Bellevue is a city in the Eastside region of King County, United States, across Lake Washington from Seattle. As the third-largest city in the Seattle metropolitan area, Bellevue has variously been characterized as an edge city, a suburb, boomburb, or satellite city, its population was 144,444 in a 2017 census estimate. Prior to 2008, downtown Bellevue underwent rapid change, with many high rise projects under construction, was unaffected by the economic downturn; the downtown area is the second largest city center in Washington state with 1,300 businesses, 45,000 employees and 10,200 residents. Based on per capita income, Bellevue is the 6th wealthiest of 522 communities in the state of Washington. In 2008, Bellevue was named number 1 in CNNMoney's list of the best places to live and launch a business, in 2010 was again ranked as the 4th best place to live in America. In 2014, Bellevue was ranked as the 2nd best place to live by USA Today. More than 145 companies have been located in Bellevue.
Current companies with headquarters in Bellevue include T-Mobile and Valve Corporation. The name "Bellevue" is derived from the French words for "beautiful view". Bellevue was settled in 1869 by William Meydenbauer and Aaron Mercer, who claimed homestead tracts several miles apart. Prior to the opening of the Lake Washington Floating Bridge in 1940, Bellevue was a rural area with little development. Although it was small, developers were pushing to change that, he envisioned plans that included the bridging of Lake Washington and an area filled with golf courses and airports. His map with these visions was published in 1928. Once the Murrow Memorial Bridge opened, access from Seattle improved, the area grew into a bedroom community. After the Japanese Internment began in 1942, a large quantity of farmland became available for development; this made way for the initial development of the Bellevue downtown area. Bellevue incorporated a third class city on the March 21, 1953. Following the 1963 opening of a second bridge across the lake, the Evergreen Point Floating Bridge, the city began to grow more rapidly.
The Crossroads community was annexed in 1964. Lake Hills was annexed in 1969. By the 1970 census, Bellevue had become the fourth most populated city in the state of Washington, following only Seattle and Tacoma. Bellevue remains one of the largest cities in the state, with several high-rise structures in its core and a burgeoning business community; the city experienced a building boom during the mid 2000s, with the building of developments such as Lincoln Square and the Bravern. Reflective of Bellevue's growth over the years is Bellevue Square, now one of the largest shopping centers in the region. Opened in 1946, the mall underwent a significant expansion in the 1980s. More an expansion along Bellevue Way called "The Lodge" and the new One Lincoln Tower promise to strengthen downtown Bellevue's role as the largest Seattle Eastside shopping and dining destination; the city's long-term plans include the Bel-Red Corridor Project, a large-scale planning effort to encourage the redevelopment of a large northern section of the city bordering the adjacent town of Redmond, a major employment area in the city.
Patterned after what many civic leaders consider the successful redevelopment of the downtown core, early plans include "superblock" mixed use projects similar to Lincoln Square. Premised on the 2008 approval of the extension of Link Light Rail to the Eastside, the city hopes to mitigate transportation problems impeding earlier efforts in redeveloping the downtown core. Bellevue is located at 47°36′N 122°12′W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 36.47 square miles, of which, 31.97 square miles is land and 4.50 square miles is water. The city's name is derived from a French term for "beautiful view". Under favorable weather conditions, scenic vistas of the Olympic Mountains and Cascade Mountains can be viewed from hilltops within the incorporated city; the city lies between Lake Washington to the smaller Lake Sammamish to the east. Much of Bellevue is drained by the Kelsey Creek watershed, whose source is located in the Larsen and Phantom Lake green belt and whose outlet is near where Interstate 90 meets Lake Washington's eastern shore.
The city is bisected by Interstate 405 running north-south, the southern portion is crossed from west to east by Interstate 90. The State Route 520 freeway delineates the upper reaches of Bellevue. South of I-90, the city continues up Cougar Mountain, at the top of which lies is an unincorporated King County location called Hilltop. To the west of Cougar Mountain, Bellevue includes the Coal Creek and Factoria neighborhoods. Bellevue is bordered by the cities of Kirkland to the north and Redmond to the northeast along the Overlake and Crossroads neighborhoods. Across the short East Channel Bridge, I-90 connects Bellevue to Mercer Island to the southwest. Issaquah is to the down I-90 at the south end of Lake Sammamish; the city is bordered to the west by many affluent suburbs such as Medina, Clyde Hill, Hunts Point and Yarrow Point. The south end of Bellevue is bordered by the city of Renton, to the southeast, the recently incorporated city of Newcastle. Communities within Bellevue include Bellecrest, Bridle Trails, Eastgate/
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Ron Arnold is an American writer and activist. He has been the Executive Vice-President of the Center for the Defense of Free Enterprise since 1984, he writes on natural resource issues and is an opponent of the environmental movement. Critics see Arnold as promoting abuse of the environment, typified in an assessment by Wild Wilderness executive director Scott Silver: "Fifteen years after creating his 25 Point Wise-Use Agenda, an agenda prescribing unrestrained and unconscionable abuse of the American commons, Ron Arnold is within striking distance of checking off every agenda item on his list." A key U. S. Senate staffer writing in 2011 noted his impact on federal legislation. Arnold was born in Houston and studied business administration at the University of Texas at Austin and the University of Washington. Arnold worked as a technical writer for the Boeing Company from 1961 until he left in 1971 to found Northwoods Studio. In 1974 he began contributing to Western Conservation Journal, which exposed him to the effects of litigation related to environmental issues upon logging and mining industries.
Between 1978 and 1981, Arnold was a contributing editor of Logging Management Journal. His 1979 magazine series, "The Environmental Battle", analyzed the utilization / preservation conflict, won the American Business Press 1980 Editorial Achievement Award. In 1981, Arnold wrote the authorized biography of Interior Secretary James G. Watt. Between 1982 and 1990, he wrote a weekly column for the Bellevue Journal-American. In 1987, he founded the Free Enterprise Press merged into Merril Press, began writing a series of books on the environmental movement, his "EcoTerror" was included in the "100 Best Nonfiction Books of the 20th Century" Random House / Modern Library Reader's List. Arnold uncovered the identity of the actual founder of the United States National Forest after a century of mystery shrouded the origin in conflicting claims. An forgotten politician named William S. Holman created the concept and the initial legislation, as revealed in documents Arnold discovered in the National Archives.
He was invited to present his findings at the centennial symposium of the United States Forest Service in 1991. Environmentalists have challenged Arnold's “Wise Use Movement,” launched at a Reno, Nevada conference in 1988, as inappropriately co-opting the term from utilitarian conservationist and first Chief of the U. S. Forest Service, Gifford Pinchot, who held different views on man and nature than Arnold and his movement. Arnold admits the borrowing, but disputes arguments that it is improper, a controversy that continues unresolved, he has mobilized political allies to protests, as covered by ABC News Nightline by using case histories of environmentalist excesses in influencing policymakers to adopt his ideas. Certain policies of President George W. Bush]] have been attributed to Arnold's influence. Playboy magazine's May 2004 issue featured a profile of Arnold in the Playboy Forum, by reporter Dean Kuypers. Titled, Guru of Wise Use, its headline read: The spiritual father of the Bush administration's environmental policies says we shouldn't be timid about timber.
Arnold has built a network of academic colleagues to help analyze large-scale social movements, told the Boston Globe that environmentalism is "the third great wave of messianism to hit the planet, after Christianity and Marxism-Leninism." The Globe commented, "'Wise users' charge that the environmental crisis has been trumped up as an excuse to take control of the nation's natural resources." Arnold's conclusion that movements of social change, including environmentalism, are fundamentally a kind of war was examined and found valid by sociologist Luther P. Gerlach in the RAND research document, "Networks and Netwars." Arnold runs the Left Tracking Library, a site that tracks what it claims to be undue influence by left-wing politicians and environmentalists. In late 2010, Arnold began writing a weekly column for The Washington Examiner. Another was used as source material by Sen. John Barrasso in a Senate confirmation hearing in December 2013. At the Eye of the Storm: James Watt and the Environmentalists, Regnery Gateway, 282 pp. ISBN 978-0895266347.
The Grand Prairie Years: A Biography of W. C. Perry, Introduction by Gov. John B. Connally, Merril Press, 722 pp. ISBN 978-0936783017. Ecology Wars: Environmentalism as if People Matter, Merril Press, 182 pp. ISBN 978-0939571147. Trashing the Economy: How Runaway Environmentalism is Wrecking America, Second Edition, co-authored with Alan Gottlieb, Merril Press, 670 pp. ISBN 978-0939571178. Politically Correct Environment co-authored with Alan Gottlieb, Merril Press, 178 pp. ISBN 978-0936783154. EcoTerror: The Violent Agenda to Save Nature: The World of the Unabomber, Merril Press, 324 pp. ISBN 978-0939571185. Undue Influence: Wealthy Foundations, Grant Driven Environmental Groups, Zealous Bureaucrats That Control Your Future, Merril Press, 344 pp. ISBN 978-0939571208. Freezing in the Dark: Money, Power and The Vast Left Wing Conspiracy, Merril Press, 444 pp. ISBN 978-0-936783-51-2. Bill Berkowitz, Terrorist Tree Huggers: Ron Arnold, Father of the'Wise Use' Movement, sets his Sights on'Eco-Terrorists', retrieved December 22, 2013.
Phil Brick, Determined Opposition: The Wise Use Movement Challenges Environmentalism in Landmark Essays on Rhetoric and the Environment, Volume 12, edited by Craig Waddell, pp. 195ff, Routledge, ISBN 188039328X, ISBN 978-1880393284 At the Eye of the Storm: James W
The Urban Institute is a Washington D. C.-based think tank that carries out economic and social policy research to "open minds, shape decisions, offer solutions". The institute receives funding from government contracts and private donors; the Urban Institute measures policy effects, compares options, shows which stakeholders get the most and least, tests conventional wisdom, reveals trends, makes costs and risks explicit. The Urban Institute has been referred to as "independent" and as "liberal"; the Urban Institute was established in 1968 by the Lyndon B. Johnson administration to study the nation's urban problems and evaluate the Great Society initiatives embodied in more than 400 laws passed in the prior four years. Johnson hand-selected well-known economists and civic leaders to create the non-partisan, independent research organization, their ranks included Kermit Gordon, McGeorge Bundy, Irwin Miller, Arjay Miller, Richard Neustadt, Cyrus Vance, Robert McNamara. William Gorham, former Assistant Secretary for Health and Welfare, was selected as its first president and served from 1968-2000.
Urban's research and funding base broadened. In 2013, federal government contracts provided about 54% of Urban's operating funds, private foundations another 30%, nonprofits and corporate foundations and local governments, international organizations and foreign entities and Urban's endowment the rest; some of Urban's more than 100 private sponsors and funders include the Annie E. Casey Foundation, the Ford Foundation, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, the Charles Stewart Mott Foundation, the Rockefeller Foundation. At any given time 200 or more projects are underway at the Institute. New work includes studies on retirement and aging in America, who pays income taxes, state implementation of the Affordable Care Act, working families and their children, immigrant children in US schools, the cost-effectiveness of crime prevention, the personal and national challenges of long-term unemployment; the Institute studies the family and societal issues faced by prisoners released from prison.
Overseas, UI has had projects in 20 countries, providing technical assistance in decentralization, local governance, service delivery. Many Urban Institute policy centers are recognized as the leading policy institutes in their fields. Urban Institute's staff of 450 works in several research centers and program areas: the Center on Nonprofits and Philanthropy; the Institute houses the Urban Institute – Brookings Institution Tax Policy Center, the National Center for Charitable Statistics and Urban Institute Press. In 2010, the Institute conducted research related to all 50 states and 25 countries; the Institute works with the Association of Fundraising Professionals to produce the Fundraising Effectiveness Project. This report provides a summary of data from several different donor software firms and other data providers such as Bloomerang, DonorPerfect, NeonCRM, the 7th Day Adventists, DataLake, DonorTrends, eTapestry, ResultsPlus, ClearViewCRM. According to the report, donors gave 3% more in 2016 than 2015, but getting $100 cost nonprofits $95.
Sarah Rosen Wartell, a public policy executive and housing markets expert, became the third president of the Urban Institute in February 2012. She succeeded former head of the Congressional Budget Office. Reischauer succeeded William Gorham, founding president, in 2000. Most Urban Institute researchers are economists, social scientists, or public policy and administration researchers. Others are mathematicians, city planners, engineers, or computer scientists. A few have backgrounds in law, or arts and letters. Unique among the nation's largest research organizations, the Institute is 63% female, five of the ten research center directors are women; as of mid-2011, 27% of the Institute's staff is minority. As of 2018, board members are: Jamie S. Gorelick, Freeman A. Hrabowski III, N. Gregory Mankiw, J. Adam Abram, David Autor, Donald A. Baer, Erskine Bowles, Henry Cisneros, Armando Codina, Mitchell E. Daniels Jr. Shaun Donovan, Diana Farrell, Margaret A. Hamburg, Terrence P. Laughlin, Marne L. Levine, Eugene A. Ludwig, Mary J. Miller, Annette L. Nazareth, Deval Patrick, Eduardo Padrón, Charles H. Ramsey, John Wallis Rowe, Arthur I.
Segel, J. Ron Terwilliger, Sarah Rosen Wartell and Anthony A. Williams; the Urban Institute has been referred to as "independent" and as "liberal". A 2005 study of media bias in The Quarterly Journal of Economics ranked UI as the 11th most liberal of the 50 most-cited think tanks and policy groups, placing it between the NAACP and the People for Ethical Treatment of Animals. According to a study by U. S. News & World Report most political campaign donations by Urban Institute employees go to Democratic politicians. Between 2003 and 2010, Urban Institute employees' made $79,529 in political contributions, none of which went to the Republican Party; as of 2016, the Urban Institute had assets of $173,485,876. Official website Urban–Brookings Tax Policy Center Audited financial statements and IRS Form 990 filings