Ordnance Survey is the national mapping agency of the United Kingdom which covers the island of Great Britain. Since 1 April 2015 part of Ordnance Survey has operated as Ordnance Survey Ltd, a government-owned company, 100% in public ownership; the Ordnance Survey Board remains accountable to the Secretary of State for Business and Industrial Strategy. It is a member of the Public Data Group; the agency's name indicates its original military purpose, to map Scotland in the wake of the Jacobite rising of 1745. There was a more general and nationwide need in light of the potential threat of invasion during the Napoleonic Wars. Ordnance Survey mapping is classified as either "large-scale" or "small-scale"; the Survey's large-scale mapping comprises 1:2,500 maps for 1:10,000 more generally. These large scale maps are used in professional land-use contexts and were available as sheets until the 1980s, when they were digitised. Small-scale mapping for leisure use includes the 1:25,000 "Explorer" series, the 1:50,000 "Landranger" series and the 1:250,000 road maps.
These are still available in traditional sheet form. Ordnance Survey maps remain in copyright for fifty years after their publication; some of the Copyright Libraries hold complete or near-complete collections of pre-digital OS mapping. The origins of the Ordnance Survey lie in the aftermath of the Jacobite rising of 1745, defeated by forces loyal to the government at the Battle of Culloden in 1746. Prince William, Duke of Cumberland realised that the British Army did not have a good map of the Scottish Highlands to locate Jacobite dissenters such as Simon Fraser, 11th Lord Lovat so that they could be put on trial. In 1747, Lieutenant-Colonel David Watson proposed the compilation of a map of the Highlands to help to subjugate the clans. In response, King George II charged Watson with making a military survey of the Highlands under the command of the Duke of Cumberland. Among Watson's assistants were William Roy, Paul Sandby and John Manson; the survey was produced at a scale of 1 inch to 1000 yards and included "the Duke of Cumberland's Map", now held in the British Library.
Roy had an illustrious career in the Royal Engineers, rising to the rank of General, he was responsible for the British share of the work in determining the relative positions of the French and British royal observatories. This work was the starting point of the Principal Triangulation of Great Britain, led to the creation of the Ordnance Survey itself. Roy's technical skills and leadership set the high standard. Work was begun in earnest in 1790 under Roy's supervision, when the Board of Ordnance began a national military survey starting with the south coast of England. Roy's birthplace near Carluke in South Lanarkshire is today marked by a memorial in the form of a large OS trig point. By 1791 the Board received the newer Ramsden theodolite, work began on mapping southern Great Britain using a five-mile baseline on Hounslow Heath that Roy himself had measured. In 1991 Royal Mail marked the bicentenary by issuing a set of postage stamps featuring maps of the Kentish village of Hamstreet. In 1801 the first one-inch-to-the-mile map was published, detailing the county of Kent, with Essex following shortly afterwards.
The Kent map was published and stopped at the county border, while the Essex maps were published by Ordnance Survey and ignore the county border, setting the trend for future Ordnance Survey maps. In the next 20 years about a third of England and Wales was mapped at the same scale under the direction of William Mudge, as other military matters took precedence, it took until 1823 to re-establish a relationship with the French survey made by Roy in 1787. By 1810 one inch to the mile maps of most of the south of England were completed, but they were withdrawn from sale between 1811 and 1816 because of security fears. By 1840 the one-inch survey had covered all of Wales and all but the six northernmost counties of England, it was hard work: Major Thomas Colby, the longest-serving Director General of Ordnance Survey, walked 586 miles in 22 days on a reconnaissance in 1819. In 1824, Colby and most of his staff moved to Ireland to work on a six-inches-to-the-mile valuation survey; the survey of Ireland, county by county, was completed in 1846.
The suspicions and tensions it caused in rural Ireland are the subject of Brian Friel's play Translations. Colby was not only involved in the design of specialist measuring equipment, he established a systematic collection of place names, reorganised the map-making process to produce clear, accurate plans. Place names were recorded in "Name Books", a system first used in Ireland; the instructions for their use were: The persons employed on the survey are to endeavour to obtain the correct orthography of the names of places by diligently consulting the best authorities within their reach. The name of each place is to be inserted as it is spelt, in the first column of the name book and the various modes of spelling it used in books, writings &c. are to be inserted in the second column, with the authority placed in the third column opposite to each. Whilst these procedures produced excellent results, mistakes were made: for instance, the Pilgrims Way in the North Downs labelled the wrong route
Greenock is a town and administrative centre in the Inverclyde council area in Scotland and a former burgh within the historic county of Renfrewshire, located in the west central Lowlands of Scotland. It forms part of a contiguous urban area with Gourock to Port Glasgow to the east; the 2011 UK Census showed that Greenock had a population of 44,248, a decrease from the 46,861 recorded in the 2001 UK Census. It lies on the south bank of the Clyde at the "Tail of the Bank" where the River Clyde expands into the Firth of Clyde. Place-name scholar William J. Watson wrote that "Greenock is well known in Gaelic as Grianáig, dative of grianág, a sunny knoll"; the Scottish Gaelic place-name Grianaig is common, with another near Callander in Menteith and yet another at Muirkirk in Kyle, now in East Ayrshire. Local writer R. M. Smith described the alternative derivation from Common Brittonic *Graenag, a "gravelly" or "sandy place", as more appropriate describing the original foreshore. Johnston notes that "some Gaels call the seaport Ghónait", that a possible derivation may be greannach, meaning "rough, gravelly".
The name of the town has had various spellings over time. It was printed in early Acts of Parliament as Grinok, Grinock, Greinnock, as Greinok. Old Presbyterial records used Grenok, a common spelling until it was changed to Greenock around 1700; the spelling Greenoak was found in two factory accounts dating back to 1717, a legend developed of a green oak tree at the edge of the Clyde at William Street being used by fishermen to tie up their boats. This has been dismissed as imaginative folk etymology, but the image has been used as an emblem or logo, carved on public buildings, used on banners and badges, was once emblazoned on the local Co-operative Society emblem; the town's modern indoor shopping centre uses a green tree as its logo. The name is recalled in a local song. No green oak appears on the town's coat of arms which features the three chalices of the Shaw Stewarts, a sailing ship in full sail and two herring above the motto God Speed Greenock. Anecdotal evidence suggests that there was a'Green Oak Tree', situated in Cathcart Square, at the top end of William Street, close to the Oak Mall – indeed, a horseshoe set into the cobblestones, between the'Mid-Kirk' church and the central feature of the square, was where it once grew.
Hugh de Grenock was created a Scottish Baron in 1296, the seat of the feudal barony of Greenock was what became Easter Greenock Castle. Around 1400 his successor Malcolm Galbraith died with no sons, his estate was divided between his two daughters to become two baronies: the eldest inherited Easter Greenock and married a Crawfurd, while Wester Greenock went to the younger daughter who married Schaw of Sauchie. Around 1540 the adjoining barony of Finnart was passed to the Schaw family, extending their holdings westward to the boundary of Gourock, in 1542 Sir John Schaw founded Wester Greenock castle; the Scottish Reformation of 1560 closed the chapels in the parish, as the parish church was some 6 miles distant at Inverkip over a difficult route, impassable in winter, in 1589 John Schaw obtained a charter from King James VI to build a kirk for the "poor people upon his lands who were all fishers and of a reasonable number". Known as the Old Kirk or the Old West Kirk, it was constructed on the west bank of the West Burn estuary and is reputed to have been the first Protestant church built in Scotland after the Reformation.
The coast of Greenock formed a broad bay with three smaller indentations: the Bay of Quick was known as a safe anchorage as far back as 1164. To its east, a sandy bay ran eastwards from the Old Kirk and the West Burn as far as Wester Greenock castle; the fishing village of Greenock developed along this bay, around 1635 Sir John Schaw had a jetty built into the bay which became known as Sir John's Bay. In that year he obtained a Charter raising Greenock to a Burgh of Barony with rights to a weekly market. Further east, Saint Laurence Bay curved round past the Crawfurd Barony of Easter Greenock to Garvel Point; when a pier was built making the bay an important harbour, the fishing village of Cartsburn gained the alternative name of Crawfurdsdyke. In 1642 it was made into the Burgh of Barony of Crawfurdsdyke, part of the ill-fated Darien Scheme set out from this pier in 1697; this town was renamed Cartsdyke. The fishing trade grew prosperous, with barrels of salted herring exported and shipping trade developed.
As seagoing ships could not go further up the River Clyde, the Glasgow merchants including the Tobacco Lords wanted harbour access but were in disputes with Greenock over harbour dues and warehouses. They tried to buy the Garvel estate for a harbour when Easter Greenock lands were put up for sale to meet debts, but were outbid by Sir John Schaw who got a Crown Charter of 1670 uniting Easter and Wester Greenock into the Burgh Barony of Greenock. A separate Barony of Cartsburn was created, the first baron being Thomas Craufurd. In 1668 the City of Glasgow got the lease of 13 acres of land upriver close to Newark Castle, construction promptly started on Newport Glasgow harbour which by 1710 had the principal Clyde custom house. In 1696 and 1700 Schaw and residents of the town made unsuccessful bids to the Scottish Parliament for grants for a Greenock harbour when the Act of Union 1707 opened up trade to the Americas and the associated slave trade with West Africa, they raised their own funds.
The work was completed in 1710, with qu
Livingston, West Lothian
Livingston is the largest town in West Lothian, Scotland. Designated in 1962, it is the fourth post-war new town to be built in Scotland. Taking its name from the village of Livingston in West Lothian, it was developed in the then-counties of Midlothian and West Lothian, it is situated fifteen miles west of Edinburgh and thirty miles east of Glasgow, is close to the towns of Broxburn to the north-east and Bathgate to the north-west. It was built around a collection of small villages, Livingston Village and Livingston Station, it has a number of residential areas. These include Craigshill, Ladywell, Deans, Murieston, Eliburn, Kirkton and Dedridge. There are industrial estates in Livingston Houston industrial estate and Kirkton Campus The locality of Livingston as defined by the General Register Office for Scotland includes Uphall Station and Pumpherston; the wider urban settlement as defined by the GRO includes Mid Calder and East Calder. Other neighbouring villages include: Kirknewton and West Calder.
The 2001 UK Census reported that the town had population of 50,826. The 2011 UK Census showed the population of Livingston had increased to 56,269. Livingston is the second-largest settlement in the Lothians after Edinburgh; until 1963, the area surrounding the ancient village of Livingston was open farmland, the ancient village is now called Livingston Village. The area around Livingston was an important shale oil area, the world's first oil boom occurred in West Lothian; this was based on oil extracted from shale, by 1870 over 3 million tons of shale were being mined each year in the area around Livingston. Output declined with the discovery of liquid oil reserves around the world in the early 1900s, but shale mining only ceased in 1962; the "bings" that characterise oil shale mining in West Lothian have been flattened. In 1898 Livingston had several houses, a Church of Scotland church, a United Free church and a school. Around 1 mile north of Livingston there was a railway station in a settlement called Livingston Station, now part of Deans.
The old part of Livingston is now called Livingston Village. Livingston was built in part to ease overcrowding in Glasgow. Livingston was the fourth new town of five; the others were East Kilbride, Glenrothes and Irvine. Livingston was designated as a New Town on 16 April 1962; the first people moved into Livingston in April 1966. Three villages and numerous farmsteads remain islands of old buildings within the new developments. In 1984 Livingston gained its first railway station on the Shotts Line called Livingston South, followed by Livingston North on the Edinburgh to Bathgate Line in 1986; these stations replaced the former Livingston and Newpark stations which had closed before the construction of the town. In 1995 Livingston gained its professional football team, Livingston F. C., the relocation of Meadowbank Thistle F. C. from Edinburgh. In order to build and promote Livingston a quango organisation was formed, the Livingston Development Corporation. Sir David Lowe a local large scale farmer and businessman was appointed chairman.
The first tenants to be housed by 1964. The corporation guided Livingston until its mandate expired on 22 March 1997 and the town was transferred to West Lothian Council; the last major construction operation carried out by the LDC was the Almondvale Stadium, to become the home to the renamed Livingston F. C. A new purpose built campus for West Lothian College and other major developments have taken place in Livingston over the last 10 years. Construction in Livingston has continued under the management of West Lothian Council. In 1979, an employee of the LDC claimed he was knocked unconscious after an alleged conflict with activities from a UFO. Robert Taylor, in his sixties at this point in time, was working as a Forester for Livingston Development Corporation near Dechmont Law when the supposed incident took place; the incident was reported to the police, but nearly 40 years after taking place, the incident has never been resolved. It remains one of the UK's most notable claimed UFO sightings.
Livingston is the 8th largest settlement and the 3rd largest town in Scotland, it is the 171st largest settlement in the United Kingdom. It lies 30 miles away from Glasgow and 15 miles from Edinburgh, it has the River Almond flowing through the town centre, what the old Almondvale Centre was named after. The districts which make up Livingston include: Craigshill Howden Ladywell Knightsridge Deans Dedridge Murieston Almondvale Eliburn Kirkton Adambrae Bellsquarry The area where Livingston now sits was dominated by oil shale mining, evident from the bings which still exist on much of the surrounding landscape; the designation of Livingston in the 1960s attracted new light industries to the area, with high technology and pharmaceutical companies moving into the town. Livingston formed a major hub in Scotland's Silicon Glen. Like most other areas this went into a slow decline with the closures of companies including Motorola and NEC. Several multi-national companies still have factories in the town.
Sky UK is the largest private sector employer in West Lothian with a range of offices and contact centres. Other large employers include those in the retail sector and in the health care sector the National Health Service, Q Squared Solutions and Quintiles IMS
The Central Lowlands or Midland Valley is a geologically defined area of low-lying land in southern Scotland. It consists of a rift valley between the Highland Boundary Fault to the north and the Southern Uplands Fault to the south; the Central Lowlands are one of the three main geographical sub-divisions of Scotland, the other two being the Highlands and Islands which lie to the north and the Southern Uplands, which lie south of the associated second fault line. The Central Lowlands is underlain by Paleozoic formations. Many of these sedimentary rocks have economic significance for it is here that the coal and iron bearing rocks that fueled Scotland's industrial revolution are to be found; this area has experienced intense volcanism, Arthur's Seat in Edinburgh being the remnant of a once much larger volcano active in the Carboniferous period some 300 million years ago. This area is low-lying, although here hills such as the Ochils and Campsie Fells are far from view. In common with the rest of Scotland the whole region was affected by Pleistocene glaciations.
The Highland Boundary Fault runs from North Glen Sannox on the Isle of Arran in the south and west through the Isle of Bute and Helensburgh forms the northern boundary of Strathmore before reaching Stonehaven in the north east. The fault was active during the Caledonian orogeny, a plate tectonic collision which took place from Mid Ordovician to Mid Devonian periods, during the closure of the Iapetus Ocean; the fault allowed the Midland Valley to descend as a major rift by as much as 4000 metres and there was subsequently vertical movement. This earlier vertical movement was replaced by a horizontal shear; the Southern Uplands Fault runs from the Rhins of Galloway in the west towards Dunbar on the east coast 30 miles from Edinburgh. A productive combination of fertile low-lying agricultural land and significant deposits of economically valuable coal and iron have led to the Central Lowlands being much more densely populated than the rest of Scotland; the major cities of Glasgow, Edinburgh and Dundee all lie in the Central Lowlands, over half of Scotland's population lives in this region.
Central Scotland Geology of Scotland Scottish Lowlands Gillen, Con Geology and landscapes of Scotland. Harpenden. Terra Publishing. Keay, J. & Keay, J. Collins Encyclopaedia of Scotland. London. HarperCollins. McKirdy, Alan Gordon, John & Crofts, Roger Land of Mountain and Flood: The Geology and Landforms of Scotland. Edinburgh. Birlinn
Lothian is a region of the Scottish Lowlands, lying between the southern shore of the Firth of Forth and the Lammermuir Hills. The principal settlement is the Scottish capital, while other significant towns include Livingston, Bathgate, Dalkeith, Prestonpans, North Berwick and Haddington; the term Lothian referred to a province encompassing most of what is now southeastern Scotland. In the 7th century it came under the control of the Anglian kingdom of Bernicia, the northern part of the kingdom of Northumbria, but the Angles' grip on Lothian was weakened following the Battle of Nechtansmere in which they were defeated by the Picts. Lothian was annexed to the Kingdom of Scotland around the 10th century. Subsequent Scottish history saw the region subdivided into three shires—Mid and West Lothian—leading to the popular designation of "the Lothians"; the origin of the name is debated. It comes from the British *Lugudūniānā meaning "country of the fort of Lugus", the latter being a Celtic god of commerce.
Alternatively it may take its name from a watercourse which flows through the region, now known as the Lothian Burn, the name of which comes from either the British lutna meaning "dark or muddy stream", *lǭd, with a meaning associated with flooding, or lǖch, meaning "bright, shining". A popular legend is that the name comes from King Lot, king of Lothian in the Arthurian legend; the usual Latin form of the name is Laudonia. Lothian was settled by Angles at an early stage and formed part of the Kingdom of Bernicia, which extended south into present-day Northumberland. Many place names in the Lothians and Scottish Borders demonstrate that the English language became established in the region from the sixth century onwards. In due course Bernicia united with Deira to form the Kingdom of Northumbria. Important Anglo Saxon structural remains have been found in Aberlady along with various artefacts such as an early 9th century Anglo Saxon coin. Little is recorded of Lothian's history in this time. After the Norse settled in what is now Yorkshire, Northumbria was cut in two.
How much Norse influence spread to the English north of the River Tees is uncertain. Bernicia continued as a distinct territory, sometimes described as having a king, at other times an ealdorman. Bernicia became distinct from other English territories at this time due to its links with the other Christian kingdoms in what is present-day Scotland and seems to have little to do with the Norse-controlled areas to the south. Roger of Wendover wrote that Edgar, King of the English granted Laudian to the King of Scots in 973 on condition that he come to court whenever the English king or his successors wore his crown, it is accepted by medieval historians that this marks the point at which Lothian came under Scottish control. The River Tweed became the de facto Anglo-Scottish border following the Battle of Carham in 1018. William the Conqueror did not re-annex it. At this time Lothian appears in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle as Loþen; as late as 1091, the Chronicle describes how the Scottish king, Malcolm, "went with his army out of Scotland into Lothian", in the reign of King David, the people living in Lothian are described as "English" subjects of the king.
In the post-Roman period, Lothian was dominated by British-speakers whose language is called Cumbric and was related to Welsh. In Welsh tradition Lothian is part of the "Old North". Reminders exist in British place-names like Tranent and Penicuik. Although one of the few areas of mainland Scotland where the Gaelic language was never dominant, the presence of some Gaelic place-names, e.g. Dalry, Currie and Cockenzie, has been attributed to the "temporary occupation... the presence of a landowning Gaelic-speaking aristocracy and their followers for something like 150–200 years."Over time and due to various factors, the language of Lothian and Northumbria, a northern variety of Middle English, came to displace Gaelic as the language of the Lowlands. The dialects of the modern Lothians are sometimes considered to be part of Central Scots; the Local Government Act 1973 abolished the county councils and burgh corporations, replacing them with regions and districts. Lothian Regional Council formally took over responsibility from the old county councils in May 1975.
The Lothian region was split into four districts: East and West Lothian, the City of Edinburgh. The former had more or less identical boundaries to the county council it replaced, but West and Mid Lothian had large amounts of land taken from them to form the City of Edinburgh district; the council was responsible for education, social work, water and transport. The two-tier system was ended by the Local Government etc. Act 1994. Lothian Regional Council was replaced by four unitary councils based on the former districts. Herman Moll's map of the Lothian shires Lothian Buses NHS Lothian
The Southern Uplands are the southernmost and least populous of mainland Scotland's three major geographic areas. The term is used both to describe the geographical region and to collectively denote the various ranges of hills and mountains within this region. An overwhelmingly rural and agricultural region, the Southern Uplands are forested and contain many areas of open moorland; the Southern Uplands consist of Silurian sedimentary deposits deposited in the Iapetus Ocean from 500–400 million years ago. These rocks were pushed up from the sea bed into an accretionary wedge during the Caledonian orogeny 400 million years ago, when the continents and terranes of Laurentia and Avalonia collided; the Caledonian orogeny is named for a Latin name for Scotland. The majority of the rocks are weakly metamorphosed coarse greywacke; the tectonic processes involved in the formation of the accretionary wedge, where sediment is scraped off the seafloor as a tectonic plate is subducted, has led to the formation of multiple, east-west faults that are now exploited by rivers and define valleys across the Southern Uplands.
Levels of deformation associated with these faults is variable, but is pervasive in the finer-grained sediments. Secondary mineralisation has further altered these Lower Panlaeozoic rocks which are hosts for some distinctive springs, some of which have been exploited for tourism, such as those around Moffat; the Southern Uplands lie south of the Southern Uplands Fault line that runs from Ballantrae on the Ayrshire coast northeastwards to Dunbar in East Lothian on the North Sea coast, a distance of some 220 km. There are several ranges of mountains within the Southern Uplands. From east to west these are: Cheviot Hills straddling the eastern end of the Anglo-Scottish border. Lammermuir Hills south of Dunbar. Moorfoot Hills south of Edinburgh. Tweedsmuir or Manor Hills south of Tweedsmuir. Culter Hills south of Biggar. Moffat Hills north-east of Moffat. Ettrick Hills south of Moffatdale. Lowther Hills between Clydesdale/Annandale and Nithsdale. Carsphairn and Scaur Hills between Nithsdale and the Glenkens.
Galloway Hills west of the Glenkens. This is a large hill area lying between Loch Doon in the north and the Solway Firth to the south and having the sub-ranges The Awful Hand, Dungeon Hills, Rhinns of Kells, Minnigaff Hills and the range around Cairnsmore of Fleet near the Solway coast. Although the summits are not as high as many in the Scottish Highlands nor other famous mountain regions, parts of the Southern Uplands are remote and mountainous, containing about 120 Marilyns; some of the more notable peaks in the Southern Uplands are: Merrick: the highest in the south of Scotland at 843 m Broad Law: 840 m White Coomb: 822 m The Cheviot: 815 m Corserine: 814 m Cairnsmore of Carsphairn: 797 m Kirriereoch Hill: 786 m Shalloch on Minnoch: 769 m Lamachan Hill: 717 m Cairnsmore of Fleet: 711 m Tinto: 711 m Craignaw: 645 m The Southern Uplands are home to the UK's second highest, Scotland's highest, Wanlockhead, 430 m above sea level. The region is drained by numerous rivers, the most important of which are Scotland's third and fourth longest, the River Clyde at 106 mi and the River Tweed at 97 mi respectively.
Several significant rivers drain southwards into the Solway Firth and Irish Sea including the River Cree, River Dee, River Nith, River Annan and the River Esk. There are numerous lochs in the Southern Uplands in the west; the largest is Loch Ken. Several other lochs in Galloway are dammed such as Loch Doon, Loch Bradan and Clatteringshaws Loch though many smaller ones remain in a more natural state such as Loch Dee, Loch Enoch, Loch Grannoch and Loch Trool. To the east of Moffat is the largest natural body of water in the Southern Uplands, St. Mary's Loch together with the adjacent Loch of the Lowes and nearby Loch Skeen. There are several other reservoirs in the vicinity including Megget Reservoir, Talla Reservoir and Fruid Reservoir whilst Daer Reservoir lies among the Lowther Hills; the area has a wide diversity of habitats. The uplands support black and red grouse, mountain hares, raptors such as golden eagles and hen harriers, some unusual plant species; the western hills are home to roe deer and feral goats.
The western forests have one fifth of the Scottish population of red squirrels. Ospreys are present along the River Tweed. Brown trout are common in many burns and a number of the rivers in the area have populations of sea trout and otters; the two unitary authorities of Dumfries and Galloway in the west and the Scottish Borders in the east cover all of the Southern Uplands. Along its northern margins, the councils of South Ayrshire, East Ayrshire, South Lanarkshire and East Lothian extend into the region. After local government reorganisation in 1974 and prior to further reorganisation in 1996, the Southern Uplands were administered by the two'regions' of Dumfries & Galloway and Borders along with the southern margins of the regions of Strathclyde and Lothian. Within each of these regions were districts with their own district councils. I.e. prior to 1974, the region comprised the counties of Wigtown, Dumfries, Peebles and Berwick together with parts of Ayrshire, Lanarkshire and East Lothian.
Agriculture and forestry are the main forms of land use in the Southern Uplands. Sustainable power has been in production for several decades: the Galloway hydro-elect
Hamilton, South Lanarkshire
Hamilton is a town in South Lanarkshire, in the central Lowlands of Scotland. It serves as the main administrative centre of the South Lanarkshire council area, it sits 12 miles south-east of Glasgow, 35 miles south-west of Edinburgh and 74 miles north of Carlisle. It is situated on the south bank of the River Clyde at its confluence with the Avon Water. Hamilton is the county town of the historic county of Lanarkshire; the town of Hamilton was known as Cadzow or Cadyou, the "ȝ" being the letter yogh), pronounced /kadyu/. During the Wars of Scottish Independence the Hamilton family supported the English and Walter fitz Gilbert was governor of Bothwell Castle on behalf of the English. However, he changed loyalty to Robert the Bruce, following the Battle of Bannockburn, ceded Bothwell to him. For this act, he was rewarded with a portion of land, forfeited by the Comyns at Dalserf and the Barony and lands of Cadzow, which in time would become the town of Hamilton. Cadzow was renamed Hamilton in the time of James, Lord Hamilton, married to Princess Mary, the daughter of King James II.
The Hamilton family themselves most took their name from the lands of Humbleton or Homildon in Northumberland, or from a place near Leicester. The Hamiltons constructed many landmark buildings in the area including the Hamilton Mausoleum in Strathclyde Park, which has the longest echo of any building in the world; the Hamilton family are major land-owners in the area to this day. Hamilton Palace was the seat of the Dukes of Hamilton until the early-twentieth century. Other historic buildings in the area include Hamilton Old Parish Church, a Georgian era building completed in 1734 and the only church to have been built by William Adam; the graveyard of the old parish church contains. The former Edwardian Town Hall now houses the concert hall; the Townhouse complex underwent a sympathetic modernization in 2002 and opened to the public in summer 2004. The ruins of Cadzow Castle lie in Chatelherault Country Park, 2 miles from the town centre. Hamilton Palace was the largest non-royal residence in the Western world, located in the north-east of the town.
A former seat of the Dukes of Hamilton, it was built in 1695, subsequently much enlarged, demolished in 1921 due to ground subsidence. It is acknowledged as having been one of the grandest houses in Scotland, was visited and admired by Queen Victoria, was written about by Daniel Defoe. Hamilton Barracks was the Depot of the Cameronians and the home of the 1st Battalion of the Regiment; the Regimental Museum is part of the Low Parks Museum. The Low Parks Museum is housed in what was a 16th-century inn and a staging post for journeys between Glasgow and Edinburgh. Refurbished, it is the oldest building in Hamilton and is to the north of the Palace Grounds. Renowned explorer and missionary Dr. David Livingstone's house still stands at 17 Burnbank Road and has a plaque about him. By road the town is to the west of the M74 motorway, the main southerly link to England, which joins the M6 just north of Carlisle; the main route from Edinburgh is the M8, leaving at junctions 6 or 7. Areas of Hamilton: Service industries and local government are major employers in Hamilton, as are Philips, the Dutch electronics conglomerate.
The town centre has been regenerated with new indoor shopping centres Hamilton Retail Park and the Palace Grounds Retail Park. Restaurants and national retail outlets are situated in a redeveloped part of the Palace Grounds that are visible upon entering the town from the M74 motorway; the creation of a circular Town Square has resulted in Hamilton receiving numerous town planning awards during the past decade. This development transformed the Hamilton side of Strathclyde Park, the original site of the Duke's palace. Hamilton has been a Fairtrade Town since 2005. Hamilton has three railway stations, Hamilton Central, Hamilton West and Chatelherault on the Argyle Line's Hamilton Circle. Hamilton Central is 22 minutes from Glasgow on the limited stop Larkhall-Dalmuir service, it was once served by the North British Railway. Hamilton, Peacock Cross railway station and Burnbank Beside Hamilton Central lies Hamilton bus station, providing links to surrounding towns and cities offering an express bus to Glasgow and some parts of England.
Cycling paths run from Strathclyde Park to Chatelherault Country Park following the banks of the Clyde and Avon. These are being expanded at part of the Sustrans Connect2 project and will make up part of the National Cycle Route 74 which will run from Uddingston to Carlisle, Cumbria There are three comprehensive high schools in the town – Hamilton Grammar, Holy Cross and John Ogilvie; the former Earnock High School merged with Blantyre High School as the new Calderside Academy. There are several primary schools in Hamilton, including, St Cuthbert's, Our Lady and St Anne's, St Elizabeth's St Peter's, St Paul's, St Mark's, St Ninian's, St Mary's, Townhill, Woodhead, Beckford, St John's, Woodside and Chatelherault Primary Schools. Hamilton has one private school, Hamilton College, next to the Hamilton Park Racecourse. Hamilton is a university town with The University of the West of Scotland campus sited on Almada Street, but now relocated to Hamilton International Technology Park in High Blantyre.
Hamilton Academical Football Club is one of Scotland's oldest senior clubs. It takes its name from Hamilton Academy, now called Hamilton Grammar School, the oldest school in the town (