Chartreuse is a French liqueur available in both green and yellow versions that differ in both taste and alcohol content. The liqueur has been made by the Carthusian Monks since 1737 according to the instructions set out in a manuscript given to them by François Annibal d'Estrées in 1605, it was named after the monks' Grande Chartreuse monastery, located in the Chartreuse Mountains in the general region of Grenoble in France. The liqueur is produced in their distillery in the nearby town of Voiron, it is composed of distilled alcohol aged with 130 herbs and flowers. It is one of the handful of liqueurs that improve in the bottle. Green Chartreuse is a green liqueur made from 130 herbs and other plants macerated in alcohol and steeped for about eight hours. A last maceration of plants gives its color to the liqueur. Yellow Chartreuse has a milder and sweeter flavour and aroma than green Chartreuse, is lower in alcohol content. VEP stands for Vieillissement Exceptionnellement Prolongé, meaning "exceptionally prolonged aging".
It is made using the same processes and the same secret formula as the traditional liqueur, by extra long aging in oak casks it reaches an exceptional quality. Chartreuse VEP comes in both green. Élixir Végétal de la Grande-Chartreuse has the same base of about 130 medicinal and aromatic plants and flowers but is more alcoholic. It can be described as a cordial or a liqueur, is claimed to be a tonic. Sold in small wood-covered bottles. Liqueur du 9° Centenaire was created in 1984 to commemorate the 900 year anniversary of the foundation of the abbey, it is similar to Green Chartreuse, but sweeter. Chartreuse 1605 – Liqueur d'Elixir was created to commemorate the return of a mysterious manuscript concerning an elixir of long life to the Carthusian monks by Marshal François Annibal d'Estrées. White Chartreuse was produced and sold between 1860 and 1900; the monks make a Génépi, the general term in the Alps for a homemade or local liquor featuring local mountain flora. There are hundreds or thousands of different Génépi liquors made, many by families for their own use each year.
As they have been making Chartreuse from local plants for centuries, the monks started in the 2000s to make a Génépi as a sideline product. It is labelled "Génépi des Pères Chartreux" and is only available locally in a 70cl bottle labelled 40% alcohol. In 2007, a special edition was created by the Cuvée des Meilleurs Ouvriers de France Sommeliers in partnership with the distillery, it is yellow in color. Chartreuse has a strong characteristic taste, it is sweet, but becomes both spicy and pungent. It is comparable to other herbal liqueurs such as Galliano, Liquore Strega or Kräuterlikör, though it is distinctively more vegetal, or herbaceous. Like other liqueurs, its flavour is sensitive to serving temperature. If straight, it can be served cold, but is served at room temperature, it is featured in some cocktails. Some mixed drink recipes call for only a few drops of Chartreuse due to its strong flavour, it is popular in French ski resorts where it called Green Chaud. According to tradition, a marshal of artillery to French king Henry IV, François Hannibal d'Estrées, presented the Carthusian monks at Vauvert, near Paris, with an alchemical manuscript that contained a recipe for an "elixir of long life" in 1605.
The recipe reached the religious order's headquarters at the Grande Chartreuse monastery, in Voiron, near Grenoble. It has since been used to produce the "Elixir Végétal de la Grande Chartreuse"; the formula is said to include 130 herbs and flowers and secret ingredients combined in a wine alcohol base. The book The Practical Hotel Steward states that green chartreuse contains "cinnamon, lemon balm, dried hyssop flower tops, thyme, arnica flowers and angelica roots", that yellow chartreuse is, "Similar to above, adding cardamom seeds and socctrine aloes." However the recipe remains a secret. The monks intended their liqueur to be used as medicine; the recipe was further enhanced in 1737 by Brother Gérome Maubec. The beverage soon became popular, in 1764 the monks adapted the elixir recipe to make what is now called Green Chartreuse. In 1793, the monks were expelled from France along with all other Religious Orders and manufacture of the liqueur ceased. A copy of the manuscript was kept at the Monastery.
The original left with the monks. On the way there, the monk was sent to prison in Bordeaux, he was not searched and was able to secretly pass the manuscript to one of his friends: Dom Basile Nantas. This friend was convinced that the order would remain in Spain and never come back and that the manufacturing of the liqueur would cease, he sold the manuscript to a pharmacist in Monsieur Liotard. In 1810, Napoleon ordered that all "secret" recipes of medicine be sent to the Ministry of Interior for review; the manuscript was returned as "Refused" as it was not a secret but well known. At the death of the pharmacist, his heirs returned the manuscript to the monks, back at the Monastery since 1816. In 1838, they developed Yellow Chartreuse, a sweeter version of the Green Chartreuse, 40% alcohol liqueur; the monks were again expelled from the monastery following a French law in 1903, their real property, including the distillery, was confiscated by the government. The monks took their secret recipe to their refuge in Tarragona and began producing their liqueurs with the same label, but with
An essential oil is a concentrated hydrophobic liquid containing volatile chemical compounds from plants. Essential oils are known as volatile oils, ethereal oils, aetherolea, or as the oil of the plant from which they were extracted, such as oil of clove. An essential oil is "essential" in the sense that it contains the "essence of" the plant's fragrance—the characteristic fragrance of the plant from which it is derived; the term essential used here does not mean indispensable as with the terms essential amino acid or essential fatty acid which are so called since they are nutritionally required by a given living organism. In contrast to fatty oils, essential oils evaporate without leaving a stain or residue. Essential oils are extracted by distillation by using steam. Other processes include expression, solvent extraction, absolute oil extraction, resin tapping, wax embedding, cold pressing, they are used in perfumes, cosmetics and other products, for flavoring food and drink, for adding scents to incense and household cleaning products.
Essential oils are used for aromatherapy, a form of alternative medicine in which healing effects are ascribed to aromatic compounds. Aromatherapy may be useful to induce relaxation, but there is not sufficient evidence that essential oils can treat any condition. Improper use of essential oils may cause harm including allergic reactions and skin irritation, children may be susceptible to the toxic effects of improper use. Essential oils have been used in folk medicine throughout history; the earliest recorded mention of the techniques and methods used to produce essential oils is believed to be that of Ibn al-Baitar, an Al-Andalusian physician and chemist. Rather than refer to essential oils themselves, modern works discuss specific chemical compounds of which the essential oils are composed. For example: methyl salicylate rather than "oil of wintergreen". Interest in essential oils has revived in recent decades with the popularity of aromatherapy, a branch of alternative medicine that uses essential oils and other aromatic compounds.
Oils are volatilized, diluted in a carrier oil and used in massage, diffused in the air by a nebulizer, heated over a candle flame, or burned as incense. Medical applications proposed by those who sell medicinal oils range from skin treatments to remedies for cancer and are based on historical accounts of use of essential oils for these purposes. Claims for the efficacy of medical treatments, treatment of cancers in particular, are now subject to regulation in most countries. Most common essential oils such as lavender, tea tree oil and eucalyptus are distilled. Raw plant material, consisting of the flowers, wood, roots, seeds, or peel, is put into an alembic over water; as the water is heated, the steam passes through the plant material, vaporizing the volatile compounds. The vapors flow through a coil, where they condense back to liquid, collected in the receiving vessel. Most oils are distilled in a single process. One exception is ylang-ylang, purifed through a fractional distillation; the recondensed water is referred to as a hydrosol, herbal distillate, or plant water essence, which may be sold as another fragrant product.
Hydrosols include rose water, lavender water, lemon balm, clary sage, orange blossom water. The use of herbal distillates in cosmetics is increasing. Most citrus peel oils are expressed cold-pressed. Due to the large quantities of oil in citrus peel and low cost to grow and harvest the raw materials, citrus-fruit oils are cheaper than most other essential oils. Lemon or sweet orange oils are obtained as byproducts of the citrus industry. Before the discovery of distillation, all essential oils were extracted by pressing. Most flowers contain too little volatile oil to undergo expression, but their chemical components are too delicate and denatured by the high heat used in steam distillation. Instead, a solvent such as hexane or supercritical carbon dioxide is used to extract the oils. Extracts from hexane and other hydrophobic solvents are called concretes, which are a mixture of essential oil, waxes and other lipophilic plant material. Although fragrant, concretes contain large quantities of non-fragrant waxes and resins.
Another solvent, such as ethyl alcohol, is used to extract the fragrant oil from the concrete. The alcohol solution is chilled to −18 °C for more than 48 hours which causes the waxes and lipids to precipitate out; the precipitates are filtered out and the ethanol is removed from the remaining solution by evaporation, vacuum purge, or both, leaving behind the absolute. Supercritical carbon dioxide is used as a solvent in supercritical fluid extraction; this method can avoid petrochemical residues in the product and the loss of some "top notes" when steam distillation is used. It does not yield an absolute directly; the supercritical carbon dioxide will extract both the waxes and the essential oils that make up the concrete. Subsequent processing with liquid carbon dioxide, achieved in the same extractor by lowering the extraction temperature, will separate the waxes from the essential oils; this lower temperature process prevents the denaturing of compounds. When the extraction is complete, the pressure is reduced to ambient and the carbon dioxide reverts to a gas, leaving no residue.
Florasol is another solvent used to obtain essential oils. It was developed as a refrigerant to replac
A liqueur is an alcoholic drink flavored variously by fruits, spices, nuts or cream combined with distilled spirits. Served with or after dessert, they are heavily sweetened and un-aged beyond a resting period during production, when necessary, for their flavors to mingle. Liqueurs are historical descendants of herbal medicines, they were made in Italy as early as the 13th century prepared by monks. Today they are produced the world over served straight, over ice, with coffee, in cocktails, used in cooking. In some areas of the United States and Canada liqueurs are referred to as cordials or schnapps, though the terms refer to different beverages elsewhere; the French word liqueur is derived from the Latin liquifacere, which means "to dissolve". In some parts of the United States and Canada, liqueurs may be referred to as schnapps; this can cause confusion as in the United Kingdom a cordial would refer to a non-alcoholic concentrated fruit syrup diluted to taste and consumed as a non-carbonated soft drink.
Schnapps, on the other hand, can refer to any distilled beverage in Germany and aquavit in Scandinavian countries. In the United States and Canada, where spirits are called "liquor", there is confusion discerning between liqueurs and liquors, due to the many different types of flavored spirits that are available today. Liqueurs contain a lower alcohol content than spirits and it has sweetener mixed, while some can have an ABV as high as 55%. Under the Food and Drug Regulations, liqueurs are produced from mixing alcohol with plant materials; these materials include juices or extracts from fruits, leaves or other plant materials. The extracts are obtained by filtering or softening the plant substances. A sweetening agent should be added in an amount, at least 2.5 percent of the finished liqueur. The alcohol percentage shall be at least 23%, it may contain natural or artificial flavouring and color. The Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau regulates liqueurs to Canada, requiring that alcohol be mixed with plant products and sweeteners be added to at least 2.5% by weight.
Some liqueurs are prepared by infusing certain woods, fruits, or flowers in either water or alcohol and adding sugar or other items. Others are distilled from flavoring agents. Anise and Rakı liqueurs have the property of turning from transparent to cloudy when added to water: the oil of anise remains in solution in the presence of a high concentration of alcohol, but crystallizes when the alcohol concentration is reduced. Liqueurs are sometimes mixed into cocktails to provide flavor. Layered drinks are made by floating different-colored liqueurs in separate layers; each liqueur is poured into a glass over the back of a spoon or down a glass rod, so that the liquids of different densities remain unmixed, creating a striped effect. The Liqueur Compounder's Handbook of Recipes for the Manufacture of Liqueurs, Alcoholic Cordials and Compounded Spirits. Bush, W. J. and Co. 1910. Kaustinen, E. M.. Production and stability of cream liqueurs made with whey protein concentrate. University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Liqueurs at The Cook's Thesaurus
Abruzzo is a region of Southern Italy with an area of 10,763 square km and a population of 1.2 million. It is divided into four provinces: L'Aquila, Teramo and Chieti, its western border lies 80 km east of Rome. Abruzzo borders the region of Marche to the north, Lazio to the west and south-west, Molise to the south-east, the Adriatic Sea to the east. Geographically, Abruzzo is divided into a mountainous area in the west, which includes the Gran Sasso d'Italia, a coastal area in the east with beaches on the Adriatic Sea. Abruzzo is considered a region of Southern Italy in terms of its culture, language and economy, although geographically it may be considered central; the Italian Statistical Authority deems it to be part of Southern Italy because of Abruzzo's historic association with the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. Abruzzo is known as "the greenest region in Europe" as half of its territory, the largest in Europe, is set aside as national parks and protected nature reserves. There are three national parks, one regional park, 38 protected nature reserves.
These ensure the survival of 75% of Europe's living species, including rare species such as the small wading dotterel, the golden eagle, the Abruzzo chamois, the Apennine wolf and the Marsican brown bear. Abruzzo is home to Calderone, Europe's southernmost glacier; the visiting nineteenth-century Italian diplomat and journalist Primo Levi said that the adjectives "forte e gentile" best describe the beauty of the region and the character of its people. "Forte e gentile" has since become the motto of its inhabitants. Abruzzo is divided into four administrative provinces: Human settlements in Abruzzo have existed since at least the Neolithic times. A skeleton from Lama dei Peligni in the province of Chieti dates back to 6,540 BC under radiometric dating; the name Abruzzo appears to be derivative of the Latin word "Aprutium". In Roman times, the region was known as Picenum, Sabina et Samnium, Flaminia et Picenum, Campania et Samnium; the region was known as Aprutium in the Middle Ages, arising from four possible sources: it is a combination of Praetutium, or rather of the name of the people Praetutii, applied to their chief city, the old Teramo.
Many cities in Abruzzo date back to ancient times. Corfinio was known as Corfinium when it was the chief city of the Paeligni, was renamed Pentima by the Romans. Chieti is built on the site of the ancient city of Teate, Atri was known as Adria. Teramo, known variously in ancient times as Interamnia and Teramne, has Roman ruins which attract tourists. After the fall of the Roman Empire, there were a string of invasions and rulers in the region, including the Lombards, Byzantines and Hungarians. Between the 9th and 12th centuries, the region was dominated by the popes. Subsequently, the Normans took over, Abruzzo became part of the Kingdom of Sicily the Kingdom of Naples. Spain ruled the kingdom from the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries; the French Bourbon dynasty took over in 1815, establishing the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, ruled until Italian unification in 1860. Until 1963, Abruzzo was part of the Abruzzi region with Molise; the term Abruzzi derives from the time. The territory was administered as Abruzzo Citeriore and Abruzzo Ulteriore I and II from Naples, the capital of the kingdom.
Abruzzo Citeriore is now Chieti province. Teramo and Pescara provinces now comprise what was Abruzzo Ulteriore I. Abruzzo Ulteriore II is now the province of L'Aquila. In the twentieth century, war had a great impact on the region. During the Second World War, Abruzzo was on the Gustav Line, part of the German's Winter Line. One of the most brutal battles was the Battle of Ortona. Abruzzo was the location of two prisoner of war camps, Campo 21 in Chieti, Campo 78 in Sulmona; the Sulmona camp served as a POW camp in World War 1. Geographically, Abruzzo is located in central Italy and southern Italy, stretching from the heart of the Apennines to the Adriatic Sea, includes mountainous and wild land; the mountainous land is occupied by a vast plateau, including Gran Sasso, at 2,912 metres the highest peak of the Apennines, Mount Majella at 2,793 metres. The Adriatic coastline is characterized by long sandy beaches to the North and pebbly beaches to the South. Abruzzo is well known for its landscapes and natural environment and nature reserves, characteristic hillside areas rich in vineyards and olive groves, one of the highest densities of Blue Flag beaches.
The Abruzzo region has two types of climate that are influenced by the Apennine Mountains, dividing the climate of the coastal and sub-Apennine hills from the interior's high mountain ranges. Coastal areas have a Mediterranean climate with hot dry summers and mild winters and rainy hills with a sublittoral climate where temperatures decrease progressively with increasing altitude and precipitation with altitude. Precipitation is strongly affected by the presence of the Apennines mountain ridges of the region; the Adriatic coast are sidelined rainfall from the west to the barrier effect of the Apennines undergoing the action of gentle winds descending from it. The minimum annual rainfall, however, is found in some inland vall
Amaro is an Italian herbal liqueur, consumed as an after-dinner digestif. It has a bitter-sweet flavour, sometimes syrupy, has an alcohol content between 16% and 40%. Similar liqueurs have traditionally been produced throughout Europe. There are local varieties in Germany, in Hungary, the Netherlands, France, but the term amaro is applied only to Italian products of this kind. Amaro is produced by macerating herbs, flowers, and/or citrus peels in alcohol, either neutral spirits or wine, mixing the filtrate with sugar syrup, allowing the mixture to age in casks or bottles. Dozens of varieties are commercially produced, the most available of which are Padre Peppe, Ramazzotti and Montenegro. Many commercial bottlers trace their production to the 19th century. Recipes originated in monasteries or pharmacies. Amaro is drunk neat, sometimes with a citrus wedge, it may be drunk on ice or with tonic water. Amaro should not be confused with amaretto, another Italian liqueur, sweet and traditionally flavoured with the pits of apricot or other drupe fruits such as almonds.
Nor should it be confused with amarone, a rich Italian dry red wine from Valpolicella. Amaro is flavoured with several roots; some producers list their ingredients in detail on the bottle label. Herbs used for flavouring may include any of the following: gentian, cardoon, lemon balm, lemon verbena, anise, zedoary, mint, sage, bay laurel, citrus peels, cinnamon, cardamom, rue and elderflowers. Medium — 32% alcohol by volume, with an balance between bitter and citrus tastes. Examples of this type are Montenegro, Averna, Luxardo Amaro Abano, Amaro Bio. Fernet — more bitter than other amari. Examples include Fernet Stock, Luxardo Fernet, Amaro Santa Maria Al Monte. Light — Lighter in colour than others with more citrus notes. Examples include Amaro Florio, Amaro del Capo. Alpine — flavoured with'alpine' herbs, sometimes with a smokey taste around 17% alcohol content. Examples include Amaro Zara, Amaro Braulio. Vermouth — Unlike other amaros, which are made from grain-based alcohol, vermouth amaro is wine-based.
It is sweeter with more citrus, closely resembles the aperitif vermouth. Examples are Amaro Don Bairo, Amaro Diesus del Frate. Carciofo — made with artichoke around 17% alcohol content; these amari are taken as an aperitif, rather than a digestif. Examples include Carciofo. Tartufo — made with black truffles, bottled at 30% alcohol. Amari of this type are produced in the central Italian region of Umbria, known for its truffles, as well as in San Marino. China — made with bark of Cinchona calisaya; the oldest and most popular brand is China Martini, based in Turin. Rabarbaro — made with rhubarb; the oldest and most popular brand is Zucca, based in Milan. Miscellaneous -- made with fennel, or unripe green walnuts; the following is a list of some of the notable commercial brands: Amer Picon
Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
The Maiella is a massif in the Central Apennines, in Abruzzo, central Italy. The mountain is located at the boundary between the provinces of Pescara and L'Aquila; the highest peak is Monte Amaro at the second highest of the entire Apennine range. The massif is at the center of the Maiella National Park; the Maiella is formed by a compact limestone massif, on which summit are the highest peaks in the group: Monte Amaro 2,793 m, Monte Acquaviva 2,737 m, Monte Focalone 2,676 m, Monte Rotondo 2,656 m, Monte Macellaro 2,646 m, Pesco Falcone 2,546 m, Cima delle Murelle 2,598 m. A further peak is the Blockhaus, sometimes used as the finish of a stage of the Giro d'Italia cycling race. Vast plateaus are present up to 2,500 m; the slopes are characterized by steep valleys and gorges, carved out by rivers such as the Orfento, the Foro and others. Nearby are the Monte Morrone, Monte Porrara and Monti Pizzi groups; the Maiella includes an iced waterfall, known as Il Principiante, located at 1,600 meters and having a height of 25 meters.
The area of the Montagna della Maiella has been subject to a major international geoscientific research Project, TaskForceMajella from 1998 up to 2005. The Maiella the Blockhaus peak, is a popular ride for amateur cyclists and is sometimes used for a stage of the Giro d'Italia; the first use by the race was in 1967. Merckx subsequently went on to establish a cycle manufacturing company and named one of his cycles after the Blockhaus. Subsequent Blockhaus stage victors were Franco Bitossi, José Manuel Fuente, Moreno Argentin, Ivan Basso, Franco Pellizotti; the most recent inclusion of the Blockhaus on the Giro d'Italia was on 14 May, 2017, when the stage was won by the Colombian rider Nairo Quintana. List of European ultra prominent peaks Media related to Majella at Wikimedia Commons