, made a sharp change in course, appeared to merge before moving off; the angular size of these objects was compared to that of a golf ball at arms length, they were stated to dwindle to pinpoint size as they moved away, an observation which seemed to rule out a bolide or bright meteor. The final phase of the incident was described in some detail by Technical Sergeant Forrest Perkins, the Watch Supervisor in the Lakenheath Radar Air Traffic Control centre, who wrote directly to the Condon Committee in 1968.
Perkins claimed that two RAF De Havilland Venom interceptors were scrambled and directed towards a radar target near Lakenheath. The pilot of the first Venom achieved contact, but found that the target manoeuvred behind him and chased the aircraft for a period of around 10 minutes despite the latter’s taking violent evasive action; the second Venom was forced to return to its home station due to engine problems. The Condon Committee included the case in its analysis in response to Perkins' letter. Aside from the Blue Book file, it was able to obtain a previous classified teleprinter message, transmitted three days after the incident, from 3910th Air Base Group to Air Defence Command at Ent AFB. Based on the information available, the Committee's researcher felt that while anomalous propagation was possible, the lack of other targets on radar scopes at the time made it unlikely. Focusing on the phase of the incident at Lakenheath, he came to the remarkable conclusion that "this is the most puzzling and unusual case in the radar-visual files.
The rational, intelligent behavior of the UFO suggests a mechanical device of unknown origin as the most probable explanation of this sighting". Aviation journalist and noted UFO skeptic Philip J. Klass concluded, that the incident could be explained as a combination of false radar returns and misperceptions of meteors from the Perseid stream. Little information emerged on the case until the late 1970s, when an article in the Daily Express, a subsequent piece by astronomer Ian Ridpath in the Sunday Times, produced further witnesses. Flight Lieutenant Freddie Wimbledon wrote to the Sunday Times on 19 March 1978 contesting Ridpath's statement that the incident had been explained by Klass. Wimbledon had been the radar controller on duty at RAF Neatishead at the time of the sightings. While his account of events agreed with that of Perkins in some details, including the description of the aircraft being chased by the object, he stated that it had in fact been his team who d
McMinnville UFO photographs
The McMinnville UFO photographs were taken on a farm near McMinnville, United States, in 1950. The photos were reprinted in Life magazine and in newspapers across the nation, are considered to be among the most famous taken of a UFO. UFO skeptics believe that the photos are a hoax, but many ufologists continue to argue that the photos are genuine, show an unidentified object in the sky. Although these images have become known as the "McMinnville UFO Photographs", Paul and Evelyn Trent's farm was just outside Sheridan, Oregon nine miles southwest of McMinnville, the nearest larger town. According to astronomer William K. Hartmann's account, on 11 May 1950 at 7:30 p.m. Evelyn Trent was walking back to her farmhouse after feeding rabbits on her farm. Before reaching the house she claimed to see a slow-moving, metallic disk-shaped object heading in her direction from the northeast, she yelled for her husband, inside the house. After a short time he went back inside their home to obtain a camera. Paul Trent's father claimed he viewed the object before it flew away.
Hartmann's version of the incident traces back to an interview the Trents gave to Lou Gillette, host of the radio station KMCM, quoted in The Oregonian newspaper on 10 June 1950. However, the Trents had given a different version of the incident to the local McMinnville newspaper, the Telephone Register, two days earlier on 8 June 1950. In that version, Evelyn Trent stated "We'd been out in the back yard. Both of us saw the object at the same time; the camera! Paul thought it was in the car but I was sure it was in the house. I was right—and the Kodak was loaded with film..." The roll of film in Paul Trent's camera was not used up, so Trent did not have the film developed immediately. The film was not developed until the remaining frames were used in shooting family photographs for Mother's Day. In a 1997 interview, the Trents claimed that they thought the object they had photographed was a secret military aircraft, feared the "photos might bring them trouble." When he mentioned his sighting and photographs to his banker, Frank Wortmann, the banker was intrigued enough to display them from his bank window in McMinnville.
Shortly afterwards Bill Powell, a local newspaper reporter, convinced Mr. Trent to loan him the negatives. Powell found no evidence that they were tampered with or faked. On June 8, 1950, Powell's story of the incident—accompanied by the two photos—was published as a front-page story in the McMinnville Telephone-Register; the headline read: "At Long Last—Authentic Photographs Of Flying Saucer"The story and photos were subsequently picked up by the International News Service and sent to other newspapers around the nation, thus giving them wide publicity. Life magazine published cropped versions of the photos on June 26, 1950, along with a photo of Trent and his camera; the Trents had been promised. In 1967 the negatives were found in the files of the United Press International, a news service which had merged with INS years earlier; the negatives were loaned to Dr. William K. Hartmann, an astronomer, working as an investigator for the Condon Committee, a government-funded UFO research project based at the University of Colorado Boulder.
The Trents were not informed that their "lost" negatives had been found. Hartmann was impressed by their sincerity. In Hartmann's analysis, he wrote to the Condon Committee that "This is one of the few UFO reports in which all factors investigated, geometric and physical, appear to be consistent with the assertion that an extraordinary flying object, metallic, disk-shaped, tens of meters in diameter, evidently artificial, flew within sight of two witnesses."One reason for this conclusion was due to the photometric analysis of the images. Hartmann noted that the brightness of the underside of the object appeared to be lighter than the underside of the oil tank seen in the images; this could be due to the effects of atmospheric extinction and scattering, the same effects that make distant mountains appear "washed out" and blue. This effect suggested the objects were further from the camera than the tank, not small, local objects."Hartmann did, however point out the possibility that the images were manufactured.
He noted that "The object appears beneath a pair of wires, as is seen in Plates 23 and 24. We may question, whether it could have been a model suspended from one of the wires; this possibility is strengthened by the observation that the object appears beneath the same point in the two photos, in spite of their having been taken from two positions." And concludes "These tests do not rule out the possibility that the object was a small model suspended from the nearby wire by an unresolved thread."Hartmann noticed a discrepancy that would become the main point of objection for skeptics. He noticed that the overall lighting of the image was consistent with the lighting that would be expected around sunset, but noted that "There could be a possible discrepancy in view of the fact that the UFO, the telephone pole the garage at the left, the distant house gables are illuminated from the right, or east; the house, in particular, appe
Lonnie Zamora incident
The Lonnie Zamora incident was an alleged UFO close encounter which occurred on Friday, April 24, 1964, at about 5:50 p.m. on the outskirts of Socorro, New Mexico. Several primary witnesses emerged to report their version of the event, which included the craft's approach, conspicuous flame, alleged physical evidence left behind afterward. Lonnie Zamora, a Socorro police officer, on duty at the time, claimed to have come closest to the object and provided the most prolonged and comprehensive account; some physical trace evidence left behind—burned vegetation and soil, ground landing impressions, metal scrapings on a broken rock in one of the impressions—was subsequently observed and analyzed by investigators for the military, law enforcement, civilian UFO groups. The event and its body of evidence is sometimes deemed one of the best documented and most perplexing UFO reports, it was investigated by the U. S. Army, U. S. Air Force, FBI, received considerable coverage in the mass media, it was one of the cases that helped persuade astronomer J. Allen Hynek, one of the primary investigators for the Air Force, that some UFO reports represented an intriguing mystery.
After extensive investigation, the Air Force's Project Blue Book was unable to come up with a conventional explanation and listed the case as an "unknown". Alone in his patrol car, Sergeant Lonnie Zamora was chasing a speeding car due south of Socorro, New Mexico, on April 24, 1964, at about 5:45 p.m. when he "heard a roar and saw a flame in the sky to southwest some distance away — a 1/2 mile or a mile." Thinking a local dynamite shack might have exploded, Zamora broke off the chase and went to investigate. Though Zamora says he did not pay much attention to the flame, that the sun was "to west and did not help vision", he was wearing green sunglasses over prescription glasses. In interviews with Air Force investigators for Project Blue Book he goes to some lengths to describe the long, funnel-shaped "bluish orange" flame, he thought there might be some dust at the bottom, attributed it to the windy day. The weather was "Clear, sunny sky otherwise — just a few clouds scattered over area." He describes the noise as "a roar, not a blast that changed from high frequency to low frequency that lasted 10 seconds and stopped.
He explains. Zamora notes no other possible witnesses except the car in front, which he estimates might have heard the noise but not seen the flame because it would be behind the brow of the hill from their viewpoint. Zamora struggled to get his car up the steep hill. Successful on the third attempt, he noted no further noise. For the next 10–15 seconds he proceeded west, It was that he noticed a shiny object, "to south about 150 to 200 yards", that at first he took to be an "overturned white car... up on radiator or on trunk", with two people standing close to it, one of whom seemed to notice him with some surprise and gave a start. The shiny object was "like aluminum — it was whitish against the mesa background, but not chrome", shaped like a letter "O". Having stopped for a couple of seconds, Zamora approached in his car meaning to help. Zamora only caught a brief sight of the two people in white coveralls beside the "car", he recalls nothing special about them. "I don't recall noting any particular shape or any hats, or headgear.
These persons appeared normal in shape — but they were small adults or large kids." Zamora drove towards the scene, radioing his dispatcher to say he would be out of his car "checking the car in the arroyo." He stopped his car, got out, attended to the radio microphone, which he had dropped he started to approach the object. According to Zamora, Keeping the object in view he ran behind his car, bumping his leg on the rear fender and dropping his glasses, continued running northwards away from the object, still near the ground, he now gives a more detailed description of the object. "Oval in shape... smooth — no windows or doors... Noted red lettering of some type. Insignia was about 2' wide I guess. Was in middle of object... Object still like aluminum-white." He noted that the object was still on the ground when the roar started. Zamora describes how the object took off: Zamora went back to his car and contacted the Sheriff's office by radio: He watched the object fly away, swiftly but silently and without flame: Zamora inspected the area and was soon joined by a colleague, Sergeant Chavez, who did not see the object: Zamora says that he had noticed that the object had what looked like legs: Zamora tries to account for the disappearance of the two people: Within hours, word of Zamora's encounter had reached the news: many people had heard the radio traffic, including a few reporters.
Within days, reporters from the Associated Press and United Press International were in Socorro. Members of civilian UFO study group APRO were on the scene within two days, as were officers representing the U. S. Air Force's Project Blue Book. NICAP investigators appeared the following Tuesday; the first NICAP investigator was Ray Stanford, who would write a detailed book account of his investigation. Several independent witnesses reported either an "egg"-shaped craft or a bluish flame at the same time and in the same area – some of them within minutes of Zamora's encounter, before word of it had spread. Stanford wrote about a number of corroborating witnesses in his book, including two tourists named Paul Kies and Larry Kratzer, who were approaching Socorro in their car from the southwest, less than a mile from the landing site, they witnessed either the landing or takeoff and reported seeing the flame and brownish dust being kicked up. Their story was reported