The Djiboutian franc is the currency of Djibouti. Its ISO 4217 currency code is DJF, it was subdivided into 100 centimes. From 1884, when the French Somaliland protectorate was established, the French franc circulated alongside the Indian rupee and the Maria Theresa thaler; these coexisted with 2 francs = 1 rupee and 4.2 francs = 1 Maria Theresa thaler. From 1908, francs circulating in Djibouti were fixed at the value of the French franc. Starting in 1910, banknotes were issued for the colony by the Bank of Indochina. Chamber of Commerce paper money and tokens were issued between 1919 and 1922. In 1948, the first coins were issued for use in Djibouti, in the name of the "Côte Française des Somalis". In 1949, an independent Djiboutian franc came into being when the local currency was pegged to the US dollar at a rate of 214.392 francs = 1 dollar. This was the value which the French franc had had under the Bretton Woods system until a few months before; the Djiboutian economy was not affected by the further devaluations of the French franc.
In 1952, the Public Treasury took over the production of paper money. French Somaliland's change of name in 1967 to the French Territory of the Afars and the Issas was reflected on both the territory's coins and notes. In 1971 and 1973, the franc was revalued against the US dollar, first to a rate of 197.466 to the dollar 177.721, a rate, maintained since. A further change in coin and banknote design followed independence in 1977. Between 1920 and 1922, the Chamber of Commerce issued tokens struck in zinc, aluminium and aluminium-bronze in denominations of 5, 10, 25 and 50 centimes and 1 franc. Shapes included round and octagonal. In 1948, aluminium 1, 2 and 5 francs were introduced. Aluminium-bronze 20 francs were introduced in 1952, followed by 10 francs in 1965. Cupro-nickel 50 and 100 francs were introduced in 1970, with aluminium-bronze 500 francs added in 1989. From 2013, new coins of 250 francs were put in circulation to complement the other denominations. Between 1910 and 1915, banknotes were introduced in denominations of 20 and 100 francs.
Chamber of Commerce notes were introduced in 1919 in denominations of 5, 10 and 50 centimes and 1 franc. The decline in the value of the French franc following World War I caused 500 and 1000 franc banknotes to be introduced in 1927 and 1938, respectively. 10 franc notes were introduced in 1946. When the Public Treasury took over the production of paper money in 1952, the 5, 10 and 20 franc notes ceased production and 5000 franc notes were introduced. In 1970, the 50 and 100 franc notes were replaced by coins. In 1977, the National Bank took over production of banknotes; the only subsequent changes have been the introduction of 10,000 franc notes in 1984 and the replacement of the 500 franc note with a coin in 1989. Note: Rates obtained from these websites may contradict with pegged rate mentioned above Economy of Djibouti
A currency, in the most specific sense is money in any form when in use or circulation as a medium of exchange circulating banknotes and coins. A more general definition is that a currency is a system of money in common use for people in a nation. Under this definition, US dollars, pounds sterling, Australian dollars, European euros, Russian rubles and Indian Rupees are examples of currency; these various currencies are recognized as stores of value and are traded between nations in foreign exchange markets, which determine the relative values of the different currencies. Currencies in this sense are defined by governments, each type has limited boundaries of acceptance. Other definitions of the term "currency" are discussed in their respective synonymous articles banknote and money; the latter definition, pertaining to the currency systems of nations, is the topic of this article. Currencies can be classified into two monetary systems: fiat money and commodity money, depending on what guarantees the currency's value.
Some currencies are legal tender in certain political jurisdictions. Others are traded for their economic value. Digital currency has arisen with the popularity of the Internet. Money was a form of receipt, representing grain stored in temple granaries in Sumer in ancient Mesopotamia and in Ancient Egypt. In this first stage of currency, metals were used as symbols to represent value stored in the form of commodities; this formed the basis of trade in the Fertile Crescent for over 1500 years. However, the collapse of the Near Eastern trading system pointed to a flaw: in an era where there was no place, safe to store value, the value of a circulating medium could only be as sound as the forces that defended that store. A trade could only reach as far as the credibility of that military. By the late Bronze Age, however, a series of treaties had established safe passage for merchants around the Eastern Mediterranean, spreading from Minoan Crete and Mycenae in the northwest to Elam and Bahrain in the southeast.
It is not known what was used as a currency for these exchanges, but it is thought that ox-hide shaped ingots of copper, produced in Cyprus, may have functioned as a currency. It is thought that the increase in piracy and raiding associated with the Bronze Age collapse produced by the Peoples of the Sea, brought the trading system of oxhide ingots to an end, it was only the recovery of Phoenician trade in the 10th and 9th centuries BC that led to a return to prosperity, the appearance of real coinage first in Anatolia with Croesus of Lydia and subsequently with the Greeks and Persians. In Africa, many forms of value store have been used, including beads, ivory, various forms of weapons, the manilla currency, ochre and other earth oxides; the manilla rings of West Africa were one of the currencies used from the 15th century onwards to sell slaves. African currency is still notable for its variety, in many places, various forms of barter still apply; these factors led to the metal itself being the store of value: first silver both silver and gold, at one point bronze.
Now we have other non-precious metals as coins. Metals were mined and stamped into coins; this was to assure the individual accepting the coin that he was getting a certain known weight of precious metal. Coins could be counterfeited, but the existence of standard coins created a new unit of account, which helped lead to banking. Archimedes' principle provided the next link: coins could now be tested for their fine weight of metal, thus the value of a coin could be determined if it had been shaved, debased or otherwise tampered with. Most major economies using coinage had several tiers of coins of different values, made of copper and gold. Gold coins were the most valuable and were used for large purchases, payment of the military and backing of state activities. Units of account were defined as the value of a particular type of gold coin. Silver coins were used for midsized transactions, sometimes defined a unit of account, while coins of copper or silver, or some mixture of them, might be used for everyday transactions.
This system had been used in ancient India since the time of the Mahajanapadas. The exact ratios between the values of the three metals varied between different eras and places. However, the rarity of gold made it more valuable than silver, silver was worth more than copper. In premodern China, the need for credit and for a medium of exchange, less physically cumbersome than large numbers of copper coins led to the introduction of paper money, i.e. banknotes. Their introduction was a gradual process which lasted from the late Tang dynasty into the Song dynasty, it began as a means for merchants to exchange heavy coinage for receipts of deposit issued as promissory notes by wholesalers' shops. These notes were valid for temporary use in a small regional territory. In the 10th century, the Song dynasty government began to circulate these notes amongst the traders in its monopolized salt industry; the Song government granted several shops the right to issue banknotes, in the early 12th century the government took over these shops to produce state-issued currency.
Yet the banknotes issued w
Geographical distribution of French speakers
This article details the geographical distribution of speakers of the French language, regardless of the legislative status within the countries where it is spoken. French-based creoles are considered separate languages for the purpose of this article. French became an international language in the Middle Ages, when the power of the Kingdom of France made it the second international language, alongside Latin; this status continued to grow into the 18th century, by which time French was the language of European courts and diplomacy. The importance of French began to wane in the early 20th century, when the spread of English due to the British Empire and the rise of the English-speaking United States to superpower status eroding its place as the language of diplomacy. According to a 2014 estimate by the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, 274 million people worldwide can speak French, of which 212 million use the language daily, while the remaining 62 million have learnt it as a foreign language.
Despite a decline in the number of learners of French in Europe, the overall number of speakers is rising because of its presence in high-fertility African countries: of the 212 million who use French daily, 54.7% are living in Africa. The following figures are from a 2018 report of the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie. No distinctions are made between native speakers of French and those who learnt it as a foreign language, between different levels of mastery or how the language is used in daily life. For African countries where French is the main language of education, the number of French speakers is derived from the average number of schooling years, it is estimated that 80 million people worldwide speak French as a first language. From the second half of the 19th century to the first half of the 20th century, Argentina received the second largest group of French immigrants worldwide, second only to the United States. Between 1857 and 1946 Argentina received 239,503 French immigrants - of whom 105,537 permanently settled in the country.
In 1976 116,032 were settled in Argentina. France was the third source of immigration to Argentina before 1890, constituting over 10% of immigrants, only surpassed by Italians and Spaniards. Today more than 6 million Argentines have some degree of French ancestry, many of them French-speakers; the anti-Portuguese factor of Brazilian nationalism in the 19th century led to an increased use of the French language to the detriment of Portuguese, as France was seen at the time as a model of civilization and progress. The learning of French has been important and strong among the Lusophone high societies, for a great span of time it was the foreign language of choice among the middle class of both Portugal and Brazil, only surpassed in the globalised postmodernity by English, in both, more by Spanish, in the latter. French is the second most common language in Canada, after English, both are official languages at the federal level. French is the sole official language in the province of Quebec, being the mother tongue for some 7 million people, or 80.1% of the province.
About 95 % of the people of Quebec speak French as either a second language. New Brunswick and Manitoba are the only bilingual provinces, though full bilingualism is enacted only in New Brunswick, where about one third of the population is Francophone. French is an official language of all of the territories. Out of the three, Yukon has the most French speakers, comprising just under 4% of the population. About 6,827,860 Canadians speak French as their first language, or around 20% of the country, with 2,065,300 constituting secondary speakers. Bilingualism with French has been declining in English Canada in recent years. French language is spoken in the overseas departments of French Guiana and the French Antilles, including Guadeloupe and the islands attached to Guadeloupe. There are over a million people living in these collectivities. French Creoles are spoken on the islands of Dominica and St. Lucia. French is one of two official languages of Haiti, together with Haitian Creole, French-based.
French is the language of culture and business in Haiti, the main language of institutions. French is used most by the middle class. Attempts to increase the legitimacy of Creole as an official language and in the media, on radio and television in particular, led to a relative decline in the share of French usage. Most teachers of French suffer from a low level of skills in the language, with nearly 85% achieving a level between A2 and B1 in the Test de connaissance du français in 2009. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, French is the fourth most-spoken language in the United States after English and Chinese, when all forms of French are considered together and all languages of Chinese are combined. French remains the second most-spoken language in the states of Louisiana, Maine and New Hampshire. Louisiana is home to many distinct dialects, collectively known as Louisiana French. Cajun French has the largest number of speakers living in Acadiana. According to the 2000 United States Census, there are over 194,000 people in Louisiana who speak French at home, the most of any state if Louisiana Creole is excluded.
New England French a variant of Canadian French, is spoken in parts of New England. Missouri French, Muskrat French and Métis French were spoken by descendants of habitants and coureurs des bois in various parts of New France, but are now endangered languagess. In Myanmar, French is gaining popularity amongst university stud
Switzerland the Swiss Confederation, is a country situated in western and southern Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities; the sovereign state is a federal republic bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2. While the Alps occupy the greater part of the territory, the Swiss population of 8.5 million people is concentrated on the plateau, where the largest cities are to be found: among them are the two global cities and economic centres Zürich and Geneva. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the late medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria and Burgundy. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648; the country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation.
It pursues an active foreign policy and is involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to numerous international organisations, including the second largest UN office. On the European level, it is a founding member of the European Free Trade Association, but notably not part of the European Union, the European Economic Area or the Eurozone. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties. Spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions: German, French and Romansh. Although the majority of the population are German-speaking, Swiss national identity is rooted in a common historical background, shared values such as federalism and direct democracy, Alpine symbolism. Due to its linguistic diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names: Schweiz. On coins and stamps, the Latin name – shortened to "Helvetia" – is used instead of the four national languages.
Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Switzerland ranks at or near the top globally in several metrics of national performance, including government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic competitiveness and human development. Zürich and Basel have all three been ranked among the top ten cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the first ranked second globally, according to Mercer in 2018; the English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, an obsolete term for the Swiss, in use during the 16th to 19th centuries. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse in use since the 16th century; the name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, one of the Waldstätten cantons which formed the nucleus of the Old Swiss Confederacy. The Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for "Confederates", used since the 14th century.
The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes perhaps related to swedan ‘to burn’, referring to the area of forest, burned and cleared to build; the name was extended to the area dominated by the canton, after the Swabian War of 1499 came to be used for the entire Confederation. The Swiss German name of the country, Schwiiz, is homophonous to that of the canton and the settlement, but distinguished by the use of the definite article; the Latin name Confoederatio Helvetica was neologized and introduced after the formation of the federal state in 1848, harking back to the Napoleonic Helvetic Republic, appearing on coins from 1879, inscribed on the Federal Palace in 1902 and after 1948 used in the official seal.. Helvetica is derived from the Helvetii, a Gaulish tribe living on the Swiss plateau before the Roman era. Helvetia appears as a national personification of the Swiss confederacy in the 17th century with a 1672 play by Johann Caspar Weissenbach.
Switzerland has existed as a state in its present form since the adoption of the Swiss Federal Constitution in 1848. The precursors of Switzerland established a protective alliance at the end of the 13th century, forming a loose confederation of states which persisted for centuries; the oldest traces of hominid existence in Switzerland date back about 150,000 years. The oldest known farming settlements in Switzerland, which were found at Gächlingen, have been dated to around 5300 BC; the earliest known cultural tribes of the area were members of the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures, named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel. La Tène culture developed and flourished during the late Iron Age from around 450 BC under some influence from the Gree
Algeria the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa. The capital and most populous city is Algiers, located in the far north of the country on the Mediterranean coast. With an area of 2,381,741 square kilometres, Algeria is the tenth-largest country in the world, the world's largest Arab country, the largest in Africa. Algeria is bordered to the northeast by Tunisia, to the east by Libya, to the west by Morocco, to the southwest by the Western Saharan territory and Mali, to the southeast by Niger, to the north by the Mediterranean Sea; the country is a semi-presidential republic consisting of 1,541 communes. It has the highest human development index of all non-island African countries. Ancient Algeria has known many empires and dynasties, including ancient Numidians, Carthaginians, Vandals, Umayyads, Idrisid, Rustamid, Zirid, Almoravids, Spaniards and the French colonial empire. Berbers are the indigenous inhabitants of Algeria. Algeria is a middle power.
It supplies large amounts of natural gas to Europe, energy exports are the backbone of the economy. According to OPEC Algeria has the 16th largest oil reserves in the world and the second largest in Africa, while it has the 9th largest reserves of natural gas. Sonatrach, the national oil company, is the largest company in Africa. Algeria has one of the largest defence budget on the continent. Algeria is a member of the African Union, the Arab League, OPEC, the United Nations and is a founding member of the Arab Maghreb Union. On 2 April 2019, president Abdelaziz Bouteflika resigned after nearly 20 years in power, following pressure from the country’s army after mass protests against Bouteflika's campaign for a fifth term; the country's name derives from the city of Algiers. The city's name in turn derives from the Arabic al-Jazā'ir, a truncated form of the older Jazā'ir Banī Mazghanna, employed by medieval geographers such as al-Idrisi. In the region of Ain Hanech, early remnants of hominid occupation in North Africa were found.
Neanderthal tool makers produced hand axes in the Levalloisian and Mousterian styles similar to those in the Levant. Algeria was the site of the highest state of development of Middle Paleolithic Flake tool techniques. Tools of this era, starting about 30,000 BC, are called Aterian; the earliest blade industries in North Africa are called Iberomaurusian. This industry appears to have spread throughout the coastal regions of the Maghreb between 15,000 and 10,000 BC. Neolithic civilization developed in the Saharan and Mediterranean Maghreb as early as 11,000 BC or as late as between 6000 and 2000 BC; this life, richly depicted in the Tassili n'Ajjer paintings, predominated in Algeria until the classical period. The mixture of peoples of North Africa coalesced into a distinct native population that came to be called Berbers, who are the indigenous peoples of northern Africa. From their principal center of power at Carthage, the Carthaginians expanded and established small settlements along the North African coast.
These settlements served as market towns as well as anchorages. As Carthaginian power grew, its impact on the indigenous population increased dramatically. Berber civilization was at a stage in which agriculture, manufacturing and political organization supported several states. Trade links between Carthage and the Berbers in the interior grew, but territorial expansion resulted in the enslavement or military recruitment of some Berbers and in the extraction of tribute from others. By the early 4th century BC, Berbers formed the single largest element of the Carthaginian army. In the Revolt of the Mercenaries, Berber soldiers rebelled from 241 to 238 BC after being unpaid following the defeat of Carthage in the First Punic War, they succeeded in obtaining control of much of Carthage's North African territory, they minted coins bearing the name Libyan, used in Greek to describe natives of North Africa. The Carthaginian state declined because of successive defeats by the Romans in the Punic Wars.
In 146 BC the city of Carthage was destroyed. As Carthaginian power waned, the influence of Berber leaders in the hinterland grew. By the 2nd century BC, several large but loosely administered Berber kingdoms had emerged. Two of them were established behind the coastal areas controlled by Carthage. West of Numidia lay Mauretania, which extended across the Moulouya River in modern-day Morocco to the Atlantic Ocean; the high point of Berber civilization, unequaled until the coming of the Almohads and Almoravids more than a millennium was reached during the reign of Masinissa in the 2nd century BC. After Masinissa's death in 148 BC, the Berber kingdoms were reunited several times. Masinissa's line survived until 24 AD, when the remaining Berber territory was annexed to the Roman Empire. For several centuries Algeria was ruled by the Romans. Like the rest of No
The Belgian franc was the currency of the Kingdom of Belgium from 1832 until 2002 when the Euro was introduced. It was subdivided into 100 subunits, known as centiemen, centimes or Centime; the conquest of most of western Europe by revolutionary and Napoleonic France led to the French franc's wide circulation. In the Austrian Netherlands, the franc replaced the kronenthaler; this was in turn replaced by the Dutch guilder when the United Kingdom of the Netherlands was formed. Following independence from the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the new Kingdom of Belgium in 1832 adopted its own franc, equivalent to the French franc, followed by Luxembourg in 1848 and Switzerland in 1850. Belgian mint working during the late 19th century was innovative and Belgium was the first country to introduce coins made of cupronickel, in 1860. In 1865, France and Italy created the Latin Monetary Union: each would possess a national currency unit worth 4.5 g of silver or 290.322 mg of fine gold, all exchangeable at a rate of 1:1.
In the 1870s the gold value was made the fixed standard, a situation, to continue until 1914. In 1926, Belgium, as well as France, experienced depreciation and an abrupt collapse of confidence, leading to the introduction of a new gold currency for international transactions, the Belga worth 5 francs, the country's withdrawal from the monetary union, which ceased to exist at the end of the year; the Belga was tied to the British pound at a rate of 35 belgas = 1 pound and was thus put on a gold standard of 1 Belga = 209.211 mg fine gold. The 1921 monetary union of Belgium and Luxembourg survived, forming the basis for full economic union in 1932. In 1935, the Belgian franc was devalued by 28% to 150.632 mg fine gold and the link between the Luxembourg and Belgian francs was revised to 1 Luxembourgish franc = 1 1⁄4 Belgian francs. Following Belgium's occupation by Germany in May 1940, the franc was fixed at a value of 0.1 Reichsmark, reduced to 0.08 Reichsmark in July 1940. Following liberation in 1944, the franc entered into the Bretton Woods system, with an initial exchange rate of 43.77 francs = US dollar set on 5 October.
This was changed to 43.8275 in 1946 and to 50 following the devaluation of the British pound in September 1949. The Belgian franc was devaluated again in 1982. Like 10 other European currencies, the Belgian/Luxembourgish franc ceased to exist on 1 January 1999, when it became fixed at 1 EUR= 40.3399 BEF/LUF, thus a franc was worth € 0.024789. Old franc coins and notes lost their legal tender status on 28 February 2002. Though it is a tringual country with three official languages, Belgian coins only shown both French and Flemish Dutch text, sometimes one or the other depending on the type or time period to represent which region the coin is meant to represent. In 20th century issues, the text is without exception divided between two types of coins, with Flemish issues reading "België" and "Frank," and French issues reading "Belgique" and "Franc." The currency was monolingual in French. From 1886, some Belgian coins carried the Dutch language legends; some coins featured inscriptions in both languages.
When the two languages appeared on either side of the same face of a coin, two versions were still produced: one with Dutch to the left and French to the right, one with the alternate arrangement. Banknotes became bilingual in 1887 and, from 1992, banknotes were introduced which were trilingual, with either French or Dutch on the obverse and German and the remaining language on the reverse; some commemorative coins were issued with German inscriptions but none for circulation. The Franc's value compared to the US dollar varied over the years. After 1971, its lowest mark was in February 1985, its highest standing was in July 1980. After 1 January 1999, the rates are calculated from the Francs fixed conversion rate to the Euro. Between 1832 and 1834, copper 1, 2, 5 and 10 centime, silver 1⁄4, 1⁄2, 1, 2 and 5 franc, gold 20 and 40 franc coins were introduced; some of the early 1 and 2 centimes were struck over 1 cent coins. The 40 franc was not issued after 1841, whilst silver 2 1⁄2 francs and gold 10 and 25 francs were issued between 1848 and 1850.
Silver 20 centimes replaced the 1⁄4 franc in 1852. In 1860, cupro-nickel 20 centimes were introduced, followed by cupro-nickel 5 and 10 centimes in 1861; the silver 5 franc was discontinued in 1876. Between 1901 and 1908, cupro-nickel 5, 10 and 25 centime coins were introduced. In 1914, production of the 1 centime and all silver and gold coins ceased. Zinc 5, 10 and 25 centimes were introduced in the German occupied zone, followed by holed, zinc 50 centimes in 1918. Production of 2 centimes ended in 1919. In 1922 and 1923, nickel 50 centime and 1 and 2 franc coins were introduced bearing the text "Good For"; these featured the god Mercury. Nickel-brass replaced cupro-nickel in the 5 and 10 centimes in 1930, followed by the 25 centime in 1938. Nickel 5 and 20 francs were introduced in 1930 and 1931 followed by silver 20 francs in 1933 and 50 francs in 1939. In 1938 the 5 franc was reduced in size and redesigned along with the 1 franc to depict a lion and heraldic arms; as a consequence of the German occupation in 1940, the silver coinage was discontinued.
In 1941, zinc replaced all other metals in the 5, 10 and 25 centimes, 1 and 5 francs. In 1944 the Allies minted 25 million 2 franc coins at the Philadelphia Mint using leftover planchets for the 1943
The peseta was the currency of Spain between 1868 and 2002. Along with the French franc, it was a de facto currency used in Andorra; the name of the currency comes from pesseta, the diminutive form of the word peça, a Catalan word that means piece or fraction. The first non-official coins which contained the word "peseta" were made in 1808 in Barcelona. Traditionally, there was never a single symbol or special character for the Spanish peseta. Common abbreviations were "Pt", "Pta", "Pts" and "Ptas", sometimes using superior letters: "Ptas". Common earlier Spanish models of mechanical typewriters had the expression "Pts" on a single type head, as a shorthand intended to fill a single type space in tables instead of three. Spanish models of IBM electric typewriters included the same type in its repertoire; when the first IBM PC was designed in 1980, it included a "peseta symbol" "Pts" in the ROM of the Monochrome Display Adapter and Color Graphics Adapter video output cards' hardware, with the code number 158.
This original character set chart became the MS-DOS code page 437. Some spreadsheet software for PC under MS-DOS, as Lotus 1-2-3, employed this character as the peseta symbol in their Spanish editions. Subsequent international MS-DOS code pages, like code page 850 and others, deprecated this character in favour of some other national characters. In order to guarantee the interchange with previous encodings such as code page 437, the international standard Unicode includes this character as U+20A7 PESETA SIGN in its Currency Symbols block. Other than that, the use of the "peseta symbol" standalone is rare, has been outdated since the adoption of the euro in Spain. In the version 1.0 of Unicode the character ₧ U+20A7 PESETA SIGN had two reference glyphs: a "Pts" ligature glyph as in IBM code page 437 and an erroneous P with stroke. In Unicode 2.0 the reference glyph P with stroke was erroneously displayed as the only symbol for peseta and was latter corrected to the Pts ligature and a separate character code was added for the peso sign.
The peseta was subdivided into 100 céntimos or, informally, 4 reales. The last coin of any value under one peseta was a 50-céntimo coin issued in 1980 to celebrate Spain's hosting of the 1982 FIFA World Cup; the last 25-céntimo coin was dated 1959, the ten céntimos dated 1959. The 1-céntimo coin was last minted in 1913 and featured King Alfonso XIII; the 1⁄2-céntimo coin was last minted in 1868 and featured Queen Isabel II. The peseta was introduced in 1868, at a time when Spain was considering joining the Latin Monetary Union, it replaced the old Spanish peso currency. Spain decided not to formally join the LMU, although it did achieve alignment with the bloc; the Spanish Law of June 26, 1864 decreed that in preparation for joining the Latin Monetary Union, the peseta became a subdivision of the peso with 1 peso duro = 5 pesetas. The peseta replaced the escudo at a rate of 5 pesetas = 1 peso duro = 2 escudos; the peseta was equal to 4.5 grams of silver, or 0.290322 grams of gold, the standard used by all the currencies of the Latin Monetary Union.
From 1873, only the gold standard applied. The political turbulence of the early twentieth century caused the monetary union to break up, although it was not until 1927 that it ended. In 1959, Spain became part of the Bretton Woods System, pegging the peseta at a value of 60 pesetas = 1 U. S. dollar. In 1967, the peseta followed the devaluation of the British pound, maintaining the exchange rate of 168 pesetas = 1 pound and establishing a new rate of 70 pesetas = 1 U. S. dollar. The peseta was replaced by the euro in 2002, following the establishment of the euro in 1999; the exchange rate was 1 euro = 166.386 pesetas. At least 1252–1284 there was a 1 obolo brass coin – plated with silver – stamped. Colnect shows a first 1 Maravedí-coin made of copper having been edited since 1454; the bigger silver coin 1 Real came out 1786. The latter two currency units were used until the Peseta came in 1868. Note: From 1868 to 1982, a unique dating system for Spanish coins was employed; this would be adopted and sometimes abandoned intermittently during various times, continued through to be used through the first years of the Juan Carlos I reign.
Although a common "authorization date" will be found on all coins of this period on the obverse of each coin, the actual date for many coins can be found inside a small six pointed star on the reverse of each coin, but sometimes the front. Therefore, the obverse date does not always reflect the actual date of mintage but rather a restriking off of older obverse coin die designs. So, if the coin date shows 1959 up front but a tiny "64" is depicted in the six pointed star on the back the actual date of issue is in fact 1964 rather than the date depicted in front; this dating system would be abandoned in the early 1980s anticipating a one by one redesign of each coin denomination. No coins were issued by the short lived First Republic. In 1869 and 1870, coins were introduced in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 and 50 céntimos, 1, 2 and 5 pesetas; the lowest four denominations were struck in copper, with the 20, 50 céntimos, 1 and 2 pesetas struck in.835 silver and the 5 pesetas struck in.900 silver.
5 and 10 céntimos coins were nicknamed as perra chica and perra gorda as people were unable to recognize the shape of the lion in them, mistaking it for a dog. The 5-peseta coin was nicknamed duro. 5-peseta coins were called duros by every gene