Population Reference Bureau
The Population Reference Bureau is a private, nonprofit organization that was founded in 1929. The organization specializes in collecting and supplying statistics necessary for research and/or academic purposes, the Population Reference Bureau was founded by Guy Burch. In the early 1930s, the organization shared office space with the Population Association of America and this association focuses its work around many aspects, such as reproductive health and fertility and families, global health and more. The Population Reference Bureau receives support from a number of foundations, non-governmental organizations, examples of such funding include the Annie E. Casey Foundation, the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, the United States Census Bureau, the organization partners with about 80 other organizations all around the world, in countries like Sudan and Uganda, to name a few. The Population Reference Bureau has many capabilities in providing information to all around the world regarding population, health.
The database provides scholarly articles about an assortment of topics, ranging from noncommunicable diseases and nutrition to the labor force, Population Association of America Institut national détudes démographiques Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research List of population concern organizations PRB. org – official website
Fixed exchange-rate system
There are benefits and risks to using a fixed exchange rate. In doing so, the rate between the currency and its peg does not change based on market conditions, the way floating currencies do. A fixed exchange-rate system can be used as a means to control the behavior of a currency, however, in doing so, the pegged currency is controlled by its reference value. In other words, a currency is dependent on its reference value to dictate how its current worth is defined at any given time. The central bank provides the assets and/or the foreign currency or currencies which are needed in order to any payments imbalances. In the 21st century, the associated with large economies typically do not fix or peg exchange rates to other currencies. The last large economy to use a fixed exchange system was the Peoples Republic of China which, in July 2005. The European Exchange Rate Mechanism is used on a basis to establish a final conversion rate against the Euro from the local currencies of countries joining the Eurozone.
The gold standard or gold standard of fixed exchange rates prevailed from about 1870 to 1914. The period between the two wars was transitory, with the Bretton Woods system emerging as the new fixed exchange rate regime in the aftermath of World War II. It was formed with an intent to rebuild war-ravaged nations after World War II through a series of currency stabilization programs, the early 1970s saw the breakdown of the system and its replacement by a mixture of fluctuating and fixed exchange rates. Timeline of the exchange rate system, The earliest establishment of a gold standard was in the United Kingdom in 1821 followed by Australia in 1852. Under this system, the value of all currencies was denominated in terms of gold with central banks ready to buy. Each central bank maintained gold reserves as their official reserve asset, for example, during the “classical” gold standard period, the U. S. dollar was defined as 0.048 troy oz. of pure gold. Following the Second World War, the Bretton Woods system replaced gold with the U. S. dollar as the reserve asset.
The regime intended to combine binding legal obligations with multilateral decision-making through the International Monetary Fund, the rules of this system were set forth in the articles of agreement of the IMF and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development. S. Dollar and to exchange rates within 1% of parity by intervening in their foreign exchange markets. In December 1971, the Smithsonian Agreement paved the way for the increase in the value of the price of gold from US$35.50 to US$38 an ounce
The CFA franc is the name of two currencies used in Africa which are guaranteed by the French treasury. The two CFA franc currencies are the West African CFA franc and the Central African CFA franc, although theoretically separate, the two CFA franc currencies are effectively interchangeable. Both CFA francs have an exchange rate to the euro,100 CFA francs =1 former French franc =0.152449 euro. They could theoretically have different values from any moment if one of the two CFA monetary authorities, or France, decided it, West African CFA coins and banknotes are theoretically not accepted in countries using Central African CFA francs, and vice versa. However, in practice, the permanent parity of the two CFA franc currencies is widely assumed, CFA francs are used in fourteen countries, twelve formerly French-ruled nations in West and Central Africa, Guinea-Bissau, and Equatorial Guinea. These fourteen countries have a population of 147.5 million people. The ISO currency codes are XAF for the Central African CFA franc, the currency has been criticized for making economic planning for the developing countries of French West Africa all but impossible since the CFAs value is pegged to the euro.
Between 1945 and 1958, CFA stood for Colonies françaises dAfrique, since independence, CFA is taken to mean Communauté Financière Africaine, but in actual use, the term can have two meanings. The CFA franc was created on 26 December 1945, along with the CFP franc, the reason for their creation was the weakness of the French franc immediately after World War II. When France ratified the Bretton Woods Agreement in December 1945, the French franc was devalued in order to set an exchange rate with the US dollar. New currencies were created in the French colonies to spare them the strong devaluation, French officials presented the decision as an act of generosity. The CFA franc was created with an exchange rate versus the French franc. This exchange rate was changed twice, in 1948 and in 1994. Exchange rate,26 December 1945 to 16 October 1948 –1 CFA franc =1.70 FRF and this 0.70 FRF premium is the consequence of the creation of the CFA franc, which spared the French African colonies the devaluation of December 1945.
The 1960 and 1999 events were merely changes in the currency in use in France, the devaluation of 1994 was an attempt to reduce these imbalances. Over time, the number of countries and territories using the CFA franc has changed as some countries began introducing their own separate currencies. A couple of nations in West Africa have chosen to adopt the CFA franc since its introduction and they are distinguished in French by the meaning of the abbreviation CFA. The Central Africa CFA franc is known in French as the Franc CFA, where CFA stands for Coopération financière en Afrique centrale.0 million people, and a combined GDP of US$88.2 billion
A currency union involves two or more states sharing the same currency without them necessarily having any further integration. Note, Every customs and monetary union and economic and monetary union has a currency union. Zimbabwe is theoretically in a union with four blocs as the South African rand, Botswana pula, British pound and US dollar freely circulate. Between Republic of Ireland and United Kingdom between 1928 and 1979 using the Irish Pound. and Di Bartolomeo, G. and Tirelli, ‘Monetary conservatism and fiscal coordination in a monetary union’, in, ‘Economics Letters’,94, 56-63. Indianapolis, Library of Economics and Liberty, African monetary union inches closer United States of Southern Africa. South Africa proposes adoption of the rand as provisional SADC common currency
A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is an institution that manages a states currency, money supply, and interest rates. Central banks usually oversee the commercial banking system of their respective countries, Central banks in most developed nations are institutionally designed to be independent from political interference. Still, limited control by the executive and legislative bodies usually exists, prior to the 17th century most money was commodity money, typically gold or silver. However, promises to pay were widely circulated and accepted as value at least five hundred years earlier in both Europe and Asia. The Song dynasty was the first to issue generally circulating paper currency, in 1455, in an effort to control inflation, the succeeding Ming Dynasty ended the use of paper money and closed much of Chinese trade. The Bank of Amsterdam, established in the Dutch Republic in 1609, is considered to be the forerunner to modern central banks. The Wisselbanks innovations helped lay the foundations for the birth and development of the banking system that now plays a vital role in the worlds economy.
Along with a number of local banks, it performed many functions of a central banking system. Lucien Gillard calls it the European guilder, and Adam Smith devotes many pages to explaining how the bank guilder works, the model of the Wisselbank as a state bank was adapted throughout Europe, including the Bank of Sweden and the Bank of England. Established by Dutch-Latvian Johan Palmstruch in 1668, Sveriges Riksbank is often considered by many as the worlds oldest central bank, the lenders would give the government cash and issue notes against the government bonds, which could be lent again. A Royal Charter was granted on 27 July through the passage of the Tonnage Act 1694, the bank was given exclusive possession of the governments balances, and was the only limited-liability corporation allowed to issue banknotes. The £1. 2M was raised in 12 days, half of this was used to rebuild the Navy and these modern central banking functions evolved slowly through the 18th and 19th centuries. The currency crisis of 1797, caused by panicked depositors withdrawing from the Bank led to the government suspending convertibility of notes into specie payment.
The bank was accused by the bullionists of causing the exchange rate to fall from over issuing banknotes. Nevertheless, it was clear that the Bank was being treated as an organ of the state, henry Thornton, a merchant banker and monetary theorist has been described as the father of the modern central bank. An opponent of the real bills doctrine, he was a defender of the bullionist position, thorntons process of monetary expansion anticipated the theories of Knut Wicksell regarding the cumulative process which restates the Quantity Theory in a theoretically coherent form. Until the mid-nineteenth century, commercial banks were able to issue their own banknotes, many consider the origins of the central bank to lie with the passage of the Bank Charter Act of 1844. Under this law, authorisation to issue new banknotes was restricted to the Bank of England, at the same time, the Bank of England was restricted to issue new banknotes only if they were 100% backed by gold or up to £14 million in government debt
Central African Republic
The Central African Republic is a landlocked country in Central Africa. The CAR covers a area of about 620,000 square kilometres and had an estimated population of around 4.7 million as of 2014. Most of the CAR consists of Sudano-Guinean savannas, but the country includes a Sahelo-Sudanian zone in the north. Two thirds of the country is within the Ubangi River basin, while the third lies in the basin of the Chari. Ange-Félix Patassé became president, but was removed by General François Bozizé in the 2003 coup. As of 2015, according to the Human Development Index, the country had the lowest level of human development and this Agricultural Revolution, combined with a Fish-stew Revolution, in which fishing began to take place, and the use of boats, allowed for the transportation of goods. Products were often moved in ceramic pots, which are the first known examples of artistic expression from the regions inhabitants, the Bouar Megaliths in the western region of the country indicate an advanced level of habitation dating back to the very late Neolithic Era.
Ironworking arrived in the region around 1000 BC from both Bantu cultures in what is today Nigeria and from the Nile city of Meroë, the capital of the Kingdom of Kush. Bananas arrived in the region and added an important source of carbohydrates to the diet, production of copper, dried fish, and textiles dominated the economic trade in the Central African region. During the 16th and 17th centuries slave traders began to raid the region as part of the expansion of the Saharan, in the mid 19th century, the Bobangi people became major slave traders and sold their captives to the Americas using the Ubangi river to reach the coast. During the 18th century Bandia-Nzakara peoples established the Bangassou Kingdom along the Ubangi River, in 1875 the Sudanese sultan Rabih az-Zubayr governed Upper-Oubangui, which included present-day CAR. The European penetration of Central African territory began in the late 19th century during the Scramble for Africa, primarily the French and Belgians, arrived in the area in 1885.
France created Ubangi-Shari territory in 1894, in 1911 at the Treaty of Fez, France ceded a nearly 300,000 km² portion of the Sangha and Lobaye basins to the German Empire which ceded a smaller area to France. After World War I France again annexed the territory, in 1920 French Equatorial Africa was established and Ubangi-Shari was administered from Brazzaville. The concessionary companies forced local people to harvest rubber, between 1890, a year after the French first arrived, and 1940, about half of the population died as a result. New forms of forced labor were introduced and a number of Ubangians were sent to work on the Congo-Ocean Railway. Many of these laborers died of exhaustion, illness, or the poor conditions which claimed between 20% and 25% of the 127,000 workers. In 1928, an insurrection, the Kongo-Wara rebellion or war of the hoe handle, broke out in Western Ubangi-Shari
Equatorial Guinea, officially the Republic of Equatorial Guinea, is a country located in Central Africa, with an area of 28,000 square kilometres. Formerly the colony of Spanish Guinea, its post-independence name evokes its location near both the Equator and the Gulf of Guinea, Equatorial Guinea is the only sovereign African state in which Spanish is an official language. As of 2015, the country has an population of over 1.2 million. Equatorial Guinea consists of two parts, an insular and a mainland region, the insular region consists of the islands of Bioko in the Gulf of Guinea and Annobón, a small volcanic island south of the equator. Bioko Island is the northernmost part of Equatorial Guinea and is the site of the countrys capital, the island nation of São Tomé and Príncipe is located between Bioko and Annobón. The mainland region, Río Muni, is bordered by Cameroon on the north and Gabon on the south and it is the location of Bata, Equatorial Guineas largest city, and Oyala, the countrys planned future capital.
Rio Muni includes several small islands, such as Corisco, Elobey Grande. The country is a member of the African Union, since the mid-1990s, Equatorial Guinea has become one of sub-Saharan Africas largest oil producers. The country ranks 144th on the UNs 2014 Human Development Index, the UN says that less than half of the population has access to clean drinking water and that 20% of children die before reaching the age of five. Reporters Without Borders ranks President Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo among its predators of press freedom, the report rates Equatorial Guinea as a Tier 3 country, the lowest ranking, Countries whose governments do not fully comply with the minimum standards and are not making significant efforts to do so. Pygmies probably once lived in the region that is now Equatorial Guinea. Bantu migrations between the 18th and 19th centuries brought the coastal ethno-linguistic groups as well as the Fang people, elements of the latter may have generated the Bubi, who migrated from Cameroon to Río Muni and Bioko in several waves and succeeded former Neolithic populations.
The Annobón population, originally native to Angola, was introduced by the Portuguese via São Tomé island, the Portuguese explorer Fernando Pó, seeking a path to India, is credited as being the first European to discover the island of Bioko in 1472. He called it Formosa, but it took on the name of its European discoverer. The islands of Fernando Pó and Annobón were colonized by Portugal in 1474, Spain thereby tried to gain access to a source of slaves controlled by British merchants. Between 1778 and 1810, the territory of Equatorial Guinea was administered by the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, based in Buenos Aires. From 1827 to 1843, the United Kingdom had a base on Bioko to combat the slave trade, in 1844, on restoration of Spanish sovereignty, the area became known as the Territorios Españoles del Golfo de Guinea. Spain had neglected to occupy the area in the Bight of Biafra to which it had right by treaty
African and Malagasy Union
The African and Malagasy Union was an intergovernmental organization created to promote cooperation among newly independent states in Francophone Africa. The organization derives its name from the name of the continent of Africa and from the former Malagasy Republic, the organization went defunct in 1985. The organization was founded on 12 September 1961 in Antananarivo by members of the Brazzaville Group of French-Speaking States developing out of a meeting held in Brazzaville in December 1960, twelve francophone countries agreed to maintain close relationships but a special relationship with the former colonial power, France. The original aims were both economic and political, to adopt common stands on issues, to promote economic and culture cooperation. However, this caused a problem, the organization would have to depend on France, the diversity and post-colonial problems of the different countries stopped the organization from ever becoming significant. In March 1964 the UAM changed its name to the Afro-Malagasy Union for Economic Cooperation, subsequently, it confined itself to economic affairs and by 1966 had become inactive.
The African and Malagasy Common Organization was the successor to the UAMCE and it was set up at Nouakchott in February 1965 and comprised the original 12 members of the UAM with the addition of Togo. In May 1965 its membership was increased by the admission of the former Belgian colonies of Congo, in June 1965, Mauritania withdrew. The remaining 14 signed the new OCAM charter on 27 June at a meeting in Antananarivo, the aims of the organization were economic, social and cultural cooperation. OCAM dropped the political and defense objectives that its predecessor, the UAM, had attempted to embrace and it developed a number of joint services and of these the most successful and most well known is the multinational airline Air Afrique. In 1979 the airline was separated from OCAM, the organizations history became increasingly troubled. Congo, by renamed Zaire, withdrew in 1972, Congo in 1973, Cameroon and Madagascar in 1974, some of these countries retained their links with OCAMs various agencies.
In 1982 OCAM held a summit at Abidjan, Côte dIvoire, it had changed its name, though only to substitute Mauritius for Madagascar. OCAM, has ceased to operate, the organization officially became extinct in 1985
Cameroon, officially the Republic of Cameroon, is a country in Central Africa. It is bordered by Nigeria to the west, Chad to the northeast, the Central African Republic to the east, and Equatorial Guinea, Cameroons coastline lies on the Bight of Biafra, part of the Gulf of Guinea and the Atlantic Ocean. French and English are the languages of Cameroon. The country is referred to as Africa in miniature for its geological and cultural diversity. Natural features include beaches, mountains, the country is well known for its native styles of music, particularly makossa and bikutsi, and for its successful national football team. Early inhabitants of the territory included the Sao civilisation around Lake Chad, portuguese explorers reached the coast in the 15th century and named the area Rio dos Camarões, which became Cameroon in English. Fulani soldiers founded the Adamawa Emirate in the north in the 19th century, Cameroon became a German colony in 1884 known as Kamerun. After World War I, the territory was divided between France and the United Kingdom as League of Nations mandates, the Union des Populations du Cameroun political party advocated independence, but was outlawed by France in the 1950s, leading to the Cameroonian Independence War.
It waged war on French and UPC militant forces until 1971, in 1960, the French-administered part of Cameroon became independent as the Republic of Cameroun under President Ahmadou Ahidjo. The southern part of British Cameroons federated with it in 1961 to form the Federal Republic of Cameroon, the federation was abandoned in 1972. The country was renamed the United Republic of Cameroon in 1972, Cameroon enjoys relatively high political and social stability. This has permitted the development of agriculture, railways, large numbers of Cameroonians live in poverty as subsistence farmers. Power lies firmly in the hands of the president since 1982, Paul Biya. The English-speaking territories of Cameroon have grown increasingly alienated from the government and civil society in English-speaking regions have called for greater decentralization and even complete separation or independence from the former French-governed territories. The territory of present-day Cameroon was first settled during the Neolithic Era, the longest continuous inhabitants are groups such as the Baka.
From here, Bantu migrations into eastern and central Africa are believed to have originated about 2,000 years ago, the Sao culture arose around Lake Chad c. AD500 and gave way to the Kanem and its successor state, kingdoms and chiefdoms arose in the west. Portuguese sailors reached the coast in 1472 and they noted an abundance of the ghost shrimp Lepidophthalmus turneranus in the Wouri River and named it Rio dos Camarões, which became Cameroon in English
The French Congo or Middle Congo was a French colony which at one time comprised the present-day area of the Republic of the Congo and the Central African Republic. Its borders with Cabinda and the Congo Free State were established by treaties over the next decade, the plan to develop the colony was to grant massive concessions to some thirty French companies. These were granted huge swaths of land on the promise they would be developed and this development was limited and amounted mostly to the extraction of ivory and timber. These operations often involved great brutality and the enslavement of the locals. Even with these measures most of the companies lost money, many of the companies vast holdings existed only on paper with virtually no presence on the ground in Africa. The French Congo was sometimes known as Gabon-Congo, a 1906 study, L’Expansion coloniale au Congo français was published in conjunction with the French Colonial Exposition in Marseille. The colony was administered under four commissioners-general prior to its reorganization into Middle Congo, describes Pierre Savorgnan de Brazzas extensive explorations of what became French Congo, and later, French Equatorial Africa.
Media related to French Congo at Wikimedia Commons
French Equatorial Africa
Established in 1910, the federation contained five territories, French Congo, Oubangui-Chari and French Cameroon, although the last was not organized as a separate entity until 1920. The Governor-General was based in Brazzaville with deputies in each territory, in 1911, France ceded parts of the territory to German Kamerun as a result of the Agadir Crisis. The territory was returned after Germanys defeat in World War I, during the late 1920s and early 1930s an anti-colonial movement Société Amicale des Originaires de lA. E. F. was established by André Matsoua, seeking French citizenship for the territorys inhabitants. Under the Fourth Republic, the federation was represented in the French parliament, when the territories voted in the September 1958 referendum to become autonomous within the French Community, the federation was dissolved. In 1959 the new republics formed an association called the Union of Central African Republics. Until 1934, French Equatorial Africa was a federation of French colonies like French West Africa and that year, the AEF became a unitary entity and its constituent colonies became known as regions, becoming known as territories in 1937.
There was a budget for the unified colony, prior to unification. As of 1942, the AEF was administered by a governor-general, his power was limited in practice by Frances centralising colonial policy. Most important legislation is enacted in Paris, wrote the authors of the 1942 British naval intelligence handbook for the colony, whilst the governor-general fills in minor details and penalties. The governor-general was assisted by a council of administration composed of important local officials and some members. Under the unified colony, three of the constituent territories were administered by a governor, while Moyen-Congo was under the purview of the governor-general, each had a council of local interests similar to the council of administration. Locally, the territories were subdivided into départments and subdivisions overseen by appointed officials, the only municipalities were the capitals of the territories, which were classified as communes mixtes as opposed to Senegals communes de plein exercise which had democratically elected councils.
Although these municipalities possessed certain powers of local self-government, their mayors, Chad Oubangui-Chari French Congo Gabon The postal administrations of the four territories were separate until 1936, each issuing its own stamps. In that year, stamps of Gabon and Middle Congo were overprinted AFRIQUE / ÉQUATORIALE / FRANÇAISE, a definitive series for the colony followed in 1937, featuring local scenes and key figures in the formation of the colony, with various color and value changes each year through 1940. The 1937 series was overprinted AFRIQUE FRANÇAISE / LIBRE or just LIBRE in 1940 by the Free French, List of colonial heads of French Equatorial Africa French colonial empire French West Africa List of French possessions and colonies French colonial flags French North Africa Pakenham, Thomas