Valaida Snow was an African-American jazz musician and entertainer. She was born in Tennessee. Raised on the road in a show-business family, she learned to play cello, banjo, mandolin, accordion, clarinet and saxophone by the time she was 15, she sang and danced. After focusing on the trumpet, she became so famous at the instrument that she was named "Little Louis" after Louis Armstrong, who called her the world's second best jazz trumpet player besides himself. Contemporary critics Krin Gabbard and Will Friedwald have commented on her approach to playing like Armstrong. Gabbard said she developed a "distinctly Armstrongian style" and Friedwald said she "mimicked" Armstrong. In a 1928 performance in Chicago at the Sunset Café, Snow sang. Seven pairs of shoes were placed in a row at the front of the stage, she danced in each pair for one chorus; the dances and shoes to match were: soft-shoe, adagio shoes, tap shoes, Dutch clogs, Chinese straw sandals, Turkish slippers, the last pair, Russian boots.
"When Louis Armstrong saw the show one night, he continued clapping after others had stopped and remarked,'Boy I never saw anything that great'." She played concerts throughout the US, China. From 1926 to 1929 she toured with Jack Carter's Serenaders in Shanghai, Singapore and Jakarta, her most successful period was in the 1930s when she became the toast of Paris. Around this time she recorded her hit song "High Hat and Rhythm", she performed in New York. In the mid-1930s she made films with her husband, Ananias Berry, of the Berry Brothers dancing troupe. After playing the Apollo Theater in New York City, she revisited Europe and the Far East for more shows and films. According to a jazz radio show that aired 10/28/2017, she claimed she was arrested in Europe, but in truth she was sent to jail for theft and illegal drugs. While touring through Denmark in 1941, she said she was arrested by Nazis and kept at Vestre Fængsel, a Danish prison in Copenhagen, run by the Nazis, before being released on a prisoner exchange in May 1942.
It was rumored that her friendship with a Belgium police official helped her board a ship carrying foreign diplomats. According to jazz historian Scott Yanow, "she never recovered from the experience", she married Earl Edwards. In the 1950s, she was unable to regain her former success. Valaida Snow died of a brain hemorrhage on May 30, 1956, in New York City, backstage during a performance at the Palace Theater. March 11, 1933. John Edgar Wideman. "Valaida". Fever: Twelve Stories. Henry Holt and Co. ISBN 978-0-8050-1184-5. Valaida Snow appears as a fictional character who threw herself on top of the protagonist when he was a child to shield him from a beating at the hands of the Nazis in a concentration camp. Snow is depicted as a strong, generous woman who proudly recalls that "They beat me, fucked me in every hole I had. I was their whore, their maid. A stool they stood on, but I never sang in Bobby. Not one note". Candace Allen. Valaida. London: Virago. ISBN 978-1-84408-172-1. A novel based on Valaida Snow's life story.
Mark Miller. High Hat and Rhythm: The Life and Music of Valaida Snow. Toronto: The Mercury Press. ISBN 978-1-55128-127-8. Biography. Both the Allen and Miller books contradict the assertion that Snow was held by the Nazis and instead place her in Danish custody at a Copenhagen prison. Pascal Rannou. Noire, la neige. Marseille: Editions Parenthèses. ISBN 978-2-86364-648-9. Inspired by Valaida's life, but it is more fictitious than biographical. Valaida Snow, by Emmanuel Reuzé and Maël Rannou, comic strip, BDMusic, coll. " BDJazz ", 2012. Marriages According to an article posted in the Pittsburgh Courier in 1933, Snow was arrested and acquitted of bigamy after eloping with her fiancé Ananias John W. Berry, Jr. Sidney Lanier William Weldon Higgins, married around February 1924 Russell T. Smith, married 19 February 1925 in Mason City, Iowa Ananias John W. Berry, Jr. married 18 May 1934, Lake County, Indiana Earl Edwards, married 1 October 1943 in Detroit
South Los Angeles
South Los Angeles is a region in southern Los Angeles County and lies within the city limits of Los Angeles, just south of downtown. According to the Los Angeles Times, South Los Angeles ”is defined on Los Angeles city maps as a 16-square-mile rectangle with two prongs at the south end.” In 2003, the Los Angeles City Council renamed this area "South Los Angeles". The name South Los Angeles can refer to a larger 51-square mile area that includes areas within the city limits of Los Angeles as well as five unicorporated neighborhoods in the southern portion of the County of Los Angeles; the City of Los Angeles delineates South Los Angeles as an area of 15.5 square miles. Adjacent neighborhoods include West Adams, Baldwin Hills, Leimert Park to the west and the Southeast Los Angeles region of the city on the east. According to the Los Angeles Times Mapping Project, South Los Angeles comprises 51 square miles, consisting of 25 neighborhoods within the City of Los Angeles as well as three unincorporated neighborhoods in the County of Los Angeles.
Google Maps delineates a similar area to the Los Angeles Times Mapping Project with notable differences on the western border. On the northwest, it omits a section of Los Angeles west of La Brea Avenue. On the southwest, it includes a section of the City of Inglewood north of Century Boulevard. According to the Mapping L. A. survey of the Los Angeles Times, the South Los Angeles region consists of the following neighborhoods: In 1880, the University of Southern California, in 1920, the Doheny Campus of Mount St. Mary's College, were founded in South Los Angeles; the 1932 and 1984 Olympic Games took place near the USC campus at neighboring Exposition Park, where the Los Angeles Coliseum is located. Until the 1920s, the South Los Angeles neighborhood of West Adams was one of the most desirable areas of the City; as the wealthy were building stately mansions in West Adams and Jefferson Park, the white working class was establishing itself in Crenshaw and Hyde Park. Affluent blacks moved into West Adams and Jefferson Park.
As construction along the Wilshire Boulevard corridor increased in the 1920s, the development of the city was drawn west of downtown and away from South Los Angeles. At the same time, the area of modest bungalows and low-rise commercial buildings along Central Avenue emerged as the heart of the black community in southern California, it had one of the first jazz scenes in the western U. S. with trombonist Kid Ory a prominent resident. Under racially restrictive covenants, blacks were allowed to own property only within the Main-Slauson-Alameda-Washington box and in Watts, as well as in small enclaves elsewhere in the city; the working- and middle-class blacks who poured into Los Angeles during the Great Depression and in search of jobs during World War II found themselves penned into what was becoming a overcrowded neighborhood. During the war, blacks faced such dire housing shortages that the Housing Authority of the City of Los Angeles built the all-black and Latino Pueblo Del Rio project, designed by Richard Neutra.
When the Supreme Court banned the legal enforcement of race-oriented restrictive covenants in 1948's Shelley v. Kraemer, blacks began to move into areas outside the overcrowded Slauson-Alameda-Washington-Main settlement area. For a time in the early 1950s, southern Los Angeles became the site of significant racial violence, with whites bombing, firing into, burning crosses on the lawns of homes purchased by black families south of Slauson. In an escalation of behavior that began in the 1920s, white gangs in nearby cities such as South Gate and Huntington Park accosted blacks who traveled through white areas; the black mutual protection clubs that formed in response to these assaults became the basis of the region's fearsome street gangs. As in most urban areas, 1950s freeway construction radically altered the geography of southern Los Angeles. Freeway routes tended to reinforce traditional segregation lines. Beginning in the 1970s, the rapid decline of the area's manufacturing base resulted in a loss of the jobs that had allowed skilled union workers to have a middle class life.
Downtown Los Angeles' service sector, which had long been dominated by unionized African Americans earning high wages, replaced most black workers with newly arrived Mexican and Central American immigrants. Widespread unemployment and street crime contributed to the rise of street gangs in South Central, such as the Crips and Bloods, they became more powerful with money from drugs the crack cocaine trade, dominated by gangs in the 1980s. By the early 2000s, the crime rate of South Los Angeles had declined significantly. Redevelopment, improved police patrol, community-based peace programs, gang intervention work, youth development organizations lowered the murder and crime rates to levels that had not been seen since the 1940s and'50s. South Los Angeles was still known for its gangs at the time. In mid 2003, the City of Los Angeles changed the region's name from South Central to South Los Angeles, a move supporters said would "help erase a stigma that has dogged the southern part of the city."On August 11, 2014, just two days after the shooting of Michael Brown in Ferguson, Missouri, a resident of South L.
A. Ezell Ford, described as "a mentally ill 25-year-old man," was fatally shot by two Los Angeles police officers. Since a number of protests focused on events in Ferguson have taken place in South Los Angeles. After the 2008 economic recession, housing prices in South Los Angeles recovered and by 2018, many had come to see South Los Angeles as a
Dinah Washington was an American singer and pianist, cited as "the most popular black female recording artist of the'50s". A jazz vocalist, she performed and recorded in a wide variety of styles including blues, R&B, traditional pop music, gave herself the title of "Queen of the Blues", she was a 1986 inductee of the Alabama Jazz Hall of Fame, was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1993. Ruth Lee Jones was born in Tuscaloosa, Alabama to Alice Jones, moved to Chicago as a child, she became involved in gospel and played piano for the choir in St. Luke's Baptist Church while still in elementary school, she sang gospel music in church and played piano, directing her church choir in her teens and being a member of the Sallie Martin Gospel Singers. She sang lead with the first female gospel singers formed by Ms. Martin, co-founder of the Gospel Singers Convention, her involvement with the gospel choir occurred after she won an amateur contest at Chicago's Regal Theater where she sang "I Can't Face the Music".
After winning a talent contest at the age of 15, she began performing in clubs. By 1941–42 she was performing in such Chicago clubs as Dave's Rhumboogie and the Downbeat Room of the Sherman Hotel, she was playing at the Three Deuces, a jazz club, when a friend took her to hear Billie Holiday at the Garrick Stage Bar. Club owner Joe Sherman was so impressed with her singing of "I Understand", backed by the Cats and the Fiddle, who were appearing in the Garrick's upstairs room, that he hired her. During her year at the Garrick – she sang upstairs while Holiday performed in the downstairs room – she acquired the name by which she became known, she credited Joe Sherman with suggesting the change from Ruth Jones, made before Lionel Hampton came to hear Dinah at the Garrick. Hampton's visit brought an offer, Washington worked as his female band vocalist after she had sung with the band for its opening at the Chicago Regal Theatre, she made her recording debut for the Keynote label that December with "Evil Gal Blues", written by Leonard Feather and backed by Hampton and musicians from his band, including Joe Morris and Milt Buckner.
Both that record and its follow-up, "Salty Papa Blues", made the Billboard "Harlem Hit Parade" in 1944. In December 1945 she made a series of twelve recordings for Apollo Records, 10 of which were issued, featuring the "Lucky Thompson All Stars."She stayed with Hampton's band until 1946, after the Keynote label folded, signed for Mercury Records as a solo singer. Her first record for Mercury, a version of Fats Waller's "Ain't Misbehavin'", was another hit, starting a long string of success. Between 1948 and 1955, she had 27 R&B top ten hits, making her one of the most popular and successful singers of the period. Both "Am I Asking Too Much" and "Baby Get Lost" reached Number 1 on the R&B chart, her version of "I Wanna Be Loved" crossed over to reach Number 22 on the US pop chart, her hit recordings included blues, novelties, pop covers, a version of Hank Williams' "Cold, Cold Heart". At the same time as her biggest popular success, she recorded sessions with many leading jazz musicians, including Clifford Brown and Clark Terry on the album Dinah Jams, recorded with Cannonball Adderley and Ben Webster.
In 1959, she had her first top ten pop hit, with a version of "What a Diff'rence a Day Made", which made Number 4 on the US pop chart. Her band at that time included arranger Belford Hendricks, with Kenny Burrell, Joe Zawinul, Panama Francis, she followed it up with a version of Irving Gordon's "Unforgettable", two successful duets in 1960 with Brook Benton, "Baby" and "A Rockin' Good Way". Her last big hit was "September in the Rain" in 1961, she notably performed two numbers in the dirty blues genre. The songs were "Long John Blues" about her dentist, with lyrics. Told me to open wide, he said he wouldn't hurt me, but he filled my whole inside." She recorded a song called "Big Long Sliding Thing" about a trombonist. In the 1950s and early 1960s before her death, Washington performed on the Las Vegas Strip. Tony Bennett said of Washington during a recording session with Amy Winehouse: "She was a good friend of mine, you know, she was great. She used to just come in with two suitcases in Vegas without being booked.
And she'd just put the suitcases down. And she'd say "I'm here, boss", and she'd stay as long. And all the kids in all the shows on the Strip would come that night. They'd hear that she's in town and it would be packed just for her performance". According to Richard S. Ginell at AllMusic: was at once one of the most beloved and controversial singers of the mid-20th century – beloved to her fans and fellow singers, her principal sin was to cultivate a distinctive vocal style, at home in all kinds of music, be it R&B, jazz, middle of the road pop – and she would have made a fine gospel or country singer had she the time. Hers was a gritty, high-pitched voice, marked by absolute clarity of diction and clipped, bluesy phrasing... Washington was well known for singing torch songs. In 1962, Dinah hired a male backing trio called the Allegros, consisting of Jimmy Thomas on drums, Earl Edwards on sax, Jimmy Sigler on organ. Edwards was replaced on sax by John Payne. A Variety writer
Streamline Moderne is an international style of Art Deco architecture and design that emerged in the 1930s. It was inspired by aerodynamic design. Streamline architecture emphasized curving forms, long horizontal lines, sometimes nautical elements. In industrial design, it was used in railroad locomotives, toasters, buses and other devices to give the impression of sleekness and modernity. In France, it was called the Style Paquebot, or "Ocean liner style", was influenced by the design of the luxurious ocean liner SS Normandie, launched in 1932; as the Great Depression of the 1930s progressed, Americans saw a new aspect of Art Deco, i.e. streamlining, a concept first conceived by industrial designers who stripped Art Deco design of its ornament in favor of the aerodynamic pure-line concept of motion and speed developed from scientific thinking. The cylindrical forms and long horizontal windowing in architecture may have been influenced by constructivism, by the New Objectivity artists, a movement connected to the German Werkbund.
Examples of this style include the 1923 Mossehaus, the reconstruction of the corner of a Berlin office building in 1923 by Erich Mendelsohn and Richard Neutra. The Streamline Moderne was sometimes a reflection of austere economic times; the style was the first to incorporate electric light into architectural structure. In the first-class dining room of the SS Normandie, fitted out 1933–35, twelve tall pillars of Lalique glass, 38 columns lit from within illuminated the room; the Strand Palace Hotel foyer, preserved from demolition by the Victoria and Albert Museum during 1969, was one of the first uses of internally lit architectural glass, coincidentally was the first Moderne interior preserved in a museum. Streamline moderne appeared most in buildings related to transportation and movement, such as bus and train stations, airport terminals, roadside cafes, port buildings, it had characteristics common with modern architecture, including a horizontal orientation, rounded corners, the use of glass brick walls or porthole windows, flat roofs, chrome-plated hardware, horizontal grooves or lines in the walls.
They were white or in subdued pastel colors. An example of this style is the Aquatic Park Bathouse in the Aquatic Park Historic District, in San Francisco. Built beginning in 1936 by the Works Progress Administration, it features the distinctive horizontal lines, classic rounded corners railing and windows of the style, resembling the elements of ship; the interior preserves much of the original decoration and detail, including murals by artist and color theoretician Hilaire Hiler. The architects were William Mooser Jr. and William Mooser III. It is now the administrative center of Aquatic Park Historic District; the Normandie Hotel, which opened during 1942, is built in the stylized shape of the ocean liner SS Normandie, it includes the ship's original sign. The Sterling Streamliner Diners were diners designed like streamlined trains. Although Streamline Moderne houses are less common than streamline commercial buildings, residences do exist; the Lydecker House in Los Angeles, built by Howard Lydecker, is an example of Streamline Moderne design in residential architecture.
In tract development, elements of the style were sometimes used as a variation in postwar row housing in San Francisco's Sunset District. In France, the style was called ocean liner; the French version was inspired by the launch of the ocean liner Normandie in 1935, which featured an Art Deco dining room with columns of Lalique crystal. Buildings using variants of the style appeared in Belgium and in Paris, notably in a building at 3 boulevard Victor in the 15th arrondissement, by the architect Pierre Patout, he was one of the founders of the Art Deco style. He designed the entrance to the Pavilion of a Collector at the 1925 Exposition of Decorative Arts, the birthplace of the style, he was the designer of the interiors of three cruise ships, the Ile-de-France, the l'Atlantique, the Normandie. Patout's building on Avenue Victor lacked the curving lines of the American version of the style, but it had a narrow "bow" at one end, where the site was narrow, long balconies like the decks of a ship, a row of projections like smokestacks on the roof.
Another 1935 Paris apartment building at 1 Avenue Paul-Daumier in the 16 arrondissement had a series of terraces modeled after the decks of an ocean liner. The defining event for streamline moderne design in the United States was the 1933-34 Chicago World's Fair, which introduced the style to the general public; the new automobiles adapted the smooth lines of ocean liners and airships, giving the impression of efficiency and speed. The grills and windshields tilted backwards, cars sat lower and wider, they featured smooth curves and horizontal speed lines. Examples include the 1934 Studebaker Land Cruiser; the cars featured new materials, including bakelite plastic, Vitrolight opaque glass, stainless steel, enamel, which gave the appearance of newness and sleekness. Other examples include the 1950 Nash Ambassador "Airflyte" sedan with its distinctive low fender lines, as well as Hudson's postwar cars, such as the Commodore, that "were distinctive streamliners—ponderous, massive automobiles with a style all their own".
Streamlining became a widespread design practice for aircraft, railroad locomotives, ships. Streamline style can be contrasted with functionalism, a leading design style in Europe at the same time. One reason for the simple designs in functionalism was to lower the production costs of the items, making them
Theodore Shaw Wilson was an American jazz pianist. Described by critic Scott Yanow as "the definitive swing pianist", Wilson's sophisticated and elegant style was featured on the records of many of the biggest names in jazz, including Louis Armstrong, Lena Horne, Benny Goodman, Billie Holiday, Ella Fitzgerald. With Goodman, he was one of the first black musicians to appear prominently with white musicians. In addition to his extensive work as a sideman, Wilson led his own groups and recording sessions from the late 1920s to the 1980s. Wilson was born in Austin, Texas, on November 24, 1912, he studied violin at Tuskegee Institute in Tuskegee, Alabama. After working in Speed Webb's band, with Louis Armstrong, understudying Earl Hines in Hines's Grand Terrace Cafe Orchestra, Wilson joined Benny Carter's Chocolate Dandies in 1933. In 1935, he joined the Benny Goodman Trio; the trio performed during the big band's intermissions. By joining the trio, Wilson became one of the first black musicians to perform prominently in a racially integrated group.
Jazz producer and writer John Hammond was instrumental in getting Wilson a contract with Brunswick, starting in 1935, to record hot swing arrangements of the popular songs of the day, with the growing jukebox trade in mind. He recorded fifty hit records with various singers such as Lena Horne, Helen Ward and Billie Holiday, including many of Holiday's greatest successes. During these years, he took part in many regarded sessions with a wide range of important swing musicians such as Lester Young, Roy Eldridge, Charlie Shavers, Red Norvo, Buck Clayton, Sarah Vaughan and Ben Webster. From 1936 to 1942 he recorded for Columbia Records. In the 1950s he recorded on Verve Records. Wilson formed his own short-lived big band in 1939 led a sextet at Café Society from 1940 to 1944, he was dubbed the "Marxist Mozart" by Howard "Stretch" Johnson due to his support for left-wing causes: he performed in benefit concerts for The New Masses journal and for Russian War Relief, he chaired the Artists' Committee to elect Benjamin J. Davis.
In the 1950s, Wilson taught at the Juilliard School. Wilson can be seen appearing as himself in the 1937 motion picture Hollywood Hotel and in The Benny Goodman Story from 1955, he worked as music director for the Dick Cavett Show. Wilson lived in suburban Hillsdale, New Jersey, he was married three times, including to the songwriter Irene Kitchings. He performed as a soloist and with pick-up groups until the final years of his life, including leading a trio with his sons Theodore Wilson on bass and Steven Wilson on drums. In 1979, Wilson was awarded an Honorary Doctorate of Music from Berklee College of Music. Wilson died in New Britain, Connecticut, on July 31, 1986, he is buried at Fairview Cemetery in New Britain. In addition to Theodore and Steven, Wilson had three more children, William and Dune. 1944: Teddy Wilson Sextet 1949: Teddy Wilson Featuring Billie Holiday 1952: Runnin' Wild 1952: Just A Mood - Teddy Wilson Quartet Starring Harry James & Red Norvo 1955: The Creative Teddy Wilson - released as For Quiet Lovers 1956: Pres and Teddy with Lester Young 1956: I Got Rhythm 1956: The Impeccable Mr. Wilson 1956: These Tunes Remind Me of You 1957: The Teddy Wilson Trio & Gerry Mulligan Quartet with Bob Brookmeyer at Newport 1957: The Touch of Teddy Wilson 1959: Mr. Wilson and Mr. Gershwin 1959: Gypsy in Jazz 1959: And Then They Wrote... 1963: Teddy Wilson 1964 1967: Moonglow 1968: The Noble Art of Teddy Wilson 1972: With Billie in Mind 1973: Runnin' Wild 1976: Live at Santa Tecla 1980: Teddy Wilson Trio Revisits the Goodman Years 1990: Air Mail Special 1933–1942: Billie Holiday, The Quintessential Billie Holiday 1935: Mildred Bailey, Mildred Bailey and Her Alley Cats 1935–1939: Benny Goodman, The Complete RCA Victor Small Group Recordings 1938: Benny Goodman, The Famous 1938 Carnegie Hall Jazz Concert 1946-1947: Sarah Vaughan, The Chronological Classics: Sarah Vaughan 1946-1947 1974: Phoebe Snow Phoebe Snow Teddy Wilson discography at Discogs Teddy Wilson on IMDb Teddy Wilson at Find a Grave
Big Joe Turner
Joseph Vernon "Big Joe" Turner Jr. was an American blues shouter from Kansas City, Missouri. According to songwriter Doc Pomus, "Rock and roll would have never happened without him." His greatest fame was due to his rock-and-roll recordings in the 1950s "Shake and Roll", but his career as a performer endured from the 1920s into the 1980s. Turner was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1987, with the Hall lauding him as "the brawny voiced'Boss of the Blues'". Turner was born May 1911 in Kansas City, his father was killed in a train accident. He sang in his church, on street corners for money, he left school at age fourteen to work in Kansas City's nightclubs, first as a cook and as a singing bartender. He became known as "The Singing Barman", worked in such venues as the Kingfish Club and the Sunset, where he and his partner, the boogie-woogie pianist Pete Johnson, became resident performers; the Sunset was managed by Piney Brown. It featured "equal" facilities for white patrons. Turner sang it throughout his career.
At that time Kansas City nightclubs were subject to frequent raids by the police. We'd sign our names and walk right out. We would cabaret until morning."His partnership with Johnson proved fruitful. Together they went to New York City in 1936, where they appeared on a playbill with Benny Goodman, but as Turner recounted, "After our show with Goodman, we auditioned at several places, but New York wasn't ready for us yet, so we headed back to K. C." They were seen by the talent scout John H. Hammond in 1938, who invited them back to New York to appear in one of his From Spirituals to Swing concerts at Carnegie Hall, which were instrumental in introducing jazz and blues to a wider American audience. In part because of their appearance at Carnegie Hall and Johnson had a major success with the song "Roll'Em Pete"; the track was a collection of traditional blues lyrics. It was a song that Turner recorded many times, over the ensuing years. In 1939, along with the boogie-woogie pianists Albert Ammons and Meade Lux Lewis, they began a residency at Café Society, a nightclub in New York City, where they appeared on the same playbill as Billie Holiday and Frankie Newton's band.
Besides "Roll'Em, Pete", Turner's best-known recordings from this period are "Cherry Red", "I Want a Little Girl" and "Wee Baby Blues". "Cherry Red" was recorded in 1939 for the Vocalion label, with Hot Lips Page on trumpet and a full band in attendance. During the next year Turner contracted with Decca and recorded "Piney Brown Blues" with Johnson on piano. In 1941, he performed in Duke Ellington's revue Jump for Joy in Hollywood, he appeared as a singing policeman in a comedy sketch, "He's on the Beat". Los Angeles was his home for a time, during 1944 he worked in Meade Lux Lewis's Soundies musical movies, he sang on the soundtrack recordings but was not present for filming, his vocals were mouthed by the comedian Dudley Dickerson for the camera. In 1945 Turner and Pete Johnson established the Blue Moon Club, a bar in Los Angeles. In 1945, he signed a recording contract with National Records, for which he recorded under the supervision of Herb Abramson, his first hit single was a cover of Saunders King's "S.
K. Blues", he recorded the songs "My Gal's a Jockey" and the risqué "Around the Clock" the same year, Aladdin Records released "Battle of the Blues", a duet with Wynonie Harris. Turner stayed with National until 1947. In 1950, he recorded released by Freedom Records. Turner made many albums with Johnson, Art Tatum, Sammy Price, other jazz groups, he recorded for several record companies. He performed with the Count Basie Orchestra. During his career, Turner was part of the transition from big bands to jump blues to rhythm and blues to rock and roll, he was a master of traditional blues verses, at Kansas City jam sessions he could swap choruses with instrumental soloists for hours. In 1951, while performing with the Count Basie Orchestra at Harlem's Apollo Theater as a replacement for Jimmy Rushing, he was spotted by Ahmet and Nesuhi Ertegün, who contracted him to their new recording company, Atlantic Records. Turner recorded a number of successes for them, including the blues standards, "Chains of Love" and "Sweet Sixteen".
Many of his vocals are punctuated with shouts to the band members, as in "Boogie Woogie Country Girl" and "Honey Hush". Turner's records reached the top of the rhythm-and-blues charts; some of his songs were so risqué that some radio stations refused to play them, but they received much play on jukeboxes and records. Turner had great success during 1954 with "Shake and Roll", which boosted his career, turning him into a teenage favorite, helped to transform popular music. During the song, Turner yells at his woman to "get outta that bed, wash yo' face an' hands" and comments that she's "wearin' those dresses, the sun comes shinin' through! I can't believe my eyes, all that mess belongs to you." He sang it on film for Blues Revue. Although the cover version of the song by Bill Haley & His Comets, with the risqué lyrics omitted, was a greater sales success, many listeners sought out Turner's version and were introdu
William James "Count" Basie was an American jazz pianist, organist and composer. In 1935, Basie formed his own jazz orchestra, the Count Basie Orchestra, in 1936 took them to Chicago for a long engagement and their first recording, he led the group for 50 years, creating innovations like the use of two "split" tenor saxophones, emphasizing the rhythm section, riffing with a big band, using arrangers to broaden their sound, others. Many musicians came to prominence under his direction, including the tenor saxophonists Lester Young and Herschel Evans, the guitarist Freddie Green, trumpeters Buck Clayton and Harry "Sweets" Edison and singers Jimmy Rushing, Helen Humes, Thelma Carpenter, Joe Williams. William Basie was born to Harvey Lee Basie in Red Bank, New Jersey, his father worked as a caretaker for a wealthy judge. After automobiles replaced horses, his father became a groundskeeper and handyman for several wealthy families in the area. Both of his parents had some type of musical background.
His father played the mellophone, his mother played the piano. She took in laundry and baked cakes for sale for a living, she paid 25 cents a lesson for Count Basie's piano instruction. Not much of a student in school, Basie dreamed of a traveling life, inspired by touring carnivals which came to town, he finished junior high school but spent much of his time at the Palace Theater in Red Bank, where doing occasional chores gained him free admission to performances. He learned to improvise music appropriate to the acts and the silent movies. Though a natural at the piano, Basie preferred drums. Discouraged by the obvious talents of Sonny Greer, who lived in Red Bank and became Duke Ellington's drummer in 1919, Basie at age 15 switched to piano exclusively. Greer and Basie played together in venues. By Basie was playing with pick-up groups for dances and amateur shows, including Harry Richardson's "Kings of Syncopation"; when not playing a gig, he hung out at the local pool hall with other musicians, where he picked up on upcoming play dates and gossip.
He got some jobs in Asbury Park at the Jersey Shore, played at the Hong Kong Inn until a better player took his place. Around 1920, Basie went to Harlem, a hotbed of jazz, where he lived down the block from the Alhambra Theater. Early after his arrival, he bumped into Sonny Greer, by the drummer for the Washingtonians, Duke Ellington's early band. Soon, Basie met many of the Harlem musicians who were "making the scene," including Willie "the Lion" Smith and James P. Johnson. Basie toured in several acts between 1925 and 1927, including Katie Krippen and Her Kiddies as part of the Hippity Hop show, his touring took him to Kansas City, St. Louis, New Orleans, Chicago. Throughout his tours, Basie met many jazz musicians, including Louis Armstrong. Before he was 20 years old, he toured extensively on the Keith and TOBA vaudeville circuits as a solo pianist and music director for blues singers and comedians; this provided an early training, to prove significant in his career. Back in Harlem in 1925, Basie gained his first steady job at Leroy's, a place known for its piano players and its "cutting contests."
The place catered to "uptown celebrities," and the band winged every number without sheet music using "head arrangements." He met Fats Waller, playing organ at the Lincoln Theater accompanying silent movies, Waller taught him how to play that instrument.. As he did with Duke Ellington, Willie "the Lion" Smith helped Basie out during the lean times by arranging gigs at "house-rent parties," introducing him to other leading musicians, teaching him some piano technique. In 1928, Basie was in Tulsa and heard Walter Page and his Famous Blue Devils, one of the first big bands, which featured Jimmy Rushing on vocals. A few months he was invited to join the band, which played in Texas and Oklahoma, it was at this time. The following year, in 1929, Basie became the pianist with the Bennie Moten band based in Kansas City, inspired by Moten's ambition to raise his band to the level of Duke Ellington's or Fletcher Henderson's. Where the Blue Devils were "snappier" and more "bluesy," the Moten band was more refined and respected, playing in the "Kansas City stomp" style.
In addition to playing piano, Basie was co-arranger with Eddie Durham. Their "Moten Swing", which Basie claimed credit for, was acclaimed and was an invaluable contribution to the development of swing music, at one performance at the Pearl Theatre in Philadelphia in December 1932, the theatre opened its door to allow anybody in who wanted to hear the band perform. During a stay in Chicago, Basie recorded with the band, he played four-hand piano and dual pianos with Moten, who conducted. The band improved with several personnel changes, including the addition of tenor saxophonist Ben Webster; when the band voted Moten out, Basie took over for several months, calling the group "Count Basie and his Cherry Blossoms." When his own band folded, he rejoined Moten with a newly re-organized band. A year Basie joined Bennie Moten's band, played with them until Moten's death in 1935 from a failed tonsillectomy; when Moten died, the band tried to stay together but couldn't make a go of it