The tomato is the edible fruit of Solanum lycopersicum, commonly known as a tomato plant, which belongs to the nightshade family, Solanaceae. The species originated in Central and South America, the Nahuatl word tomatl gave rise to the Spanish word tomate, from which the English word tomato originates. Numerous varieties of tomato are widely grown in temperate climates across the world, with greenhouses allowing its production throughout the year, the plants typically grow to 1–3 meters in height and have a weak stem that often sprawls over the ground and vines over other plants. It is a perennial in its habitat, and grown as an annual in temperate climates. An average common tomato weighs approximately 100 grams and its use as a food originated in Mexico, and spread throughout the world following the Spanish colonization of the Americas. Tomato is consumed in diverse ways, including raw, as an ingredient in dishes, salads. While tomatoes are botanically fruits, they are considered culinary vegetables.
The word tomato comes from the Spanish tomate, which in turn comes from the Nahuatl word tomatl and it first appeared in print in 1595. The native Mexican tomatillo is tomate, meaning fat water or fat thing), when Aztecs started to cultivate the Andean fruit and red, they called the new species xitomatl. It first appeared in print in 1595, the scientific species epithet lycopersicum means wolf peach, and comes from German werewolf myths. The Italian word, pomodoro was borrowed into Polish, and via Russian, the usual pronunciations of tomato are /təˈmeɪtoʊ/ and /təˈmɑːtoʊ/. The words dual pronunciations were immortalized in Ira and George Gershwins 1937 song Lets Call the Whole Thing Off and have become a symbol for nitpicking pronunciation disputes. In this capacity, it has become an American and British slang term. Or Its all the same to me, botanically, a tomato is a fruit, a berry, consisting of the ovary, together with its seeds, of a flowering plant. However, the tomato has a lower sugar content than other edible fruits.
Typically served as part of a salad or main course of a meal, rather than at dessert, it is, in the US, considered a culinary vegetable. One exception is that tomatoes are treated as a fruit in home canning practices, they are acidic enough to process in a water bath rather than a pressure cooker as vegetables require. Tomatoes are not the food source with this ambiguity, bell peppers, green beans, avocados
Manihot esculenta is a woody shrub native to South America of the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae. It is extensively cultivated as a crop in tropical and subtropical regions for its edible starchy tuberous root. Though it is often called yuca in Spanish and in the United States, it differs from the yucca, when dried to a powdery extract, is called tapioca, its fermented, flaky version is named garri. Cassava is the third-largest source of carbohydrates in the tropics, after rice. Cassava is a staple food in the developing world, providing a basic diet for over half a billion people. It is one of the most drought-tolerant crops, capable of growing on marginal soils, Nigeria is the worlds largest producer of cassava, while Thailand is the largest exporter of dried cassava. Cassava is classified as sweet or bitter. Like other roots and tubers, both bitter and sweet varieties of cassava contain antinutritional factors and toxins, with the bitter varieties containing much larger amounts, the more toxic varieties of cassava are a fall-back resource in times of famine or food insecurity in some places.
Farmers often prefer the bitter varieties because they deter pests, the cassava root is long and tapered, with a firm, homogeneous flesh encased in a detachable rind, about 1 mm thick and brown on the outside. Commercial cultivars can be 5 to 10 cm in diameter at the top, a woody vascular bundle runs along the roots axis. The flesh can be chalk-white or yellowish, Cassava roots are very rich in starch and contain small amounts of calcium and vitamin C. However, they are poor in protein and other nutrients, in contrast, cassava leaves are a good source of protein, but deficient in the amino acid methionine and possibly tryptophan. Forms of the domesticated species can be found growing in the wild in the south of Brazil. By 4,600 BC, manioc pollen appears in the Gulf of Mexico lowlands, the oldest direct evidence of cassava cultivation comes from a 1, 400-year-old Maya site, Joya de Cerén, in El Salvador. With its high potential, it had become a staple food of the native populations of northern South America, southern Mesoamerica.
Cassava was a food of pre-Columbian peoples in the Americas and is often portrayed in indigenous art. The Moche people often depicted yuca in their ceramics, spaniards in their early occupation of Caribbean islands did not want to eat cassava or maize, which they considered insubstantial and not nutritious. They much preferred foods from Spain, specifically wheat bread, olive oil, red wine, and meat, for these Christians in the New World, cassava was not suitable for communion since it could not undergo transubstantiation and become the body of Christ
Physalis is a genus of flowering plants in the nightshade family, which grow in warm temperate and subtropical regions of the world. Most of the species, of which there may be 75-90, are indigenous to the New World, cultivated species and weedy annuals have been introduced worldwide. A notable feature is the formation of a large papery husk derived from the calyx, the fruit is small and orange, similar in size and structure to a small tomato. At least 46 species are endemic to the country of Mexico, many Physalis species are called groundcherries. One name for Physalis peruviana is Inca berry, another is Cape gooseberry, not to be confused with the true gooseberries, other names used to refer to the fruit are poha berries, and simply golden berries. Physalis are herbaceous plants growing to 0.4 to 3 m tall, similar to the tomato, a plant of the same family. They can be annual or perennial. Most require full sun and fairly warm to hot temperatures, some species are sensitive to frost, but others, such as the Chinese lantern, P. alkekengi, tolerate severe cold when dormant in winter.
These plants grow in most soil types and do well in poor soils. Plants are susceptible to many of the common diseases and pests, and other pests such as aphids, spider mites. Some species are self-incompatible and require pollen from plants to bear fruit. Not all Physalis species bear edible fruit, select species are cultivated for their edible fruit, the typical Physalis fruit is similar to a firm tomato in texture, and like strawberries or pineapple in flavor, with a mild acidity. Some species, such as the Cape gooseberry and tomatillo have been bred into many cultivars with varying flavors, Physalis fruit are rich in cryptoxanthin. The fruit can be used like the tomato. Once extracted from its husk, it can be eaten raw, some varieties are added to desserts, used as flavoring, made into fruit preserves, or dried and used like raisins. They contain pectin and can be used in pie filling, the Cape gooseberry is native to the Americas, but is common in many subtropical areas. Its use in South Africa near the Cape of Good Hope inspired its common name, other species of commercial importance include the tomatillo.
Some nations, such as Colombia, have a significant economic trade in Physalis fruit, some species are grown as ornamental plants. For example, the hardy Physalis alkekengi has edible small fruits but is most popular for its large, in Chinese medicine, Physalis species are used as to treat such conditions as abscesses, coughs and sore throat
Cinchona is a genus of flowering plants in the family Rubiaceae containing at least 23 species of trees and shrubs. They are native to the tropical Andean forests of western South America, a few species are reportedly naturalized in Central America, French Polynesia, Saint Helena in the South Atlantic, and São Tomé and Príncipe off the coast of tropical Africa. A few species are used as medicinal plants, known as sources for quinine, carl Linnaeus named the genus in 1742 after Ana de Osorio, the 4th Countess of Chinchón and wife of a viceroy of Peru. According to some accounts, she suffered from malaria and was cured by a botanical remedy made of the bark of a native tree. The veracity of the story is uncertain, but the tree still carries her name, the national tree of Peru is in the genus Cinchona. Cinchona plants are shrubs or small trees with evergreen foliage. The leaves are opposite, rounded to lanceolate and 10–40 cm long, the flowers are white, pink or red, produced in terminal panicles.
The fruit is a capsule containing numerous seeds. After a few days, she was cured, Linnaeus named the tree in her honor. The use of the tree bark was introduced into European medicine by Jesuit missionaries. Jesuit Bernabé Cobo, who explored Mexico and Peru, is credited with taking cinchona bark to Europe and he took the bark from Lima to Spain, and afterwards to Rome and other parts of Italy, in 1632. To maintain their monopoly on cinchona bark and surrounding countries began outlawing the export of cinchona seeds, during World War II, the Japanese conquered Java and the United States lost access to the cinchona plantations that supplied war-critical quinine medication. As a medicinal herb, cinchona bark is known as Jesuits bark or Peruvian bark. The bark is stripped from the tree and powdered for medicinal uses, the bark is medicinally active, containing a variety of alkaloids including the antimalarial compound quinine and the antiarrhythmic quinidine. South America The cinchona trees medicinal use in the treatment of fevers were first discovered by the Quechua people of Peru, the namesake Chinchón is a small town in central Spain.
In the Viceroyalty of Peru, the physician was summoned and urged to save the countess from the waves of fever and chill threatening her life. At last, the physician administered some medicine he had obtained from the local Indians, the countess survived the malarial attack and reportedly brought the cinchona bark back with her when she returned to Europe in the 1640s. Europe The Italian botanist Pietro Castelli wrote a pamphlet noteworthy as being the first Italian publication to mention the cinchona, by the 1630s, the bark was being exported to Europe
Phaseolus vulgaris, the common bean, is a herbaceous annual plant grown worldwide for its edible dry seed or unripe fruit. Raw or undercooked beans contain the toxin phytohaemagglutinin and its leaf is occasionally used as a vegetable and the straw as fodder. The common bean is a variable species that has a long history of cultivation. All wild members of the species have a habit, but many cultivars are classified as bush beans or pole beans. These include the bean, the navy bean, the pinto bean. The other major types of commercially grown bean are the runner bean, Beans are grown in every continent except Antarctica. Brazil and India are the largest producers of dry beans, while China produces, by far, worldwide,23 million tonnes of dry common beans and 17.1 million tonnes of green beans were grown in 2010. Along with squash and maize, beans are one of the Three Sisters central to indigenous North American agriculture, the common bean is a highly variable species with a long history. Bush varieties form erect bushes 20–60 cm tall, while pole or running varieties form vines 2–3 m long, all varieties bear alternate, green or purple leaves, which are divided into three oval, smooth-edged leaflets, each 6–15 cm long and 3–11 cm wide.
The white, pink, or purple flowers are about 1 cm long and these may be green, black, or purple in color, each containing 4–6 beans. The beans are smooth, kidney-shaped, up to 1.5 cm long, range widely in color, and are often mottled in two or more colors. Similar to other beans, the bean is high in starch and dietary fiber, and is an excellent source of iron, selenium, thiamine, vitamin B6. Dry beans will keep indefinitely if stored in a cool, dry place, dried beans are almost always cooked by boiling, often after being soaked in water for several hours. While the soaking is not strictly necessary, it shortens cooking time, in addition, soaking beans removes 5 to 10% of the gas-producing sugars that can cause flatulence for some people. The methods include simple overnight soaking and the power soak method in which beans are boiled for three minutes and set aside for 2–4 hours, before cooking, the soaking water is drained off and discarded. Dry common beans take longer to cook than most pulses, cooking times vary from one to four hours, in Mexico, Central America, and South America, the traditional spice used with beans is epazote, which is said to aid digestion.
In East Asia, a type of seaweed, kombu, is added to beans as they cook for the same purpose, salt and acidic foods such as tomatoes may harden uncooked beans, resulting in seasoned beans at the expense of slightly longer cooking times. Dry beans may be cooked and canned as refried beans, or whole with water, salt
Cucurbita ficifolia, which has many common names in English, is a type of squash grown for its edible seeds and greens. Although it is related to other squashes in its genus, such as the pumpkin, it shows considerable biochemical difference from them. Ficifolia is a vine that is an annual in temperate climates. Unlike some other Cucurbita species, it not have swollen storage roots. The plant stem can grow five to fifteen meters and produces tendrils that help it climb adjacent plants and it may root from the leaf axils, unlike most other curcubits. The vine can become semiwoody if left to grow perennially, although most commercial plants are annual and its leaves resemble fig leaves, hence its most common name in English – fig-leaf gourd – and its Latin species name. The fruit is oblong, resembling a watermelon, with black seeds. In stark contrast to other Cucurbita, its fruit is highly uniform in size, the plant is monoecious with imperfect flowers and are pollinated by insects, especially bees.
The color of the flowers is yellow to orange, the fruit is oblong with a diameter of eight inches or 20 centimeters, weighs eleven to 13 pounds, and can produce up to 500 seeds. Its skin can vary from light or dark green to cream, one plant can produce over 50 fruit. The fruit can last without decomposing for several years if kept dry after harvest and it is native to the Americas, although the exact center of domestication is unclear. Linguistic evidence suggests Mexico, because of the use of names based on the Nahuatl name chilacayohtli as far south as Argentina. However, archaeological evidence suggests Peru because the earliest remains have been found there, biosystematics has been unable to confirm either hypothesis. Archeological records show that it was the most widespread variety of Cucurbita in the Americas, cultivated from northern Chile, now it is grown as far north as southern California. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, Europeans introduced it to the Mediterranean regions of Europe as well as India, from there it has spread to many other parts of the world and picked up more names.
The fig-leaved gourd grows in highlands at elevations up to 2,000 metres. It is often used as a rootstock for other less resistant cucurbits. C. ficifolia can be propagated through planting seeds and by layering, tendrils can grow into roots if anchored into the soil, and can propagate new plants once cut, which can be moved to new sites
Prunus serotina, commonly called black cherry, wild black cherry, rum cherry, or mountain black cherry, is a deciduous woody plant species belonging to the genus Prunus. The species is widespread and common in North America and South America, Black cherry is closely related to the chokecherry, however, is classified as a shrub or small tree and has smaller, less glossy leaves. Subspecies and varieties Prunus serotina var. alabamensis Little -southeastern United States Prunus serotina subsp, capuli McVaugh – central + southern Mexico, Central America, South America as far south as Argentina Prunus serotina subsp. Eximia McVaugh – Texas Prunus serotina subsp, hirsuta McVaugh – Georgia Prunus serotina var. rufula McVaugh – southwestern United States, northern + central Mexico Prunus serotina subsp. Serotina – Canada, United States, Guatemala Prunus serotina var. serotina – Canada, United States, virens McVaugh Black cherry is a medium-sized, fast-growing forest tree growing to a height of 50-80 feet.
Leaves are 2 to 5 in length, ovate-lanceolate in shape, fall leaf color is yellow to red. Flowers are small, white and 5-petalled, in racemes 4 to 6 long which contain several dozen flowers, the flowers give rise to edible reddish-black berries. A mature black cherry tree can easily be identified in a forest by its broken, dark grey to black bark. However, for about the first decade or so of its life, the bark is thin and banded, resembling that of a birch. It can quickly be identified by its long, shiny leaves resembling those of a sourwood, Prunus serotina is a pioneer species. In the Midwest, it is growing mostly in old fields with other sunlight-loving species, such as black walnut, black locust. Gleason and Cronquist describe P. serotina as ormerly a forest tree, now abundant as a weed-tree of roadsides, waste land, and forest-margins. It is a moderately long-lived tree, with ages of up to 258 years known, though it is prone to damage, with branches breaking easily, any decay resulting, however.
Seed production begins around 10 years of age, but does not become heavy until 30 years, germination rates are high, and the seeds are widely dispersed by birds who eat the fruit and excrete them. Some seeds however may remain in the bank and not germinate for as long as three years. All Prunus species have seeds that benefit from scarification to germinate. P. serotina is a host of caterpillars of various Lepidoptera, the eastern tent caterpillar defoliates entire groves some springs. Prunus serotina was widely introduced into Western and Central Europe as a tree in the mid 20th century
Maize, known as corn, is a large grain plant first domesticated by indigenous peoples in Mexico about 10,000 years ago. The six major types of corn are dent corn, flint corn, pod corn, flour corn, the leafy stalk of the plant produces separate pollen and ovuliferous inflorescences or ears, which are fruits, yielding kernels or seeds. Maize kernels are used in cooking as a starch. Most historians believe maize was domesticated in the Tehuacan Valley of Mexico, recent research modified this view somewhat, scholars now indicate the adjacent Balsas River Valley of south-central Mexico as the center of domestication. The Olmec and Mayans cultivated maize in numerous varieties throughout Mesoamerica and its believed that beginning about 2500 BC, the crop spread through much of the Americas. The region developed a network based on surplus and varieties of maize crops. Nevertheless, recent data indicates that the spread of maize took place even earlier, according to Piperno, A large corpus of data indicates that it was dispersed into lower Central America by 7600 BP and had moved into the inter-Andean valleys of Colombia between 7000 and 6000 BP.
Since then, even earlier dates have been published, the study demonstrated that the oldest surviving maize types are those of the Mexican highlands. Later, maize spread from this region over the Americas along two major paths and this is consistent with a model based on the archaeological record suggesting that maize diversified in the highlands of Mexico before spreading to the lowlands. Before they were domesticated, maize plants only grew small,25 millimetres long corn cobs, Maize is the most widely grown grain crop throughout the Americas, with 361 million metric tons grown in the United States in 2014. Approximately 40% of the crop—130 million tons—is used for corn ethanol, genetically modified maize made up 85% of the maize planted in the United States in 2009. After the arrival of Europeans in 1492, Spanish settlers consumed maize and explorers and traders carried it back to Europe, Spanish settlers far preferred wheat bread to maize, cassava, or potatoes. Maize flour could not be substituted for wheat for bread, since in Christian belief only wheat could undergo transubstantiation.
At another level, Spaniards worried that by eating indigenous foods, which they did not consider nutritious, that not only would they weaken, despite these worries, Spaniards did consume maize and archeological evidence from Florida sites indicate they cultivated it as well. Maize spread to the rest of the world because of its ability to grow in diverse climates and it was cultivated in Spain just a few decades after Columbuss voyages and spread to Italy, West Africa and elsewhere. The word maize derives from the Spanish form of the indigenous Taíno word for the plant and it is known by other names around the world. The word corn outside North America and New Zealand refers to any cereal crop, in the United States, Canada and New Zealand, corn primarily means maize, this usage started as a shortening of Indian corn. Indian corn primarily means maize, but can more specifically to multicolored flint corn used for decoration
Henequen is an agave, a plant species native to southern Mexico and Guatemala. It is reportedly naturalized in Italy, the Canary Islands, Costa Rica, Hispaniola, the Cayman Islands, the leaves of Agave fourcroydes yield a fiber called henequen, which is suitable for rope and twine but not of as high a quality as sisal. Alternative spellings are Henequin and Heniquen and it is the major plantation fiber agave of eastern Mexico, being grown extensively in Yucatán, and southern Tamaulipas. It is used to make licor del henequén, a traditional Mexican alcoholic drink, the plant appears as a rosette of sword-shaped leaves 1.2 to 1.8 meters long, growing out of a thick stem that may reach 1.7 meters. The leaves have regularly spaced teeth 3–6 mm long and a terminal spine 2–3 cm long, like sisal, A. fourcroydes is a sterile hybrid, the ovaries never produce seeds. The plant does produce bulbils that may be planted, but commercial growers prefer to use the frequent suckers, which develop more quickly
This page is about the Solanum muricatum described by William Aiton. S. furcatum was called thus by Bertero based on Dunal, Pepino redirects here, similar plants are known by that name. For the municipality in Toledo, see Pepino, Solanum muricatum is a species of evergreen shrub native to South America and grown for its sweet edible fruit. It is known as pepino dulce or simply pepino, the latter is used for similar species such as S. mucronatum. Another common name, tree melon, is often used for the Papaya though the pepino dulce plant generally does not look much like a tree, it looks more like a ground cover. The present species is, however, a relative of other nightshades cultivated for their fruit, including the tomato and the eggplant. The fruit is common in markets in Colombia, Bolivia and Chile, attempts to produce commercial cultivars and to export the fruit have been made in New Zealand, Turkey and Chile. The pepino dulce is presumed to be native to the temperate Andean regions of Colombia and Chile, though it is not known in the wild, the pepino is a domesticated native of the Andes.
Pepinos are not often found archaeologically as they are soft and pulpy and not easy to preserve, while their tough seeds are small, but they were already described by early Spanish chroniclers as being cultivated on the coast, the Moche Valley in Peru was particularly famous for them. They were a decorative motif in Moche art. In the United States the fruit is known to have grown in San Diego before 1889. The pepino dulce is relatively hardy, in its native range it grows at altitudes ranging from close to sea level up to 3,000 m. However, it performs best in a warm, relatively frost-free climate, the plant can survive a low temperature of -2. 5°C if the freeze is not prolonged, though it may drop many of its leaves. The species is a perennial, but its sensitivity to chilling, the crop adapts well to greenhouse cultivation, training the plants up to 2 m tall, and obtaining yields that are 2-3 times larger than those obtained outdoors. They are propagated by cuttings since they are established easily without rooting hormones, supports are sometimes used to keep the weight of the fruit from pulling the plant down.
It has a fast growth rate and bears fruit within 4 to 6 months after planting and it is a perennial, but is usually cultivated as an annual. Seedlings are intolerant of weeds, but it can easily compete with low growing weeds. Like their relatives tomatoes, eggplants and tamarillos, pepinos are extremely attractive to beetles, white flies, pepinos are tolerant of most soil types, but require constant moisture for good fruit production
Passiflora, known as the passion flowers or passion vines, is a genus of about 500 species of flowering plants, the type genus of the family Passifloraceae. They are mostly vines, with some being shrubs, and a few species being herbaceous, for information about the fruit of the passiflora plant, see passionfruit. The monotypic genus Hollrungia seems to be inseparable from Passiflora, the family Passifloraceae has a pantropical distribution. Passiflora itself is absent from Africa, where other members of the family Passifloraceae occur. Most species are found in South America, eastern Asia, southern Asia, nine separate species of Passiflora are native to the United States, found from Ohio to the north, west to California and south to the Florida Keys. Four or more species are found in Australia and a single endemic species in New Zealand. New species continue to be identified, for example, P. pardifolia and P. xishuangbannaensis have only known to the scientific community since 2006 and 2005.
Some species of Passiflora have been naturalised beyond their native ranges, for example, blue passion flower now grows wild in Spain. The purple passionfruit and its yellow relative flavicarpa have been introduced in tropical regions as commercial crops. The passion flowers have a structure, which in most cases requires a large bee to effectively pollinate. In the American tropics, wooden beams are mounted very near passionfruit plantings to encourage bees to nest. The size and structure of flowers of other Passiflora species is optimized for pollination by hummingbirds, bumble bees, Carpenter bees, wasps or bats, the sword-billed hummingbird with its immensely elongated bill has co-evolved with certain passion flowers, such as P. mixta. Yellow passion flower pollen is apparently the only pollen eaten by the unusual bee Anthemurgus passiflorae, these bees simply collect the pollen, but do not pollinate the flowers. The leaves are used as food plants by the larva of a number of lepidoptera, many Passiflora species produce sweet nutrient-rich liquid from glands on their leaf stems.
These fluids attract ants which will kill and eat many pests that they happen to find feeding on the passion flowers, the following lepidoptera larvae are known to feed on Passiflora, Swift moth Cibyra serta Longwing butterflies American Sara longwing Asian leopard lacewing. Many small insects get stuck to this and get digested to nutrient-rich goo by proteases, since the insects usually killed are rarely major pests, this passion flower seems to be a protocarnivorous plant. Banana passion flower or banana poka, originally from Central Brazil, is an invasive weed and it is commonly spread by feral pigs eating the fruits. It overgrows and smothers stands of vegetation, mainly on roadsides
Nikolai Ivanovich Vavilov ForMemRS was a prominent Russian and Soviet botanist and geneticist best known for having identified the centres of origin of cultivated plants. He devoted his life to the study and improvement of wheat, Vavilov was born into a merchant family in Moscow, the older brother of renowned physicist Sergey Ivanovich Vavilov. He graduated from the Moscow Agricultural Institute in 1910 with a dissertation on snails as pests, from 1911 to 1912, he worked at the Bureau for Applied Botany and at the Bureau of Mycology and Phytopathology. From 1913 to 1914 he travelled in Europe and studied plant immunity, in collaboration with the British biologist William Bateson, from 1924 to 1935 he was the director of the Lenin All-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences at Leningrad. She declined, but visited the institute in 1933 for three months to train 50 students in her research, while developing his theory on the centres of origin of cultivated plants, Vavilov organized a series of botanical-agronomic expeditions, and collected seeds from every corner of the globe.
In Leningrad, he created the worlds largest collection of plant seeds, Vavilov formulated the law of homologous series in variation. He was a member of the USSR Central Executive Committee, President of All-Union Geographical Society, Vavilov encountered the young Trofim Lysenko and at the time encouraged him in his work. At the time Lysenko was not the best at growing wheat and peas and it was not until when he was under pressure from the Soviet State that Vavilov began to criticize the non-Mendelian concepts of Trofim Lysenko, who won the support of Joseph Stalin. As a result, Vavilov was arrested on August 6,1940 and he was sentenced to death in July 1941. In 1942 his sentence was commuted to twenty years imprisonment, he died in prison in 1943, the Leningrad seedbank was diligently preserved through the 28-month Siege of Leningrad. While the Soviets had ordered the evacuation of art from the Hermitage, they had not evacuated the 250,000 samples of seeds and fruits stored in what was the worlds largest seedbank.
A group of scientists at the Vavilov Institute boxed up a section of seeds, moved them to the basement. Those guarding the seedbank refused to eat its contents, even though by the end of the siege in the spring of 1944, nine of them had died of starvation. In 1943, parts of Vavilovs collection, samples stored within the occupied by the German armies, mainly in Ukraine. Many of the samples were transferred to the SS Institute for Plant Genetics, by the 1960s his reputation was publicly rehabilitated and he began to be hailed as a hero of Soviet science. Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry in St. Petersburg still maintains one of the worlds largest collections of plant genetic material, Vavilov was the head of the institute from 1921 to 1940. In 1968 the institute was renamed after Vavilov in time for its 75th anniversary, a minor planet,2862 Vavilov, discovered in 1977 by Soviet astronomer Nikolai Stepanovich Chernykh is named after him and his brother Sergey Ivanovich Vavilov. The crater Vavilov on the far side of the Moon is named after him, the story of the researchers at the Vavilov Institute during the Siege of Leningrad was fictionalized by novelist Elise Blackwell in her 2003 novel Hunger