Center-pivot irrigation called water-wheel and circle irrigation, is a method of crop irrigation in which equipment rotates around a pivot and crops are watered with sprinklers. A circular area centered on the pivot is irrigated creating a circular pattern in crops when viewed from above. Most center pivots were water-powered, however today most are propelled by electric motors. Center-pivot irrigation was invented in 1940 by farmer Frank Zybach, who lived in Strasburg, Colorado, it is recognized as an effective method to improve water distribution to fields. In 1952, Zybach went into business with a friend from Columbus, Nebraska. Trowbridge got 49 % of the patent rights. Zybach moved back from Colorado to Columbus, opened a shop, hired a few men, moved the height of the pipe up to six feet, went into business. In the first two years of operation, they sold only 19 systems; the early designs were finicky and few farmers understood the systems. Zybach kept improving his designs and focused on making his machines better, rather than attempting to sell systems with problems.
Zybach saw success with modified designs. In 1954, he licensed his patent to his company, Valley Manufacturing. Daugherty's engineers spent the next decade refining Zybach's innovation – making it sturdier and more reliable – and converting it from a hydraulic power system to electric drive. Daugherty's company went on to grow into Valmont Industries, with its subsidiary Valley Irrigation continuing his vision for irrigation in the United States spanning the globe. Center pivot irrigation is a form of overhead sprinkler irrigation consisting of several segments of pipe with sprinklers positioned along their length, joined together and supported by trusses, mounted on wheeled towers; the machine moves in a circular pattern and is fed with water from the pivot point at the center of the circle. For a center pivot to be used, the terrain needs to be reasonably flat; this advantage has resulted in water use in some areas. The system is in use, for example, in parts of the United States, New Zealand, Brazil and in desert areas such as the Sahara and the Middle East.
Center pivots are less than 1600 feet in length with the most common size being the standard 1/4 mile machine. A typical 1/4 mile radius crop circle covers about 125 acres of land Originally, most center pivots were water-powered; these were replaced by electric motor-driven systems. Most systems today are driven by an electric motor mounted at each tower; the outside set of wheels sets the master pace for the rotation. The inner sets of wheels are mounted at hubs between two segments and use angle sensors to detect when the bend at the joint exceeds a certain threshold; when the angle is too large, the wheels rotate to keep the segments aligned. To achieve uniform application, center pivots require an emitter flow rate across the radius of the machine. Since the outer-most spans travel farther in a given time period than the innermost spans, nozzle sizes are smallest at the inner spans and increase with distance from the pivot point. Aerial views show fields of circles created by the watery tracings of "quarter- or half-mile of the center-pivot irrigation pipe," created by center pivot irrigators which use "hundreds and sometimes thousands of gallons a minute."
Most center pivot systems now have drops hanging from a u-shaped pipe called a gooseneck attached at the top of the pipe with sprinkler heads that are positioned a few feet above the crop, thus limiting evaporative losses and wind drift. There are many different nozzle configurations available including static plate, moving plate and part circle. Pressure regulators are installed upstream of each nozzle to ensure each is operating at the correct design pressure. Drops can be used with drag hoses or bubblers that deposit the water directly on the ground between crops; this type of system is known as LEPA and is associated with the construction of small dams along the furrow length. Crops may be planted in straight rows or are sometimes planted in circles to conform to the travel of the irrigation system. Irrigation equipment can be configured to move in a straight line, where it is termed a lateral move, linear move, wheel move or side-roll irrigation system. In these systems the water is supplied by an irrigation channel running the length of the field.
The channel is positioned either in a line through the center. The motor and pump equipment are mounted on a cart by the supply channel; the cart travels with the machine. Farmers might choose lateral-move irrigation to keep existing rectangular fields; this can help them convert from furrow irrigation. Lateral-move irrigation is far less common, relies on more complex guidance systems, requires additional management compared to center pivot irrigation. Lateral-move irrigation is common in Australia. There, systems are between 500 and 1,000 meters long. Center-pivot irrigation uses less labor than many other surface irrigation methods, such as furrow irrigation, it has lower labor costs than ground-irrigation techniques that require digging of channels. Center-pivot irrigation can reduce the amount of soil tillage. Therefore, it helps reduc
Vicente Rama was a Filipino Visayan legislator and writer from Cebu, Philippines. Recognized as the Father of Cebu City, he authored the bill for its cityhood, approved into law by October 20, 1936, he founded the leading pre-war Cebuano periodical, Bag-ong Kusog. Vicente Rama known with the honorific title, Don Vicente and Nyor Inting, was born in Cebu, Philippines on June 6, 1887, he was the eldest child of Bernabe "Abi" Raffiñan and Engilberta "Iya Bita" Ramas, the child of Laurente Ramas and Juana Enguio from Naga. He carried the last name "Rama" on in life, providing no hint why he decided to drop its last letter, his mother, who managed a copra-tobacco brokerage, named him after St. Vincent Ferrer and raised him and his sister, Susana, as a single parent. Upon the death of his father from diabetes mellitus, the same illness he would be afflicted with in his years, he received a parcel of land. However, he seemed to have either forgotten the inheritance. Rama attended the Seminario-Colegio de San Carlos, now known as the University of San Carlos, from 1904 until 1908, he excelled at school.
After his graduation, Rama went to Manila for further studies as was the practice among children of prominent families. It was perceived as a positive attainment to possess when applying for jobs. Attending the Escuela de Derecho de Manila in 1908, he graduated with a law degree in 1910, he did not proceed to take the bar exam to become a lawyer. Rama married Catalina Genson, the couple had 16 children: physician and Cebu Governor Osmundo and journalist Napoleon, Cebu City Councilor Clemente, lawyer Jesus, Lourdes, Reynalda, Resurreccion, Marianela and Miguel. Three of the 16 offspring did not survive childhood; the family moved from San Nicolas to a three-hectare farm lot in Basak. He avoided using his influence in their behalf. For instance, he did not intervene when one of his children spent a night in jail after being involved in an altercation, he did not allow his wife to use any government-owned vehicles. He insisted that his children put more effort into their studies, had all of his daughters sent to school when it was customary for families to do so only with their male children.
Rama was one of the pioneers in Cebuano journalism and literature at a time when the use of Cebuano language in the media was peaking and the Spanish language was waning as a lingua franca. He became a newspaper editor at age 15 and began publishing in 1906. In 1908, he was a staff member of Spanish periodical El Precursor, founded by election lawyer Domingo Franco and printed from 1907 until 1941. On, Mariano Jesus Cuenco took over its ownership. In addition, he edited several publications including Kauswagan, founded by Francisco Labrador from 1912 until 1914, he edited Vicente Sotto's Cebuano newspaper, Ang Suga, Luz de Vizaya, wrote for El Renacimiento, La Democracia, Libertas. In May 2, 1915, he established the bilingual periodical Nuerva Fuerza, which on became a Cebuano weekly Bag-ong Kusog. Rama was assisted by circulation manager Felipe Tabasa, editors Julio Pongan and Eustaquio B. Gonzales, among others. Bag-ong Kusog was one of the periodicals that enjoyed popularity and wide readership in Cebuano-speaking provinces of Visayas and Mindanao, as well as among immigrants in Hawaii.
Its contents dealt with public life of pre-war Cebuanos and the worrying decline towards observance of attitudes and tradition dating back to the time of Spanish colonization and the encroaching secularism brought by the American colonizers. Rama's published works encompassed various topics such as public service, Cebuano language, literary arts. Between 1928 and 1934, Rama ran an English-language weekly Progress. A sister publication of Bag-ong Kusog, Progress was launched on December 2, 1928. On, it became a daily starting December 22, 1929. Additionally, it was suspended from operation from May 15, 1931 until November 22, 1931. Other than being a newspaperman, Rama wrote non-fiction, short stories and novels using pseudonyms like Datu Dakila, Kolas Tabian, Justo Recio Recto, Mahomet Ben Yakub, Rectum Clarum, he printed two story collections: Larawan in 1921 and Aegri Somnia in 1922, he penned Sa Bung-aw sa mga Kasal-anan, a novel serialized in Bag-ong Kusog from 1933 to 1934, Ang Tinagoan a novel, printed from August 18, 1933 to March 9, 1934, an adaptation of Jose Rizal's novel.
His newspaper, Bag-ong Kusog published the works of creative writers. It printed Lourdes, a novel by Gardeopatra Gador Quijano, the first feminist novel written in Cebuano. After Bag-ong Kusog failed to release new issues after World War II, he continued to write. In 1947, he finished a year after, Ang Silot ni Bathala. Resil Mojares on his critique of Rama's work wrote, "Rama was not just a publisher. In and out of Bag-ong Kusog, he was a prolific writer of novels, short stories, editorials and essays. What is most striking about his writings is their contemporaneity." His political career was launched when he won a seat in the municipal council of Cebu on June 16, 1916. He was elected as representative of the third congressional district of Cebu and served three terms: 1922-1925, 1925-1928, 1934-1935, he won as assemblyman in the fourth district of Cebu and became a member of the first National Assembly in 1935. After his bill was approved to transform Cebu from a municipality to a chartered city, he was appointed as Inaugural Mayor of Cebu C
Luis Gueilburt Talmazán is an Argentinian sculptor and writer based in Barcelona. He has exhibited his work in Reus, Mollet del Vallès, Moià and Nagoya. In the course of his academic research of Catalan modernism and Antoni Gaudí, he has written several books on the subject, his work is framed in a figurative but not realistic style, developed in various supports and materials, such as wood, stone or metal, as well as artistic installations. He studied Fine Arts at the Municipal School of Avellaneda. Between 1968 and 1978 he participated in various individual and collective exhibitions in several Latin American countries. In 1978 he settled in Barcelona, his works are in public and private collections in Spain, Argentina, Guatemala and Peru. In 1989 he made a sculpture that joined the Public Art collection of Barcelona, Euclidean or The Four Elements, located in park Les Corts, it is placed in a meandering channel that runs through the park. Made of stainless steel and ceramic on a limestone base, it is conceived as a tribute to the Greek geometer Euclid.
The work consists of four stainless steel railing circles supported by a vertical tube in the center of the diameter, in addition to several metal clamps set in the circles, which hold cylindrical ceramic pieces. Thirteen of these elements are found, which could refer to the thirteen volumes of the Euclidean treatise, where he exposes his studies on plane geometry, the geometry of space, greater magnitudes and the properties of numbers amongst others; that year he won the contest for the elaboration of a statuette awarded to the winners of the Surbisa Prize for rehabilitation in Bilbao, established in 1985. In 1992 he produced a public piece for Mollet del Vallès, Monument to Mollet Ciutat Pubilla de la Sardana, in Can Mulà park, in celebration to the city’s appointment as Capital of Sardana that year, it is a work of iron and cast stone with a legend of wrought copper and bronze, consisting of an M around one of whose legs a group of sculpted children is dancing sardana. In 2000 he made the sculpture Ribbons in Shin Kawasaki, Tokyo.
As an expert in the work of the modernist architect Antoni Gaudí, he has taught a monographic course on the life and work of Gaudí at the Polytechnic University of Catalonia since 1997. In the same center he has been in charge of the Research Line Gaudí and Catalan Modernism, the architectural and artistic style of 1900 since 1998, he has participated in courses, conferences and congresses in various universities in Spain, United States, Mexico and Argentina. Between 1993 and 2003 he directed the Center for Gaudí Studies; as a sculptor he was responsible for the restoration of some of Gaudí's works, such as the gate dragon at Güell Pavilions, commissioned by the Gaudí Chair. Between 1990 and 1998 he participated in the restoration of the Gaudí House Museum in Park Güell. With some pieces of Gaudí's works recovered from these restorations, he organized the Gaudir Gaudí exhibition with the Association of Surveyors, Technical Architects and Building Engineers of Barcelona, exhibited in Vic, Mollet del Vallès and Nagoya between 1993 and 1996.
He has carried out restorations of various sculptures and monuments, such as those of the Thomas and Lleó Morera houses by Lluís Domènech i Montaner, the Roca i Pi Monument by Torquat Tasso in Badalona, the sculptures of the Albéniz Palace and the Robert Palace in Barcelona, the Monument to Mosén Jacint Verdaguer by Joan Borrell i Nicolau and the Monument to General Geroni Galceràn i Tarrés in Les Masies de Voltregà. Some of his publications are: Ceramics in Gaudí's work, Colegio de las Teresianas de Gaudí: history and architecture, Gaudí Album, Gaudí and the Property Registry, Obradores - Obradoiros Gaudí, Hierro y Forja. 1987: Lost Universes, Art Workshop School of Diputació de Tarragona, Reus. 1987: Bibliomeca, installation in the Anar i Tornar space of the Association of Surveyors, Technical Architects and Building Engineers of Barcelona. 1988: Camí Sinuós, Berlin Center B. C. B.. 1991: Mater Materia, Gloria de Prada Gallery, Barcelona. 1993: Gaudir Gaudí, Association of Surveyors, Technical Architects and Building Engineers of Barcelona and Osona, Vic.
1994: Gaudir Gaudí, La Marineta, Mollet del Vallès. 1996: Gaudir Gaudí, Chukyo University, Japan. 2000: In praise of the Shadows, H2O Gallery, Barcelona. Lecea, Ignasi de. Art públic de Barcelona. Barcelona: Ayuntamiento de Barcelona and Àmbit Serveis Editorials. ISBN 978-84-96645-08-0