Push–pull technology is a strategy for controlling agricultural pests by using repellent "push" plants and trap "pull" plants. For example, cereal crops like maize or sorghum are infested by stem borers. Grasses planted around the perimeter of the crop attract and trap the pests, whereas other plants, like Desmodium, planted between the rows of maize, repel the pests and control the parasitic plant Striga. Push–pull technology was developed at the International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology in Kenya in collaboration with Rothamsted Research, UK. and national partners. Research and development for the push-pull strategy was funded by a number of partners including the Gatsby Charitable Foundation of the UK, the Rockefeller Foundation, the UK’s Department for International Development, the Global Environment Facility of the UNEP, among others. Additionally, research conducted jointly by the International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology and Rothamsted Research helped to identify effective companion plants to be used with this strategy and provided empirical evidence of the efficacy of push-pull pest management technology.
This technology has further been taught to smallholder farmers through collaborations with universities, NGOs and national research organizations. The approach relies on a combination of companion crops to be planted around and among maize or sorghum. Both domestic and wild grasses can help to protect the crops by attracting and trapping the stemborers; the grasses are planted in the border around the maize and sorghum fields where invading adult moths become attracted to chemicals emitted by the grasses themselves. Instead of landing on the maize or sorghum plants, the insects head for what appears to be a tastier meal; these grasses provide the "pull" in the "push–pull" strategy. They serve as a haven for the borers' natural enemies. Good trap crops include well-known grasses such as Sudan grass. Napier grass has a effective way of defending itself against the pests: once attacked by a borer larva, it secretes a sticky substance which physically traps the pest and limits its damage; the "push" in the intercropping scheme is provided by the plants that emit chemicals which repel stemborer moths and drive them away from the main crop.
The best candidates discovered so far with the repellent properties are species of leguminous genus Desmodium. Desmodium is planted in between the rows of sorghum. Being a low-growing plant, it does not interfere with the crops' growth and, has the advantage of maintaining soil stability, improving soil fertility through enhanced soil organic matter content and nitrogen fixation, it serves as a nutritious animal feed and suppresses striga weeds. Another plant showing good repellent properties is molasses grass, a nutritious animal feed with tick-repelling and stemborer larval parasitoid attractive properties. Push–pull technology involves use of behaviour-modifying stimuli to manipulate the distribution and abundance of stemborers and beneficial insects for management of stemborer pests, it is based on in-depth understanding of chemical ecology, plant-plant and insect-plant interactions, involves intercropping a cereal crop with a repellent intercrop such as Desmodium uncinatum, with an attractive trap plant such as Napier grass planted as a border crop around this intercrop.
Gravid stemborer females are repelled from the main crop and are attracted to the trap crop. Napier grass produces higher levels of attractive volatile compounds, cues used by gravid stemborer females to locate host plants, than maize or sorghum. There is an increase of 100-fold in the total amounts of these compounds produced in the first hour of nightfall by Napier grass, the period at which stemborer moths seek host plants for laying eggs, causing the differential oviposition preference. However, many of the stemborer larvae, about 80%, do not survive, as Napier grass tissues produce sticky sap in response to feeding by the larvae, which traps them, causing the death of about 80% of larvae. Legumes in the genus Desmodium, on the other hand, produce repellent volatile chemicals that push away the stemborer moths; these include -β-ocimene and -4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, semiochemicals produced during damage to plants by herbivorous insects, which are responsible for the repellence of Desmodium to stemborers.
Desmodium controls striga, resulting in significant yield increases of about 2 tonnes/hectare per cropping season. In the study of the mechanisms of striga suppression by D. uncinatum, it was found that, in addition to benefits derived from increased availability of nitrogen and soil shading, an allelopathic effect of root exudates of the legume, produced independently of the presence of striga, is responsible for this dramatic reduction in an intercrop with maize. Presence of blends of secondary metabolites with striga seed germination stimulatory, 4′′,5′′,-dihydro-5,2′,4′-trihydroxy-5′′,-isopropenylfurano--isoflavanone, postgermination inhibitory, 4′′,5′′-dihydro-2′-methoxy-5,4′-dihydroxy-5′′-isopropenylfurano- -isoflavanone, activities in the root exudates of D. uncinatum which directly interferes with parasitism was observed. Allelochemicals released by roots of the desmodium lead to suicidal germination, thus reducing the striga seed bank in the soil. Other Desmodium species have been evaluated and have similar effects on stemborers and striga weed and are being used as in
The Kia Mohave, marketed in North America and China as the Kia Borrego, is a sport utility vehicle manufactured by the South Korean manufacturer Kia Motors. The vehicle debuted in 2008 in the Korean and U. S. markets. The Kia Borrego is named after the Anza-Borrego Desert State Park in California; the production model, designed by automotive designer Peter Schreyer, former chief designer for Audi, was introduced at the 2008 North American International Auto Show. The vehicle was shown as a concept car under the Kia Mesa name at the 2005 North American International Auto Show and went on sale in Korea as the Mohave prior to its release in the United States. In the US, the Borrego went on hiatus for the 2010 model year, with no word on its return or cancellation, after lower than expected sales in 2009. Kia, still continued selling the Borrego in Canada, meaning the Borrego was a Canada-only nameplate from 2010-11; as of October 28, 2011, the model was discontinued with the Sorento as a successor, except the Middle East, Central Asia, Brazil and Russia.
It was dropped from the Chinese and Brazilian markets. The Borrego utilized body-on-frame construction, with adjustable air-suspension, hill-descent control and a high- and low-range automatic transmission; the Borrego has three standard rows of seats in the US. The Borrego is fitted with either the 3.0 L VGT diesel V6, second-generation Lambda II 3.8 L V6 producing 276 horsepower or the 4.6 L V8 Hyundai Tau engine. The Tau V8 is tuned to give less power but more torque than in the Hyundai Genesis sedan, creates 361 horsepower; the V8 has a towing capacity of 7,500 lb, the V6 is able to tow 5,000 lb. A navigation system was available as an option. 2011 introduced an upgraded engine and powertrain package, featuring an updated S-Line 3.0L V6 CRDi paired with an all-new eight-speed automatic transmission from Hyundai Powertech. The Kia Borrego was introduced as the largest SUV in Kia's lineup of vehicles in the U. S. in 2008. The lineup of the Borrego in the U. S. was as follows: The LX was the base Kia Borrego, though was well-equipped for its $26,245.00 MSRP base price.
It included such features as: cloth upholstery, keyless entry, AM/FM stereo with single-disc CD/MP3 player and USB/iPod and auxiliary audio input jacks and SIRIUS Satellite Radio, six speakers, air conditioning, alloy wheels, a 3.8L V6 engine with automatic transmission. Features such as a 4.6L V8 engine were optional. The EX was the uplevel version of the Kia Borrego, had a $27,995.00 MSRP base price, added features such as: an AM/FM stereo with six-disc in-dash CD/MP3 changer and USB/iPod and auxiliary audio input jacks and SIRIUS Satellite Radio, an Infinity premium sound system with external amplifier and rear-mounted subwoofer, a power sunroof, dual-zone climate controls. Features such as heated dual front bucket seats and a 4.6L V8 engine were optional. The Limited was the top-of-the-line version of the Kia Borrego, had a $37,995.00 MSRP base price, added features such as: a standard 4.6L V8 engine, leather seating surfaces, power dual front bucket seats, upgraded alloy wheels, heated dual front bucket seats, optional touch-screen GPS navigation with voice recognition, a Homelink transmitter.
Bluetooth hands-free telephone and wireless stereo audio streaming were optional for all models. After unsuccessful sales in the U. S. for 2009, the Kia Borrego was discontinued, its replacement, the all-new, second-generation 2011 Kia Sorento, began production in West Point, Georgia in 2010. Although it did not feature a V8 engine, it offered all the features the Kia Borrego had, including a new third-row seating option for all models except the Base model. Due to rising oil prices at the time, the 4.6L Tau V8 was dropped from the range in other markets. A facelift to the Mohave was launched in early 2016. Changes include improved safety as well as upgrades to exterior trim packages. New features such as rear-side warning system, lane departure warning system, forward collision warning system, around-view monitoring system, day-time running lights, HID-headlights, LED taillights and foglights; the S-Line V6 received a minor update, incorporating an SCR in order to meet with stringent EURO6 diesel emissions standards.
The Kia Borrego FCEV was a concept car produced by Hyundai-Kia and first shown at the 2008 Los Angeles Auto Show. The concept was based on a pre-facelift production Borrego and features a fuel cell putting out 154 horsepower, a companion super-capacitor rated at 450 volts and a 109kW electric motor driving through the front wheels; the Borrego FCEV has a range of 820 kilometres and can start in temperatures of −30 °C. A limited rollout had been scheduled as part of Kia's testing programme. Previewed during the 2019 Seoul Motor Show as the Masterpiece Concept, the second facelift Mohave was released in September 2019 for the 2020 model year. Available in the Korean market, the second facelift is a major overhaul to bring the Mohave in line with Kia's current product lineup. Retaining the original body-on-frame chassis plus an improved S-II engine and powertrain package from the previous model, the latest iteration benefits from features such as: a redesigned interior, heads-up display, full-LED headlights and LED taillights, electric tailgate, premium Lexicon-equipped sound system, the ability to select up to six driving modes (Snow, Mu